III. Turn the following sentences into disjunctive questions. Make questions to which the words in bold type are the answers.

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!

Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


III. Turn the following sentences into disjunctive questions. Make questions to which the words in bold type are the answers.

1. You will find the nurse on the second floor.

2. Florence Nightingale earned her nickname because of her nightly rounds of the wards.

3. The district nurse provides medical care for my elderly neighbours.

4. More and more men are today joining the ranks of male nurses in the medical field.

5. They didn’t transport wounded soldiers two days ago.

6. The surgicalnurse was assisting the surgeon from 2 till 4 o’clock yesterday.


IV. Translate into English.

1. Після закінчення коледжу Ви б хотіли працювати медсестрою в лікарні чи у школі?

2. Якими рисами характеру повинна володіти справжня медсестра?

3. Для того, щоб отримати освіту медсестри, вам доведеться вчитися чотири роки, чи не так?

4. – Що робила медсестра, коли Ви зайшли у палату? – Вона вимірювала тиск крові пацієнтові.

5. – Хто братиме кров на аналіз у цієї старенької бабусі? – Наша досвідчена медсестра. Вона підійде через декілька хвилин.

6. Професія медсестри є такою ж популярною серед чоловіків, як і серед жінок?


Lesson 1

Health and Illness


Text:Health and Illness

Grammar:The Present Perfect Tense



to worry delicate machine moistness to adjust to interfere severity diversity to contract lethal smallpox to spread to combat acute chronic pneumonia measles poisonous diabetes mellitus to handle lack sign patient’s account to affect clinician to cure encounter worsening advancing ['wAri] ['delIkit] [meʃ'in] ['moistnes] [e'dзast] [inte'fie] [si'vereti] [dai'v ə:siti] [kon'trækt] ['li: ð (e)l] ['smo:l"poks] [spred] ['kombæt] [æk'jvt] ['kronIk] [nju:'meunie] ['mi:zlz] ['poiz(e)nes] [daiebitis me'laites] ['hændl] [læk] [sain] ['peiʃents e'kaunt] [e'fekt] [kli'niʃ (e)n] ['kive] [In'kaunte] ['wз:seniŋ] [ed'vansiŋ] хвилювати(ся), турбувати(ся) витончений; делікатний; ніжний машина; механізм волога пристосувати(ся) втручатися складність різноманіття підхопити, заразитися смертельний вітряна віспа поширити(ся) здолати гострий хронічний пневмонія кір отруйний цукровий діабет поводитися брак, недостатність ознака точка зору пацієнта вплинути, вразити лікар-практик вилікувати натрапити, зустріти погіршення вдосконалення


Read the text and answer the questions.

Health and Illness

The problem of health has always worried people. It has been in the centre of attention of the scientists since the ancient times. Our bodies are complex, delicate, biological machines. Like other machines, they work best at a certain temperature, a certain level of moistness, with a certain balance of chemicals, and so on. Although conditions in the world around us are changing all the time, our bodies can adjust to these changes. Different organs functioning together form organ systems. When the system fails, the result is abnormal functioning, which can lead to disease or death. Perhaps, of all unpleasant things people hate diseases most of all.

There is no strict definition of what a disease is, but we can understand a disease as a process that interferes with a structure or function of the body, or as something that causes a change of good health. Human body diseases vary in both severity and diversity. Any body part or function can contract a disease or have a disorder. Many diseases are infectious – that is, they can be spread from person to person. Our bodies can be infected by different bacteria or viruses. Our immune system works to combat them.

Human diseases and conditions can be acute or chronic. Acute illnesses begin rapidly and last for a short time, although in some cases it may leave a disability or long-term damage to the body. Examples of acute illnesses are pneumonia, measles, smallpox. Generally, they are treatable. Often the individual regains normal health, and usually does not remain sick very long.

Chronic illnesses, on the other hand, usually begin slowly and go on for a long time, often for a lifetime. Diabetes mellitus, which results from the body’s inability to handle sugar properly because of a lack of insulin, is an example of a chronic disease.

Most of the time, what makes a person seek medical care are symptoms or signs, known as markers of disease. The name a clinician gives to a disease – the diagnosis – is important because it helps us understand how the disease is likely to affect the person and helps determine the kind of treatment the person should have. In reaching a diagnosis, a clinician will take a medical history, that is, listen to the patient’s account of the problem. He will also perform a physical examination to look for signs. Based on what the examination shows or what the clinician suspects, laboratory tests may be ordered.

There are a variety of ways to provide relief from the diseases and conditions we encounter. In the best case, treatment seeks to cure the problem. If a cure is not possible, then the purpose of treatment is to control the symptoms and, if possible, to prevent worsening of the disease or condition. An important goal is to allow a person to carry out the activities of daily living as well and as free from discomfort as possible.

We are more capable today than ever before of combating these diseases as medicine is advancing every day.


1. What has been in the centre of the scientists’ attention since the ancient times?

2. Are our bodies like complex, delicate, biological machines?

3. Do all organ systems work together or separately in our body?

4. How can we define a disease?

5. How does abnormal functioning or disease develop?

6. What is the difference between acute and chronic diseases?

7. How are markers of the disease called?

8. What is the diagnosis of the disease?

9. Why is a correct diagnosis important?

10. What is the most important goal of treatment?

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