IV. Read some interesting facts about Ukraine.

1. Geographical center of Ukraine is the town of Dobrovelychivka of Kirovograd region, where in 1990 a symbolic monument was established. The geographical center of Europe is situated near the village of Dilove of Transcarpathian region.

2. The average height of the Carpathians is 700 – 1,700 m. The average height of the Crimean Mountains is 700 – 1,200 m.

3. There are nearly 40 types and subtypes of soil in Ukraine. Almost 45% of the whole area is fertile farming land.

4. The area around the rivers Dnipro and Dnister is the only place in the world where the width of the so-called “sweet” black soil line reaches 500 km. This soil is exceptional in providing very high natural quality of the harvests and belongs to the national wealth.

5. The total area of the Black Sea is above 482 thousand square km and the maximum depth reaches 2,245 m, average – 1,271 m.

6. 125 rivers have length of over 100 km, almost 4 thousand – over 10 km. The most dense river system exists in the Ukrainian Carpathians and the least dense – in the southern regions.

7. Shatskyi group includes over 30 lakes that together with the surrounding landscape form Shatskyi natural National Park where sports competitions are held and recreational zones are created.

8. Eighty-five kinds of rare animals are entered into the Ukrainian Red Book along with some kinds that are threatened with complete extinction.


V. Insert articles were necessary.

1. … highest peak of … Carpathian Mountains is … Hoverla.

2. … Crimea is … popular health resort.

3. In … summer I visited … Kyiv. It was … first time I saw … Dnipro. What … grand river it is!

4. Every year my friends go to have … rest on … banks of … Synevir.

5. We are travelling by … train across … endless steppes of … south.

6. … Ukraine is … independent state situated in … middle of … Europe.

7. I would like to travel to … Crimean caves.

8. … Ukrainian soil is … richest in … Europe.

9. Thousands of tourists visit … Lviv, which is … cultural centre of … Western Ukraine.

10. I want to spend my holidays in … Odessa.

11. My friend went to … Azov Sea in … summer of 2010 and she liked … climate and … warm water of … Azov.

Grammar Exercises

Subjunctive II If she came earlier the teacher could help her with this difficult task. · The Present Subjunctive If I were you I would go to the Carpathian Mountains. · The Past Subjunctive If the student had prepared a report on Ukrainian flora yesterday he wouldn’t have got a negative mark.

I. Paraphrase the following sentences as in the model.

Model:It’s a pity she doesn’t like to travel. – I wish she liked to travel.

Unfortunately, I forgot to call you yesterday. – I wish I had called you yesterday.

1. It’s a pity he is not attentive.

2. Unfortunately, parents didn’t allow me to go to the seacoast with my friends.

3. What a pity this experienced excursion guide retired.

4. I’m sorry, I don’t know anything about Ukrainian soil.

5. I’m sorry, my mother cannot help you.

6. What a pity you didn’t tell us about your journey.

7. Unfortunately, she was too busy with her urgent problems.

8. It’s a pity I don’t have an opportunity to go skiing to the mountains.


II. Open the brackets using the verb in the required form.

1. If my friend (to have) free time, he would join us in the Crimea.

2. Our trip wouldn’t have finished so early if the rain (not to start).

3. If the student (to be) more responsible, he would attend the lecture on geographical position of Ukraine.

4. If he (not to be vaccinated) against malaria, he wouldn’t have visited this exotic country.

5. If I (to recover) by Saturday, I would help you with the article about curative mud.

6. You wouldn’t have been late to the excursion if you (to wake up) earlier.

7. Your son wouldn’t have suffered from bee’s sting if you (not to take) him to the hayfield.

8. If tourists from abroad (to visit) Ukraine, they would see a lot of beautiful landscapes.

III. Translate into English.

1. Якби я зараз мала вільний час, я б розповіла тобі багато цікавого про рослинний і тваринний світ України.

2. Шкода, що моя подруга не поїхала з нами до Києва.

3. Ти б отримав кращі знання про кліматичні зони України, якби ознайомився з працями цього науковця.

4. Якби не розповідь екскурсовода, подорож не була б такою цікавою.

5. Шкода, що дощ зіпсував нашу прогулянку старовинними вулицями Львова.

6. Дітям сподобалася б екскурсія в зоопарк, якби вони побачили там ведмедів, вовків, оленів і диких кабанів.

7. Як шкода, що ви не поїхали з нами у Карпати.

8. Якби я мав спорядження, я б спустився в підземні печери Кримських гір.

Lesson 2

Climate of Ukraine

Text:Climate of Ukraine

Grammar: Conditional Mood (Review)


Active Vocabulary


moderate predominantly shore rainfall to decrease amount current average approximately to reach to drop fog to increase to experience cyclone unstable influence ['mPd(q)rIt] [prI'dPmInqntlI] [SL] ['reInfLl] [dJk'rJs] [q'mQVnt] ['kArqnt] ['xv(q)rIdZ] [q'prPksImItlI] [rJtS] [drPp] [fPg] [INk'rJs] [Ik'spI(q)rIqns] ['saIklPVn] [An'steIb(q)l] ['InflVqns] помірний переважно берег атмосферні опади зменшувати кількість течія, потік середній приблизно досягати знижуватися густий туман збільшувати переживати, переносити циклон мінливий, нестійкий вплив


Read the text and answer the questions.

Climate of Ukraine

Ukraine is situated in two climatic zones – moderate (the plains and both the mountain ranges) and Mediterranean subtropics (the southern shore of the Crimea).

Generally, Ukraine is one of the climatically comfortable countries. The number of hours of sunlight varies from 1700 in the north to more than 2400 in the south. The temperatures vary predominantly from the north to the south, in the Ukrainian Carpathians – from the northwest to the southeast. The lowest temperature of January and February is -7... -8°C (on the plains of the Crimea – 0°C, on it’s southern shore – up to +3… +4°C). The highest average July temperature is +17... +19°C (north and northwest) and +22... +23°C (south and southeast). In the Carpathians it can go down to +13... +14°C, and to +16°C in the Crimean Mountains.

The amount of rainfall decreases from the north and northwest to the south and southeast. Most of it falls during the warm time of the year (except on the southern shore of the Crimea). The highest amount of rainfall is in the Carpathians (1500 mm) and in the Crimean Mountains (1000-1200 mm), whereas the least falls on the shores of the Black and Azov seas (300-450 mm), in the western part of Ukraine (600-650 mm) and in the southwest (400-450 mm).

There is a clearly defined change of seasons during the year. The winters are long but relatively warm, with frost and snow. In the Ukrainian Carpathians it lasts 120-130 days, in the north of Crimea – 75-90 and not more than 85 days on in the far south and southwest (influenced by the warm air currents from the Atlantic and the Mediterranean).

Spring starts when the average temperatures cross 0°C, but frosts are still possible. Spring first touches the southwest and Crimea and it makes its way north from the south in approximately 37 days.

Summer starts when the temperature reaches 15°C and is warm in most regions, hot in the Crimea. The temperatures can reach +34... +39°C when the air currents from Africa reach Ukraine through the Mediterranean. Summer lasts from 120 to 150 days.

In autumn the temperatures drop and some frosts are possible, the number of rains and fogs increases. Autumn lasts from 70 days in the southwest to 90 days in Zakarpattya. Rarely some very warm periods are possible.

The climate of large cities can differ in some aspects. For example, in winter Kyiv experiences some cyclones that cause unstable weather. Strong winds happen rarely and the lowest temperatures of -10°C and less fall on January and February. Autumns in Kyiv are predominantly warm, springs – sunny and rainy.

To conclude, the weather conditions in Ukraine have positive influence on various industries and development of tourism and recreation.


1. What climatic zones is Ukraine situated in?

2. Ukraine is one of the climatically comfortable countries, isn’t it?

3. What are the highest and lowest average temperatures in Ukraine?

4. How does the amount of rainfall change?

5. There is a clearly defined change of seasons during the year, isn’t it?

6. What are winters in Ukraine?

7. When does spring start?

8. How long does summer last?

9. What is the weather like in autumn?

10. Can the climate of large cities differ in some aspects?

11. What aspects of people’s life can weather conditions influence?


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