Упр. 9. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод сказуемого в пассивном залоге.

1. The camshaft is located above the valves. 2. Older engines used a camshaft which was located in the sump near the crankshaft. 3. The camshaft is geared to turn at one-half the rate of the crankshaft. 4. The engine is timed so that only one cylinder receives a spark from the distributor at a time. 5. In a few cars and in most motorcycles the engine is air-cooled. 6. A supercharger is attached directly to the engine to spin the compressor. 7. In most cars, oil is sucked out of the oil pan by the oil pump, run through the oil filter and then squirted onto bearings and the cylinder walls. 8. The piston is connected to the crankshaft by a connecting rod. 9. The difference between the maximum and the minimum volume is called the displacement and is measured in liters or Cubic Centimeters.

Упр. 10. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитивного оборота “сложное подлежащее”.

1. The V5-engined car is reported to be the most powerful and luxurious Golf Estate yet available in the UK. 2. At the beginning of the 20th century a new car design seemed to be a fantasy. 3. The turbocharger market in Europe alone is estimated to be worth at least ? 1 billion a year. 4. Ford, Daimler-Benz and Ballard are expected to accelerate further the development of fuel-cell-powered components for cars and trucks. 5. The electric automobile energized by rechargeable batteries appeared to have a great future nearly a century ago. 6. Most drivers are found to have phones in their vehicles or carry phones when they drive.


Упр. 11. Переведите цепочки однокоренных слов.


1. create – creator – creature – creation – created – creating

2. determine – determined – determining - determination

3. recognize – recognized – recognition –recognizable

4. technology – technologist – technical – technician – technique

5. cycle - recycle – bicycle – motorcycle – recycled –recycling

6. accumulate – accumulation – accumulated – accumulating

7. consume - consumption –consumer

Упр.12. Заполните таблицу, образуя указанные части речи и переведите их.

…. productive

Упр. 13. Прочитайте и переведите абзацы об электрической системе, системах запуска и выхлопа.

Valve Trains.

The valve train consists of the valves and a mechanism that opens and closes them. The opening and closing system is called a camshaft. The camshaft has lobes on it that move the valves up and down.

Most modern engines have what are called overhead cams. This means that the camshaft is located above the valves. The cams on the shaft activate the valves directly or through a very short linkage. Older engines used a camshaft located in the sump near the crankshaft. Rods linked the cam below to valve lifters above the valves. This approach has more moving parts and also causes more lag between the cam's activation of the valve and the valve's subsequent motion. A timing belt or timing chain links the crankshaft to the camshaft so that the valves are in sync with the pistons. The camshaft is geared to turn at one-half the rate of the crankshaft. Many high-performance engines have four valves per cylinder (two for intake, two for exhaust), and this arrangement requires two camshafts per bank of cylinders, hence the phrase "dual overhead cams."

Ignition System

The ignition system produces a high-voltage electrical charge and transmits it to the spark plugs via ignition wires. The charge first flows to a distributor, which you can easily find under the hood of most cars. The distributor has one wire going in the center and four, six, or eight wires (depending on the number of cylinders) coming out of it. These ignition wires send the charge to each spark plug. The engine is timed so that only one cylinder receives a spark from the distributor at a time. This approach provides maximum smoothness.

Cooling System

The cooling system in most cars consists of the radiator and water pump. Water circulates through passages around the cylinders and then travels through the radiator to cool it off. In a few cars (as Volkswagen Beetle) and in most motorcycles, the engine is air-cooled instead. Air-cooling makes the engine lighter but hotter, generally decreasing engine life and overall performance.

Air Intake system

Most cars are naturally aspirated, which means that air flows through an air filter and directly into the cylinders. High-performance engines are either turbocharged or supercharged, which means that air coming into the engine is first pressurized (so that more air/fuel mixture can be squeezed into each cylinder) to increase performance. The amount of pressurization is called boost. A turbocharger uses a small turbine attached to the exhaust pipe to spin a compressing turbine in the incoming air stream. A supercharger is attached directly to the engine to spin the compressor.

Starting System

The starting system consists of an electric starter motor and a starter solenoid. When you turn the ignition key, the starter motor spins the engine a few revolutions so that the combustion process can start. It takes a powerful motor to spin a cold engine. The starter motor must overcome:

· All of the internal friction caused by the piston rings

· The compression pressure of any cylinder(s) that happens to be in the compression stroke

· The energy needed to open and close valves with the camshaft

· All of the "other" things directly attached to the engine, like the water pump, oil pump, alternator, etc.

Because so much energy is needed and because a car uses a 12-volt electrical system, hundreds of amps of electricity must flow into the starter motor. The starter solenoid is essentially a large electronic switch that can handle that much current. When you turn the ignition key, it activates the solenoid to power the motor.

Lubrication System

The lubrication system makes sure that every moving part in the engine gets oil so that it can move easily. The two main parts needing oil are the pistons (so they can slide easily in their cylinders) and any bearings that allow things like the crankshaft and camshafts to rotate freely. In most cars, oil is sucked out of the oil pan by the oil pump, run through the oil filter to remove any grit, and then squirted under high pressure onto bearings and the cylinder walls. The oil then trickles down into the sump, where it is collected again and the cycle repeats.

Fuel System

The fuel system pumps gas from the gas tank and mixes it with air so that the proper air/fuel mixture can flow into the cylinders. Fuel is delivered in three common ways: carburetion, port fuel injection and direct fuel injection.

· In carburetion, a device called a carburetor mixes gas into air as the air flows into the engine.

· In a fuel-injected engine, the right amount of fuel is injected individually into each cylinder either right above the intake valve (port fuel injection) or directly into the cylinder (direct fuel injection).

Exhaust System

The exhaust system includes the exhaust pipe and the muffler. Without a muffler, what you would hear is the sound of thousands of small explosions coming out your tailpipe. A muffler dampens the sound. The exhaust system also includes a catalytic converter.

Emission Control

The emission control system in modern cars consists of a catalytic converter, a collection of sensors and actuators, and a computer to monitor and adjust everything. For example, the catalytic converter uses a catalyst and oxygen to burn off any unused fuel and certain other chemicals in the exhaust. An oxygen sensor in the exhaust stream makes sure there is enough oxygen available for the catalyst to work and adjusts things if necessary.

Electrical System

The electrical system consists of a battery and an alternator. The alternator is connected to the engine by a belt and generates electricity to recharge the battery. The battery makes 12-volt power available to everything in the car needing electricity (the ignition system, radio, headlights, windshield wipers, power windows and seats, computers , etc.) through the vehicle's wiring.

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