Упр. 13. Выполните письменный перевод следующего текста.

In the traditional steam engine, and even in a modern steam turbine, fuel is burned outside the engine. But it is more efficient to burn fuel inside the engine and let the expanding gases produced drive a piston or turbine. The first such internal combustion engine, running on gas, was built by the German engineer Niikolaus August Otto (1832-1891). His engine, demonstrated in Paris in 1867, was large, noisy and not very efficient. But it became the forerunner of almost all today's engines. Nine years after the first gas engine Otto invented another, based on the four-stroke cycle. The crucial advance in this engine was ignition, giving not only a considerable improvement in efficiency but also a remarkable reduction in fuel consumption. It takes four strokes of the engine to include one of power, so this system is known as the four-stroke cycle. It is by far the most common type of engine in use today. Many motorcycles and few small cars use the two-stroke cycle first created by Dugald Clerk in 1880.

Упр. 14. Составьте письменную аннотацию по теме “Составляющие двигателя и их функции”, используя следующие выражения:

The text deals with … . Attention is drawn to the fact that … . It is pointed out that … . It should be noted that … . I find the text rather/very … .

Unit 2

What Can Go Wrong

Упр. 1. Запомните новые слова и выражения и их значения.

1. attach (v) - прикреплять

2. bearing - подшипник

3. clog(v) - забиваться, засоряться

4. combustion - сгорание

5. compression - сжатие, компрессия

6. crankshaft – коленчатый вал

7. cylinder head - головка цилиндра

8. exhaust - выхлоп

9. gasket- прокладка

10. hole -отверстие, дыра

11. impurity – загрязнение, примесь

12. lack (n) - отсутствие, нехватка

13. leak (v) - протекать

14. occur (v) - случаться, происходить

15. run-down - краткое изложение, обзор

16. seal (v) - изолировать, уплотнять

17. spark - искра

Упр. 2. Прочтите и переведите интернациональные слова.


Compression, system, cylinder, battery, technology, physical, chemical, problem, electromagnetic, progress, transmission, signal, period, centre, radar, serious, temperature, negative, test, filter.

Упр. 3. Переведите предложения на русский язык обращая, внимание на новые слова.

1. The most common "hole" in a cylinder occurs where the top of the cylinder (holding the valves and spark plug also known as the cylinder head) attaches to the cylinder head. 2. Three fundamental things can happen: a bad fuel mix, lack of compression or lack of spark. 3. The fuel system might be supplying too much or too little fuel to the mix, meaning that combustion does not occur properly. 4. The spark might be nonexistent or weak for a number of reasons. 5. Three renewable bearings located directly in the cylinder block support the camshaft. 6. The cylinder and the cylinder head bolt together with a thin gasket pressed between them to ensure a good seal. 7. If the valves do not open and close at the right time or at all, air cannot get in and exhaust cannot get out, so the engine cannot run.

Упр. 4. Переведите выделенные слова на английский язык, используя активный словарь урока.

1. There might be an (загрязнение) in the fuel (like water in your gas tank) that makes the fuel not burn. 2. The air intake might be (засорено), so there is fuel but not enough air. 3. Your piston rings are worn allowing air/fuel to (протекать) past the piston during compression. 4. The intake or (выхлопной) valves (не изолированы) properly, again (позволяя) a leak during compression. 5. If the (прокладка) breaks down, small (отверстия) develop between the cylinder and the (голова цилиндра), and this (отверстия) cause (утечки). 6. If the wire is cut or missing, there will be no (искры). 7. If the (подшипники) that allow the (коленчатый вал) to turn freely are work out, the (коленчатый вал) cannot turn so the engine cannot run.

Упр. 5. Выберите правильное определение для каждого данного слова и переведите их на русский язык.

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