Ten is a simple cardinal noun. 

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Ten is a simple cardinal noun.

Second is a simple ordinal noun. In most cases nouns pre- modified by ordinals take the definite article. In these cases they show the order of persons or things in a series.

3,4 Twenty, eighteen and seven are cardinal numerals. Seven is simple and the other two are derivatives, formed by the means of the suffixes -teen and -ty.

5-8. The two and a four, tens and hundreds are substan­tivised numerals.

9.Two is a simple cardinal numeral and millions is a sub­stantivised numeral. Of is indispensable in this case precisely because millions is substantivised.

10.This is a composite cardinal numeral. In most cases the words dozen, hundred, thousand, million and billion take no -5 after other cardinal numerals because they are not sub­stantivised.

11.See 10.

12.See 9.

13.This is an ordinal numeral. The noun it premodifies is used with the indefinite article because ordinal numerals maybe used with the indefinite article when they do not show a defi­nite order of persons or things in a series, and this is just the case: a third here means merely another and loses its numerical meaning.

14.See 13.

15.This is a fractional numeral.

16.Since Man is supposed to have just five universally recog­nized senses, a sixth one does not belong to a definine, scientif­ically recognized number. So it quite safe to say "a sixth sense", meaning another, an additional one. In other words sixth loos­es its numerical meaning.

17.A first night is a set phrase meaning the evening when the first public performance of a show, play etc. is given. It usu­ally takes the definite article but one may say a first night per­formance or a first night party because here first night is used attributively and the indefinite article refers to the nouns premodified by them.

18-19- A first time and a first love just like other firsts like, say, a first love-making are used with the indefinite article if there is no limiting attribute and no limitation is clear from the context. By the way «любовь с первого взгляда» is "love at first sight". It happens so quickly that everybody forgets about articles.

21. Second is an ordinal numeral. It is preceded by the indef­inite article which refers to the noun computer.


Exercise 47, p. 394

four, fourteen, forty, fifty, fifth, nine, ninth, ninetieth, eight, eighth, eighteenth, eightieth.

Exercise 48, p. 394

1. Habit is a second nature.

2. The workers of this plant/This plant's workers work in a night shift.

3. Our students begin to learn a second language in their sec­ond year at college/university (when they become second-year students).

4. My house is the third from the right. You surely won't pass it by. (You surely won't miss/overlook it.)

5. Mind you, you won't have a third chance.

6. My friends and collegues have become a second family to me.

7. I'm afraid you'll have to retake the exam (to take the exam again/for a second time).

8. It's a big city. Its population is over three million.

9. Out of/Of the two brothers Don is the tallest.

10. The scientist made the first, the second, the third and the fourth experiment and got the same results.

11.1 had a cup of tea, then a second and a third (one) and only after the fourth (one) realized that I was no longer thirsty (that I had quelled/slaked my thirst).

12. The children entered the hall in twos.

13. Everyone has lived through a first love/has had a first love.

14. They met at a first night performance.

15. Three years later they had a second son.

16. At the age of fifty David got a second education.

17. A year passed, then another/then a second one, but still there was no news.

18. No 8 is the third from the right.

Exercise 49, p. 395

1.1 can't help worrying/feeling nervous. There is so much to do: to have my hair cut, to have my nails manicured, to have my shoes fixed/mended/repaired and to take the clothes to the cleaner's.

2.1 remember once being advised that the best way to lose weight is to cook badly/to be a bad cook.

3. Not recognizing us, the policemen passed us by/walked past us without as much as paying any attention to the smashed car.

4. 1 can't imagine you/your having been refused. You are just the man to fill this office.

5. Fixing his gaze at/Staring at the ceiling (His eyes fixed on the ceiling), Dick began singing in an unfamiliar tongue.

6. There is no denying that he is very hard/difficult to deal with. Although to tell the truth he is interesting to speak to.

7. The postman who has been bringing us the mail for many years, says that he is too old to continue to do this job.

8. The boss entered the office to discover unexpectedly that all the employees had gone home.

9- One could hear them debate something heatedly. There was no time to lose. It was time to make a decision.

10.1 am tired of my parents treating me as/like a child. But the situation/set-up already can't be changed.

11. The man who has brought this note is waiting for an answer downstairs.

12.The girl stopped crying only when her mother stopped to buy her a chocolate.

13.This water can't be drunk. It must be filtered.

14.We roamed (about) the wood/forest, the moon rising slowly over the trees.

15.I was reproached for being late and having kept every­body waiting.

Exercise 50, p. 395

1. You can never find a taxi when you need one.

2. I see, they have invented a bomb which will kill people without damaging property. What will they think of next?

3. They'll kill us all with these dangerous weapons they are inventing!

4. We must not grumble, I suppose we've had a pretty good year.

5. You never know who you'll bump into when you go out.

6. It says in the paper that they've had a lot of rain in the West Country. I'm glad I'm not there!

7. Enjoy yourselves while you can: you cannot take the money with you when you die.

8. .They say we are going to have a hard winter.

9. Do you think they might let us have a party if we promise not to make noise?

10..Fellow-students, we can only persuade the authorities to give in to our demands if ive remain united. Let us stand together!

11. You can lead a horse to the water, but you cannot make him drink.

12..It says in the paper that they are thinking of putting up the price of petrol again.

Exercise 51, p. 396

1.She sat in front of the mirror, running her fingers through her hair.

2."Do you want to put your/xhc coat on?" "No, I'll just put it round my shoulders."

3.I felt somebody tap my shoulder, and then grab me by the arm.

4.He had his hat pulled well down over his eyes, and his hands were thrust deep into his pockets.

5.She turned up the collar of her coat to protect her neck from the cold wind.

6.He was severely bruised about the legs, but his face was unmarked.

7.He shook me warmly by the hand and put his arm round my shoulders.

8.Before you go to bed, make sure you wash your face, brush your teeth and put your clothes away neatly.

9."Let me take you by the hand, and lead you through the streets of London."

10."Close your eyes, hold out your hand, and see what the good Lord has brought you!"

11."We were stabbed in the back" means "we were betrayed by our own people".

12.- They lay on their backs and closed their eyes.

13.If you do not want to hear it, put your fingers in your ears.

14. You look a mess! Tuck your blouse into your skirt and straighten your shoulders.

16.1 looked him straight in the eye and told him to take his shirt off.

17. The police grabbed him by the scruff of the neck, and put handcuffs on his wrists.

Exercise 52, p. 397

I. Choose the right word

1. Stop patting me on the shoulder as if we were old friends!

2.The snake bit him on the leg.

3.Munchausen pulled himself out of the water by the hair.

4.1 argued with Sarah till I was blue in the face.

5..She looked me straight in the eye and told a lie.

6.He has a thorn in his foot.

7.Lena is always wearing a bracelet on her wrist.

8.Look me in the face and tell me what is wrong.

9.Grandpa has a constant pain in the back.

10.The President had an operation on the heart.

11.1 stepped on his foot.

12.1 shook him by the hand.

13.She shook his hand.

14.Don't take it in your head.


Translate into English

1.He looked her in the face and understood everything.

2.His face suddenly changed expression/He suddenly changed in the face/The expression on/of his face suddenly changed.

3.In the face of difficulties we must unite.

4.She took the child by the hand and led him across the street.

5.Hang this picture over your head. 6.1 felt a sudden pain in the side.

6.He kissed her cheek/He kissed her on the check, and they parted.

7.If a man is drowning he should be saved by grabbing his hair and not his hand.

8.John looked her in the face and understood everything.

9.Mary put her hand on his shoulder.

10.He took her arm.

11.He shook his head and sighed deeply.

12.The general had a gun/pistol in his hand.

13.She waved (her hand) to us and left.

14.He has been wounded in the head and often suffers from headaches.

Exercise 53, p. 397

1. Don't tell me your problems. I've got enough problems of my own.

2. Who is that man? Is he a friend of yours?

3. Come and sit beside me.

4. It belongs to an old friend of my father's.

5. She prefers to live by herself.

6. She prefers to live on her own.

7. A friend of my father's is a painter. He painted this portrait of mine when I was only sixteen.

8. Is that car yours or is it your wife's?

9. He has his own business.

10. What I would really like is a car of my own.

11. If a letter starts "Dear Sir", it should finish with the words "Yours faithfully".

12. Louisa's work is much tidier than mine or Anna's.

Exercise 54, p. 398

1. commit suicide - kill yourself.

2. have a good time - enjoy yourself

3. feel guilty - blame yourself

4. wonder - ask yourself

5. take as much as you want - help yourself

6. do only what you want - please yourself

7. believe in your own importance - take yourself seriously

8. behave as if you were in your own home - make yourself at home

9. surrender (e.g., to the police) - give yourself up

10. make an effort to regain you self-control - pull yourself together

11. relax - let yourself go

12. do what you should do/not do anything wrong - behave yourself

Exercise 55, p. 398

1. She grew cold with terror and began slowly crossing her- self./Her blood ran cold and she began slowly crossing her­self/making the sign of the cross.

2. He devoted himself to science and never reproached him­self for it.

3. No one should deceive themselves.

4. Make yourself comfortable and help yourself to the pie.

5. If you are a ghost, show yourself!

6. He views himself as the center of the Universe.

7.1 persuaded myself to help them.

8. The disease is spreading like wildfire (very fast).

9.1 found myself alone in a completely unfamiliar city.

10.And now, honey, go to bed.

11.Peter defended himself as best he could.

13.Ten little niggers went to have dinner. One slept late, another choked, still another hanged himself.

14.Take care of yourself! Let yourself relax at least once in a while.

15.John did the job (by) himself.

Exercise 56, p. 399

1. Don't do everything for him, he must learn to do things for himself.

2. Please yourself. It's entirely up to you.

3. They are in love - they only have eyes for each other.

4. I'll see you both next year. Look after yourselves.

5. They are very fond of each other.

6. He is very conceited. He has a very high opinion of himself.

7. We had no difficulty in making ourselves understood.

8. She gave Michael the whisky and kept the wine for herself.

9. The solicitor wrote a letter to John and me in which he asked us if we could settle the matter between ourselves.

10. They had only five pounds between them, so they bought some food and shared it equally between them.

11. He is old enough to dress himself now.

12. I will join you as soon as I have had a wash and got dressed.

13. As for me, I prefer to let people make up their own minds.

14. Look after the pennies and the pounds will look after themselves.

15. Everyone should ask themselves if they are doing enough.

16. Put yourself in my position. Would you blame yourself if you were me?

17. They seem to get on with each other very well.

18. We meet ourselves every day.

Exercise 58, p. 401

1. I like people who speak their minds.

2. There is something I do not understand about this.

3. She only eats vegetables which have been organically grown.

4. There are not many films I really enjoy.

5. He is the sort of man whose ideas make people really angry.

6. We are looking for someone who can help us in the shop.

7. What do you think of boys who wear make up?

8. 1 recently met an author whose books are all about witch­craft.

9. Only learn the words which are worth learning.

10. He is the man everyone is talking about.

11. Is this the guitar you bought in Spain?

12. There is a prejudice against people who speak with a strong accent.

13- Draw a triangle whose sides measure 3,4 and 5 cm.

14. Do you know anyone whose birthday is in June?

15.1 need a watch which has a built-in alarm.

16. Was it John who told you that?

17.1 work for a company which is really great.

18. The clothes she wears are really strange.

Exercise 59, p 401

1.The man who invented the ball point pen.

2.The girl he wants to marry.

3.People who go jogging.

4.The woman who interviewed you.

5.The policeman who won the medal for bravery.

6.The women you talked to.

7. A man I once met.

8. The couple who live next door.

9. Everyone who is involved.

10. The boy you saw.

11. All the people who would like to meet you.

12. All the people you would like to meet.

Exercise 60, p. 401

a) 1. - Could I speak to Mr. Smith? - Which Mr. Smith do you want?

2. - Give me the money. - What money?

3. - Could I have my books back, please? - Which are your books?

4. - I'm going to buy some books. - What books do you need to buy?

5. - Put one of those logs on the fire. - Which one?

6. - Where did you put the photos? - What/Which photos?

7. - Anna and Louisa are nice girls. - Which/What class are they in?

8. - My son is nearly seventeen. - What subjects is he taking?

9. - I fly either Swissair or British Airways. - Which airline do you prefer?


B) 1. What kind of films do you like?

2.1 don't know what/which dress to wear tonight.

3.Which of these sets do you recommend?

4.What/Which buses go to the town center?

5.What is your favourite food?

6.What food do you like best of all?

7.Which food do you prefer, French or Italian?

8.I'd like to get a job, but I do not know what job suits me best.

9.A teacher soon gets to know which children are really interested in English, and which ones are not interested in the least.

Exercise 61, p. 402

a. 1. We always go to Prague. Can we go somewhere else for a change?

2.- Did you leave it to Anna? - No, I gave it to somebody else.

3.- Is that all you need? - No, I want something else as well.

4.- Have you got what you need? - Yes, thanks, I don't need anything else.

5. Why does Louisa always go around with Anna? - Because she doesn't know anybody else.

6. - Why do you always come here? - Because there's nowhere else to go.

7. - Why does she always wear the same dress? - Perhaps it is because she doesn't have anything else to wear.

8. - If you don't want it, I'll give it to somebody else.

9. - Why do you always have your hair cut at Tony's? - Nobody else cuts it as well as he does.

10. He took somebody else's book by mistake.

11. It wasn't anybody's fault. It was just an accident.

12. She knows everybody's secrets.

13. It's nobody's business what I do in my private life.

14. Soon, everybody's patience was exhausted.

15. Why does everybody else's garden always look tidier than mine?

16. It was nobody else's fault. I am the one to blame.

17. Because his own bike had a flat tyre, he simply took somebody else's.

Exercise 62, p. 403

1. We need someone who knows about statistics.

2. I'm looking for a man who I can do business with.

3. They are pop group you do not hear very often

4. Have you seen the girl who usually sits here?

5. She is the last person whom you would tell!

6. I am talking to those of you who have actually experienced poverty.

7. What about the ones who cannot fight for themselves?

8. Do you know the girl I was with the other night?

9. These are the sorts of people the company should employ.

10. He is the kind of man who really knows what is going on.

11. Do you know anyone who can play as well as he can?

12. He is the only one the men will listen to any more.

Exercise 63, p. 403

1.1 went to see her flat, which she lived in when she was a student (non-identifying clause).

2. I went to see the flat which/that she lived in when she was a student (identifying clause).

3. Come and meet the friends who/that I told you about (identifying clause).

4. Come and meet my friends, most of whom you know (non-identifying clause).

5. This is the Director, who founded the company (non- identifying clause).

6.There are several directors. This is the director who/that founded the company (identifying clause).

7.What we really need is a dam that/which will be big enough to supply the whole area with water (identifying clause).

8.I have a photo of the Kariba dam, which supplies the whole area with power (non-identifying clause).

9.I'd like to introduce Mr. Bridge, who/that I used to work with (non-identifying clause).

10.Can that be the Mr. Bridge whom I used to work with? (iidentifying clause).

11.1 have to study mathematics, which I do not enjoy (non- identifying clause).

Exercise 64, p. 404

1.Things will get better soon. That is what tomorrows are


2.Is that what you really mean?

3.1 greatly doubt that what you say is true.

4.He did what he could. Everyone can say that.

5.Mother is absolutely sure that what you've chosen as your career is not what you should really do.

6.That is what I've always been telling you about!

7.What embarrasses me is that none of them has ever thought about their mother.

8.You don't realize what you are talking about, and that is very sad.

9.What a terrible shock! Just imagine that!

10.Don't you know that he always does what he wants?

11You must do what he asks you to. That is a must!

12- Information? It that what you need? - That is true.

13Is that what actually happened?

14Freedom. That is what we do need for your land!

15A shopaholic! That is what you are!

16.- Money is what I need. - That is no discovery!

17.That letter explains what went wrong.

18.We all know what you are! That is no secret.

19..- What to do next? – that is the question.

20.What surprised me most was that he didn’t feel guilty.

21.I don’t think that what you are doing is what you’ve always wanted to do.

22..What is evident is that it’s no excuse.

23.The witness wasn’t shocked at what he saw. He had been warned that the sight wouldn’t be a pleasant one.


Exercise 66, p. 405

1.The subjects are proper names.

Нэнси, Сара и Барбара - распространенные английские имена.

2.vThe subject is expressed by /, a personal pronoun in the nominative case.

Слово «я» используется в английском языке слишком ча­сто.

3.The subject is expressed by the countable abstract noun life.

Жизнь слишком коротка, чтобы принимать ее всерьез.

4.The formal subject is there and the notional subjects are expressed by the class noun place and the abstract noun time.

Всему есть свое время и место.

5.The gerundial phrase meeting old friends is the subject of this sentence.

Больше всего удовольствия я нахожу во встречах со ста­рыми друзьями.

6.The passive perfect infinitive phrase to have been nomi­nated the best actress of the year is the subject of this sentence.

Даже в самых смелых мечтах ей никогда не могло прий­ти в голову, что она получит номинацию по категории «луч­шая актриса года».

7.The subjects are travelling and you. Travelling is a gerund and you is a personal pronoun in the nominative case.

Путешествия расширяют ум, если, конечно, он есть.

8.The subject is по progressing. It is a gerundial phrase

Отсутствие прогресса - это регресс.

9. In this sentence the subjects are expressed by cardinal numerals two and three.

Где двое, там третий - лишний.

10. The unexpected is a substantivised Past Participle.

Всегда случается то, чего мы не ждем.

12.The formal subject here is it. It is impersonal.

Опять во дворе ужасная погода!

13.The subject is yours. It is an absolute possessive pronoun.

Ваше сочинение было лучшим.

14.The subjects are the weak and the strong. They are sub­stantivised adjectives.

Слабые иногда быстрее оправляются от горя, чем сильные.

15. The formal subject is it, and the notional subject is the gerundial phrase no denying the importance of education.

Нельзя отрицать значение образования.

16.It is the formal introductory subject, to go back on his word is the notional subject expressed by an infinitive phrase.

Для него было невозможно нарушить данное слово.

17.Comings and goings (the subjects)are verbal nouns.

To, что он регулярно возвращался откуда-то поздно но­чью, а потом уходил опять, привлекло внимание сыщика.

18.Ringing is a verbal noun.

Утром меня разбудил звон колоколов.

Exercise 67, р. 406

1. looked and disapproved are simple verbal predicates.

Они смотрели на меня с сильнейшим неодобрением.

2. have been travelling is a simple verbal predicate and are homesick is a compound nominal predicate.

Джон и Хелен путешествуют уже три месяца и ужасно со­скучились по дому.

3. Is made unattractive is a compound nominal predicate.

Наличие сильного характера делает ее непривлекатель­ной в глазах света.

4. Used to hate is a compound verbal phasal predicate and it was dark is a compound nominal predicate.

Я терпеть не могу возвращаться домой в сумерках.

5.Seemed to read is a compound verbal predicate of double orientation. Might have been different is a compound modal ver­bal nominal predicate.

Он словно читал мои мысли. «Да, вы правы. Моя жизнь могла бы пойти по другому пути».

6.is delicate is a compound nominal predicate and ought to have is a compound modal verbal predicate.

У девочки слабое здоровье, ей следовало бы переменить климат.

7.Would say is a simple verbal predicate and were alive is a compound nominal predicate.

Что бы сказал дядя Генри, если бы был жив?

8.Would come up and would tell are compound verbal phasal predicates.

Иногда Бесси приходила в мою одинокую спальню с ку­ском пирога; иногда при этом она рассказывала мне на ночь сказку.

9.Had to get up is a compound modal verbal predicate.

Мне приходилось рано вставать, чтобы успевать на ту­ристический автобус.

10.Dream away is a simple verbal predicate, and can't answer is a compound verbal modal predicate.

Я погружаюсь в мечты и поэтому не слышу вопроса учи­теля.

11.started to work and stopped working are compound ver­bal phasal predicates.

Мы начинали работать как бешеные и заканчивали толь­ко к полуночи.

12.stays firm is a compound nominal double predicate.

Грегори остается тверд в своих убеждениях.

13.Became dark is a compound nominal predicate and was beating is a simple verbal predicate.

Постепенно снаружи стемнело. Дождь все еще стучал по окнам.

14.Felt sure is a compound nominal predicate. Must be is a compound modal nominal predicate.

Я был уверен, что это привидение, пришелец из загроб­ного мира.

15.Was eager to see is a compound nominal verbal predicate; was is a simple verbal predicate.

Утром мне очень хотелось его увидеть, но его нигде не было видно.

16.Had run wild (16), stays cool (17), stood high (18), will drop dead (19), stood open (20) and went dead (21) are all com­pound nominal double predicates, and was lost (21) is a simple verbal predicate.

Сад совсем зарос.

В подобных ситуациях Херберт не теряет самообла­дания.

Он пользовался большим авторитетом и престижем в школе.

Моя школьная училка упадет на месте, когда увидит меня.

Дверь была открыта, как бы приглашая ее войти.

Телефон вдруг замолчал, и моя связь с Пандорой обо­рвалась.

Exercise 69, р. 407

1.I couldn't hear the actors well from the last row.

2.Ali won the race easily

3.The flowers looked fresh to me.

4.We thought that "Streetcar" was a real/really good play (real is informal).

5.1 can't read well with these glasses.

6.Gladioli will smell sweet in the living-room.

7.The damp air sure/surely feels good after that long dry spell (sure is informal).

8.The prospect of yet another week of hard work makes him feel bad.

9.He rides his mount well.

10.The Secretary of State stood firm in his decision.

11.Some actors speak their lines far too loud/loudly (loud is informal).

12. Some actresses speak softly but the gallery-goers hear them clearly nevertheless.

13- The orchestra sounded cacophonous at the rehearsal.

14.Most gently he stroked the cat's fur.

15.The verdict of guilty made the prisoner feel angry toward the jury.

16.The crowd approved heartily of the busker's music.

17.The jet plane flew by too quickly for me to see it but it sure/surely sounded real/really noisy (sure and real are infor­mal).

18.The dazed victim of the accident gazed helplessly across the road.

19- She clasped the infant tightly in her arms.

20. Mother and daughter are very close to each other.

Exercise 70, p. 408

1. A hungry man is an angry man. - Yes, the way to a man's heart is through his stomach.

2. Ravens had gone from the Tower: the Kingdom would fall.

3. She asked Mum for advice and she got it; she asked her mum for cash and she didn't get it.

4. Childhood hatred, like childhood love, can last a lifetime.

5. - It was absolute pleasure having you in my class! - The preasure was mine.

6. - Let's have an early supper tonight. - Oh, no! I'm a weight-watcher.

7. The Queen smiled. She had told a black lie.

8. "My love to you is like a Sunday morning, my love to you is like stormy weather."

9. - I met R. Murphy. - Do you mean the R. Murphy who wrote all those grammar books? - Exactly.

10. - Mine is a Panasonic, not a Sony. What's yours? - A Philips.

11. The Monterey Peninsula juts out into the Pacific Ocean halfway up the California coast.

12. The Vatican is the Pope's Palace on Vatican Hill in Rome. Vatican City is the only surviving Papal state.

13- For a beginner starting to learn a second foreign lan­guage this book is a must-have.

14.Mount Ararat in eastern Turkey is mentioned in the Bible as the place where Noah's Ark came to rest.

15. The Pan American Highway runs along the Andes of South America.


Exercise 71, p. 409

1. Neither Julia nor Michael is going to the play tonight.

2. Anything is better than going to another movie tonight.

3. Dieting is becoming more popular every day.

4. A number of reporters were at the conference yesterday.

5. Everybody who has a fever must go home immediately.

6. Your glasses were on the bureau last night.

7. There were some people at the meeting last night.

8. The committee has already reached a decision.

9. A pair of jeans was in the washing machine this morning.

10. Each student has answered the first three questions.

11. Either John or his wife makes breakfast each morning.

12. After she had perused the material, the secretary decided that everything was in order.

13- The crowd at the basketball game were wild with excite­ment.

14. A pack of wild dogs has frightened all the ducks away.

15. The jury are trying to find a solution.

16. The army has eliminated this section of the training test.

17. The number of students who have withdrawn from class this term is appalling.

18.There have been too many interruptions in this class.

19.Every elementary school teacher has to take this exami­nation.

20. Neither Jill nor her parents have seen this movie before.

21. John, along with twenty friends, is planning a party.

22. The picture of the soldiers brings back many memo­ries.

23. The quality of these recordings is not very good.

24. If the duties of these officers aren't reduced, there will not be enough time to finish the project.

25. The effects of cigarette smoking have been proved to be extremely harmful.

26. The use of credit cards in place of cash has increased rap­idly in recent years.

27. Advertisements on television are becoming more com­petitive than ever before.

28. Living expenses in this country, as well as in many others, are high.

29. Mr. Jones, accompanied by several members of the com­mittee, has proposed some changes of the rules


Exercise 72, p. 410

1. A few of the girls are experienced riders.

2. Each of them has a complete set of maps.

3. Most of the milk is gone.

4. Neither of the cars has/have a radio (has is formal Brit.; have is informal Brit, and US).

5. Every one of the packages is heavy.

6. Everyone quickly understands the rules of the game.

7. Neither of the actresses was (were) nominated {see 5).

8. Each is well-trained.

9. All of the fruit was eaten.

10. A few in the crowd are troublesome.

11. The public consists of you and me.

12. Jack's imagination, as well as his sense of humour, was delightful.

13. Carl, not Juan and I, is doing the artwork.

14. No one except the band members leaves early.

15. Has any of the shipment arrived?

16. Ramon and she like hiking.

17. Rock and roll is wonderful.

18. Neither our phone nor our doorbell was working.

19. Ninety percent of the students are present.

20. A number of girls like strenuous sports.

Exercise 73, p. 410

1. After the long like through the woods, all the scouts com­plained that their feet hurt.

2. Either Camille or Rose will bring her cassette player.

3. Everyone at the campground will need to bring their own tent and bedroll.

4. Some of the women wrote to their local newspapers about the pollution problems.

5. Every driver checked their car before the race.

6. Each of the actors had their own superstition.

7. Both of the girls practised their dives off the high tower.

8. Marcia and her younger brother are saving money to have their car repaired.

9- Someone has parked their car in my space.

10. All of the girls knew their parts perfectly by opening night.

11. Neither of the sweaters had its price tag removed.

12. Everybody should exercise their right to vote.

13. Many of the crew got their first case of sickness in the vio­lent storm.

14. Gina and her grandfather proudly showed us their string of rainbow trout.

15. One of the houses has its windows broken by the hail (град).

16. Everyone bought their own copy of the textbook.

17. The President and the Vice-President expressed their separate opinions about the issue.

18. Anyone who needs a pencil should raise their hand.

19. Either Stu or Mike will lend me his fishing gear.

20. Each of the cars has its own parking place.


Exercise 74, p. 411

1. Both, Alexander and Nina, like their new neigbour- hood.

2. None of the motor boats was damaged during the storm.

3. By two o'clock Antonio, as well as the other singers, was ready for the competition.

4. One of the local policemen scored the maximum number of points in shooting today.

5. Neither John, nor Bruce has got over the horrible journey.

6. "Tom and Jerry" is my nephew's favorite animated cartoon.

7. There was a salt and pepper set on the counter.

8. Each waiter was working very efficiently and quickly.

9. Some people in the crowd were hiding something under their overcoats.

10. Either Mary or Tom is responsible for this equipment.

11. An additional characteristic of this model is built-in speakers.

12. Someone hasn't switched off the engine in the car.

13- If anybody calls, ask them to call back in the evening.

14. Each team has its own colour and symbol.

15. Here's the pair of gloves you have left at our place.

16. Will these questions ever cease?

17. If you love nature, you do your best to mix with it as often as possible.

18. Everybody wanted to listen to their own voice recorded.

19. "Three Lives" by (icrirude Slein had great influence on many contemporary writers.


Exercise 75, p. 411

1. a) The sentence is unambiguous in meaning: John is the only one who can speak Arabic really wi ll.

b) The sentence has an ambiguous meaning. If the speaker puts the stress on "speak" it means that John can only speak the language really well but not, say, write in il or read complicated classical Arabic texts. If the speaker stressed "Arabic" it means that Arabic is the only language John speaks really well.

2. a) To tell the truth, I cannot talk to her any more. Frankly is a viewpoint adverb.

b) I cannot be frank with her any more.

3. a) The first sentence is just a statement of a fact.

b) The second sentence implies surprise that the post has not come: The post has not come yet which is surprising because it is already rather late.

4. In a) "in this company" is the focus of communication, in b) it isn't. In a) the speaker implies that the company in question is special, perhaps unique, where as in b) he implies no such thing. He just states a fact and does it quite matter-of-factly.

5. a) They soon made up their minds that they would leave.

b) They decided that they would leave soon.

6. a) I told you to come round some time ago.

b) I had told you to come round earlier than you did.

7. a) Previously, I wanted John to have it but I've changed my mind./I used to want John to have it but I've changed my mind.

b) I wanted John to have it earlier than he did.

8. a) When I am in London I prefer to eat in expensive restau­rants (I haven't said anything about my preferences in other cities).

b) It is only in London that I like to eat in expensive restau­rants. Elsewhere I don't mind going to cheaper ones. However if the speaker puts the stress on "expensive", b) = a).

9. a) Peter is so good at cheating at cards that he can often get away with it.

b) This sentence can have two meanings. It can have the same meaning as a) in which case the speaker puts the stress on "catch". Or the speaker can put the stress on "Peter" implying

that Peter either does not often cheat at cards or conversly is a very skillful cheat.

10. b) is emphatic whereas a) is not.

11. In b) "nine thirty" is emphasized, in a) there is no emphasis.

12. In b) "carefully" is the focus of communication, in a) it isn't.


Exercise 77, p. 413

1. Under no circumstances should you go away.

2. Never in my whole life have I felt so angry.

3. Rarely do you see so many Russian ships in the harbour.

4. Not only does she play, she composes as well.

5. Not until then did I realize how much she wanted to go.

6. Only much later did I realize what he was trying to achieve.

7. Scarcely had he time to take his coat off when the phone rang

8. No sooner had they said "yes" than they ran upstairs to pack.

9. Only recently have I begun to think about politics.

10. Seldom have I heard such rubbish.

11. Not until the others had left could we talk freely.

12. Only in special circumstances will you be able to extend your visa.


Exercise 78, p. 413

1. No sooner had I finished speaking/talking than Molly jumped up/sprang up and ran out of the room./Hardly/Scarcely had I finished speaking/talking when Molly jumped up/sprang up and ran out of the room.

2. Never before have I heard such nonsense!

3. She opened the box and out jumped the mouse.

4. Not a single word did she say about the forthcoming engagement.

5. It was Jenny who baked the cake, not I (It was Jenny who baked the cake, not me).

6. "Quiet Flows the Don" is a novel by M. Sholokhov about Cossacks.

7. It was Monica lu- wanted to see and not her parents.

8. Do have patience with the children./Do be patient with the children. And do I >rget about all ilieir pranks!

9- On and on went the caravan acn >ss the desert.

10. "Tender is the Night" is the novel whirh/that made Scott Fitzgerald famous.

11.1 do understand how important II Is lor all of us!

12. Were it not so important lor you, It wouldn't have touched you to the quick/got you on the raw.

13. You look quite satisfied. - That's just how I feel.

14. Generous was his gratitude!

15. What really staggered/stunned me was my friends' reac­tion to my success.


Exercise 79, p. 414

1. Only in the car did I manage to speak with him.

2. From behind the hills came the whispers of the sea.

3. Never have I seen a face so happy, sweet and radiant.

4.Little did she care for her words.

5.So great was her grief that I didn't know how to com­fort her.

6.From the back of the room came a timid voice.

7.No sooner had he finished one job, than he was given another.

8.Not only is she beautiful, but talented as well,

9.Little does he realize what a fool he is making of himself.

10.Of this accident I couldn't speak to my mother.

11.Only once did he meet his match in tennis.

12.Many a time did he watch her sitting like that.

13.Now was the moment to act.

14.Down he fell.

15.Up went the rocket.

Exercise 80, p. 414

1. How bitterly we regretted our decision, but there was no way back/Bitterly as we regretted our decision there was no way back.

2. Far, far away in a thick forest there stands a small log hut in which lives a witch.

3. Never before have we had as many books as we have now.

4. The teacher, as well as her students, is going to the concert.

5. Bright and sinister, the sun rose.

6. Only because the work was interesting did he agree to accept it.

7. My first cousins, as well as my sister, are taking their last exam today.

8. She died young, and he didn't even remember her face

9. In vain did they try to explain to them that neither of them was right (British formal)/were right (British informal and US) (that both of them were wrong).

10. The old believe nothing, the elderly are suspicious of everyone and everything.

11. So thick was the fog that the police were helpless.

12. Never before could I suppose that either you or me was to implement it/to put it into practice.

13. Both my brothers and I are ready to help you./My broth­ers, as well as I, are ready to help you.

14. No sooner had he put his luggage on the platform than both the box and the suitcase disappeared. (Hardly/Scarcely had he put his luggage on the platform when...).

15. What are his politics/his political views? - I have no idea although we have been friends all our lives/friends though we have been all our lives.

16. How lazy you are! Not for the world will I ever deal with you again.

17. None of the problems has/have been solved yet (see 9for explanation).

18. Should you have a spare minute, join our discussion.


Exercise 81, p. 415

1. The man comes from a different world than you. He belongs to the priviledged, he is one of the chosen.

2. A man who wastes money is known as a spendthrift.

3. Tina thinks Ted is a failure, so the man drinks. The more he drinks, the more he fails.

4. My friend works for a dating service. His job is to match the men and women who want to build a family.

5. The article, a small w< нчі. oh en causes problems.

6. We must give- і In- house л new coat of paint tomorrow. And on Sunday we shall give the Ik >use the final coat of paint.

7. The only place where suet ess comes before work is in a dictionary.

8. The Atlantic is said to be c alled "I'lir Kiichcn of the Weather".

9. Six countries of the West Indies are the Itahamas, Barbados, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, llail і and І.ип.ік a

10. The tone of the story is set from the very beginning

11. Walt Disney, the famous film animator and piodinei, created Disneyland, a large pleasure park, which was opened in California in 1955.

12. The beautiful fjords and the breathtaking scenery ol Western Norway turn a week's holiday into an unforgettable experience.

13. The novel is a not-to-be-missed book which has become a bestseller.

14. Roy isn't the type of man to make a woman happy.

15. - What do men call a man who can cook? - A chef. - What do men call a woman who can cook? - A housewife.

16. The discovery of the ruins of an/the ancient palace was the climax of a very exciting expedition.

17. With the fifth century came the fall of the Roman Empire.


Exercise 83, p. 418

I. 1 shall not waste time replying to his letter.

2. It's high time we went/to go.

3. I'd rather stay in tonight.

4. There is no point in arguing with him.

5. We had to stand up to get a better view of the game.

6.1 think we had better go.

7.1 will agree to help you as long as you behave yourself.

8. Would you care to have a look at my latest effort?

9. It's nearly lunch time. Why don't we stop to have a snack?

10. Isn't it about time you started taking life seriously?

11. It's no use complaining, nobody will take any notice of you.

12.I'm longing to see you again.

13. He seems to be feeling better today.

14.The car needs servicing.

15.1 daren't go out after dark.

16.What's the use of worrying?

17.If you need anything, please do not hesitate to ask.

18. Hadn't we better leave soon?


Exercise 84, p. 418

1. The air, which consists of various elements, surrounds us.

2. 1 had a stick, which I defended myself with.

3. Your brother, to whom I was introduced yesterday, sur­prised me with his learning.

4. Silk, which the Chinese had the merit of discovering, is much worn in Europe.

5. The palace which/that the Queen lives in is magnificent (The palace in which the Queen lives is magnificent).

6. You have told me something which/that I shall not forget.

7. Bill came home on a certain day which/that I do not remember.

8. The bridge that/which I passed over yesterday is very high.

9. The water, which I tasted, is very refreshing (;non-identify­ing clause)/The water which/that I tasted is very refreshing (identifying clause).

10. The picture, which the artist took a long time to paint, is very fine.

11. The climate that/which prevails in India is very warm.

12. Rats, which multiply very fast, do much damage.

13.1 gave the money that/which I had on/about/with me to a beggar.

14. He did not like the bread that/which I was in the habit of eating.

15. Show me the book that/which you have read.

16. The sun, from which our light comes, is far away.

17. Steel pens, which were invented long ago, last a long time.

18. The ship aboard which Columbus crossed the Atlantic was very small.

19. The microscope, which we see invisible objects with/with which we see invisible objects, is very useful.

20. The nineteenth century, in which machinery came into use, was called the age of machinery.

21. The swallows which I saw yesterday, were assembling for the night.

22. The cup that/which the servant broke was very old.


Exercise 85, p. 419

I. In 1665 a great plague raged in London. The insanitary conditions of the houses, the narrowness of the streets, the dirty habits of the people, all helped to spread the disease. The people died in thousands, and every day carts used to go round from house to house to collect the dead, accompanied by a man crying: "Bring out your dead!" The rich who could afford to do so left the town and fled to the country, while the poor remained and died in great numbers.

(The) next year a second misfortune came upon the unfortunate city, namely, a great fire. Out of the blue it start­ed in a baker's shop, and aided by the east wind, rapidly consumed the wooden houses of which a large portion of the town was built, raging for a few days. Even the great cathedral of St. Paul's was destroyed by the fire, which, leap­ing across the narrow streets reached right to the banks of the Thames. But the disaster did much good. It destroyed many of the dirty, unhealthy streets, and swept away the homes of disease, enabling better houses to be erected in their place.

II. Sir Ralph the Rover was a wicked pirate who sailed about from sea to sea attacking the innocent merchant ships and rob­bing them of the cargo. One day he came to the coast of Scotland and saw a dangerous rock on which a bell had been placed to warn the sailors of the presence of danger. Sir Ralph thought that if he removed the bell, merchant ships would be wrecked upon it, and then he could easily rob them. The great pirate rowed to the rock in a small boat with a party of sailors and cut off the bell, which sank down into the deep water. He then sailed away across the sea and enriched himself in various parts of the world.

After about a year he returned and reached the neigh­bourhood of the famous rock. A thick fog came on, and he could not tell where he was, though he feared he must be somewhere near the dangerous place. How strongly he wished now that he had not cut off the bell from the rock! Blindly the ship drifted along the shore at the mercy of the tide. All of a sudden, there was a crash; the ship had struck the rock! In a few minutes the ship filled with water and sank to the bottom of the sea with all on board.

Exercise 86, p. 420

1. They reproached themselves for having failed him/for having let him down. After all he had been within a hair's breadth (hairbreadth) of dying/he had escaped death by a hair's breadth (hairbreadth) and had been saved by a mir­acle.

2. Smoking is bad for one's health. It is imperative for both the young and the old to give it up/drop it./It is imper­ative that both the young and the old (should) give it up (drop it).

4. His car was stolen last week./He had his car stolen last week. The police haven't found it yet, but they are doing their best Would you mind coming next Tuesday? A friend of Tomas's is going to read us the next chapter of his new book.

5. Never will I be able to guess what is going on in this pretty head of yours!

6. Never will I put this dress on again/put on this dress again!

8.1 will always love you (I will love you forever) because you

are you.

9. Today you saved my life for a second time. You are really one of the brave!

10. We met a lot of foreigners in the camping: one Swiss, two Dutchmen, several Danes, one Spaniard and three Portuguese.

11. Is this an Ayvazovsky or a Repin? - Why, it is the picture "Pushkin by the Sea" painted by both Ayvazovsky and Repin.

12. Cows, horses, sheep and bulls are livestock[2]. Livestock provides us with a great number/with many foodstuffs as well as leather and wool.

13. On hearing the news, which was sad, she couldn't help bursting into tears.

14. Don't insist on my leaving. I've come here for my chil­dren's sake.

15. The professor who had just delivered his lecture began answering the students's questions.

16. Don't insist on being paid that money. It is not yours, you haven't earned it.

17. The President said that his goal was to make the poor rich and the rich still richer.

18. Not knowing the rules of the game, they left without tak­ing part in it.

19. Why, I do know his secret. - So do I.

20. The number of people studying English is growing every year. - Yes, knowing English is a must for the cultured and the educated.


[1] Эль (ale – англ.) крепкое горькое пиво, производимое быстрым верховым брожением при относительно высокой температуре



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