ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Упр. 14. Выполните письменный перевод следующего текста.



The compression-ignition engine, designed by the German Rudolf Diesel in 1896, was equipped with the carburetor and sparking plugs of the petrol engine. The gas inside the cylinder on the compression stroke is pure air, which is compressed to 1:14 to 1:20 of its initial volume - a much higher compression ratio than is used in petrol engines. At the top of the compression stroke a fine spray of oil fuel is injected into the cylinder. As gas compressed its temperature increases, so that the oil spray meets the air charge at a temperature sufficiently high to ignite it spontaneously. Because of its high compression ratio the compression-ignition or diesel engine is more efficient than a petrol engine. But for the same reason it must be more heavily built, thus offsetting the advantage somewhat. Diesel engines offer economies in fuel consumption at the expense of a loss in performance, they are particularly suited to frequent stop and start duties, and as a result are widely used in taxis, busses and lorries.

Упр. 15. Составьте письменный реферат об основных системах автомобиля и их функциях, используя следующие выражения:

 

The text is concerned with … . … are considered. It should be noted that … . The fact that … is stressed. It should be remembered that … .

Unit 4

Producing More Power

Упр. 1. Запомните новые слова и выражения их значения.

1. displacement - рабочий объем

2. compression ratio – коэффициент сжатия

3. cram (v) - втолкнуть

4. expand (v) - расширять(ся)

5. lessen (v) - уменьшать

6. intake valve - впускной клапан

7. back pressure - обратное давление

8. lightweight - легковесный

9. inject (v) - впрыскивать

10. mileage - пробег

11. density - плотность

12. intercooler - промежуточный охладитель

13. intake manifold - впускной коллектор

14. muffler - глушитель

15. high-performance - с высокими эксплуатационными характеристиками

16. header - головная часть; сборник коллектора

17. two-stroke - двухтактный

18. rotation - вращение

19. eliminate (v) - устранить, исключить

Упр. 2. Прочтите и переведите интернациональные слова.

Information, efficient, cylinder, limit, compression, octane, sort, intercooler, radiator, filter, effect, start, energy, meter, diesel, motor, cycle, turbine, qualification, special, distance, center.

Упр. 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык обращая, внимание на новые слова.

 

1. More displacement means more power because you can burn more gas during each revolution of the engine. 2. An intercooler is a special radiator through which the compressed air passes to cool it off before it enters the cylinder. 3. If the exhaust pipe is too small or the muffler has a lot of air resistance, this can cause back-pressure. 4. High-performance exhaust system use headers, big tail pipes and free-flowing mufflers to eliminate back pressure in the exhaust system. 5. High-performance cars are generally using higher compression ratios to get more power. 6. A two-stroke engine produces a lot of power for its size because there are twice as many combustion cycles occurring per rotation. 7. As piston moves down in the intake stroke, air resistance can take power from the engine.

Упр. 4. Переведите выделенные слова на английский язык, используя активный словарь урока.

1. Higher (коэффициенты сжатия) produce more power, up to a point. 2. Higher-octane gasoline (предотвращает) this sort of early combustion. 3. If you can (втолкнуть) more air into a cylinder of a given size, you can get more power from the cylinder. 4. The hotter air is, the less it will (расширяться) when combustion takes place. 5. (Легковесные) parts help the engine perform better. 6. (Дизельное топливо) has a higher energy (плотность) than gasoline, so a diesel engine gets better (пробег). 7. (Дизельное топливо) (впрыскивается) into the cylinder and the heat and pressure of the compression stroke (заставляют) the fuel to (воспламеняться).





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