ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Упр. 10. Переведите предложения на русский язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива.



1. The purpose of a gasoline car is to convert gasoline into motion. 2. The easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the gasoline inside an engine. 3. The fuel in a steam engine burns outside the engine to create steam. 4. When the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the spark plug emits a spark to ignite the gasoline. 5. The spark must happen at the right moment for things to work properly. 6. The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. 7. First the piston moves down to let the engine take in a cylinder - full of air and gasoline, then the piston moves back up to compress this fuel/air mixture. 8. The main aim of the piston rings is to prevent the fuel/air mixture from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.

Упр. 11. Заполните таблицу, образуя указанные части речи, и переведите их.

VERB NOUN ADJECTIVE
move … … connect … compress … … … increase … ignition … … mixture … … displacement leakage …. … … useful … … … rotational …. … …

Упр. 12. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Пополните свой словарь терминов по изучаемой специальности.

Have you ever opened the hood of your car and wondered what was going on in there? A car engine can look like a big confusing jumble of metal, tubes and wires. You might want to know what's going on or perhaps you are buying a new car.

The purpose of a gasoline car engine is to convert gasoline into motion so that your car can move. The easiest way to create motion from gasoline is to burn the gasoline inside an engine. Therefore, a car engine is an internal combustion engine - combustion takes place internally. Two things to note:

1. There are different kinds of internal combustion engines. Diesel engines are one form and gas turbine engines are another. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages.

2. There is such a thing as an external combustion engine. A steam engine in old-fashioned trains and steamboats is the best example of an external combustion engine. The fuel (coal, wood, oil, whatever) in a steam engine burns outside the engine to create steam, and the steam creates motion inside the engine. Internal combustion is a lot more efficient (takes less fuel per mile) than external combustion, plus an internal combustion engine is a lot smaller than an equivalent external combustion engine.

Almost all cars today use a reciprocating internal combustion engine because this engine is relatively efficient, relatively inexpensive and relatively easy to refuel.

Internal Combustion

If you put a tiny amount of high-energy fuel (like gasoline) in a small, enclosed space and ignite it, an incredible amount of energy is released in the form of expanding gas. For example, if you can create a cycle that allows you to set off explosions like this hundreds of times per minute, and if you can use that energy in a useful way, what you have is the core of a car engine!

Almost all cars currently use what is called a four-stroke combustion cycle to convert gasoline into motion. The four-stroke cycle is also known as the Otto cycle, in honor of Nikolaus Otto, who invented it in 1867. They are - intake stroke, compression stroke, combustion stroke and exhaust stroke.

Understanding the Cycles

The piston is connected to the crank shaft by a connecting rod. Here's what happens as the engine goes through its cycle:

The piston starts at the top, the intake valve opens, and the piston moves down to let the engine take in a cylinder-full of air and gasoline. This is the intake stroke. Only the tiniest drop of gasoline needs to be mixed into the air for this to work. Then the piston moves back up to compress this fuel/air mixture. Compression makes the explosion more powerful. When the piston reaches the top of its stroke, the spark plug emits a spark to ignite the gasoline. The gasoline charge in the cylinder explodes, driving the piston down. Once the piston hits the bottom of its stroke, the exhaust valve opens and the exhaust leaves the cylinder to go out the tail pipe. Now the engine is ready for the next cycle, so it intakes another charge of air and gas.

Notice that the motion that comes out of an internal combustion engine is rotational. In an engine the linear motion (straight line) of the pistons is converted into rotational motion by the crank shaft. The rotational motion is smooth because we plan to turn (rotate) the car's wheels with it anyway.

Now let's look at all the parts that work together to make this happen.

Counting Cylinders

The core of the engine is the cylinder, with the piston moving up and down inside the cylinder. The engine described above has one cylinder, but most cars have more than one cylinder (four, six and eight cylinders are common). In a multi-cylinder engine, the cylinders usually are arranged in one of three ways: inline, V or flat (also known as horizontally opposed or boxer). Different configurations have different advantages and disadvantages in terms of smoothness, manufacturing-cost and shape characteristics.

Displacement

The combustion chamber is the area where compression and combustion take place. As the piston moves up and down, you can see that the size of the combustion chamber changes. It has some maximum volume as well as a minimum volume. The difference between the maximum and minimum is called the displacement and is measured in liters or CCs (Cubic Centimeters, where 1,000 cubic centimeters equals a liter). For example: A motorcycle might have a 500 cc or a 750 cc engine, while a sports car might have a 5.0 liter (5,000 cc) engine. Most normal car engines fall somewhere between 1.5 liter (1,500 cc) and 4.0 liters (4,000 cc)

If you have a 4-cylinder engine and each cylinder displaces half a liter, then the entire engine is a "2.0 liter engine." If each cylinder displaces half a liter and there are six cylinders arranged in a V configuration, you have a "3.0 liter V-6."

Generally, the displacement tells you something about how much power an engine can produce. A 2.0 liter engine is roughly half as powerful as a 4.0 liter engine. You can get more displacement in an engine either by increasing the number of cylinders or by making the combustion chambers of all the cylinders bigger (or both).

Other Parts of an Engine

Spark Plug. The spark plug supplies the spark that ignites the air/fuel mixture so that combustion can occur. The spark must happen at just the right moment for things to work properly.

Valves. The intake and exhaust valves open at the proper time to let in air and fuel and to let out exhaust. Note that both valves are closed during compression and combustion so that the combustion chamber is sealed.

Piston. A piston is a cylindrical piece of metal that moves up and down inside the cylinder.

Piston rings. Piston rings provide a sliding seal between the outer edge of the piston and the inner edge of the cylinder. The rings serve two purposes:

· They prevent the fuel/air mixture and exhaust in the combustion chamber from leaking into the sump during compression and combustion.

· They keep oil in the sump from leaking into the combustion area, where it would be burned and lost.

Connecting rod. The connecting rod connects the piston to the crankshaft. It can rotate at both ends so that its angle can change as the piston moves and the crankshaft rotates.

Crank Shaft. The crank shaft turns the piston's up and down motion into circular motion just like a crank on a jack-in-the-box does.

Sump. The sump surrounds the crankshaft. It contains some amount of oil, which collects in the bottom of the sump (the oil pan).





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