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Robot programming and interfaces
The setup or programming of motions and sequences for an industrial robot is typically taught by linking the robot controller to a laptop, desktop computer or (internal or Internet) network.
A robot and a collection of machines or peripherals are referred to as a work cell, or cell. A typical cell might contain a parts feeder, a molding machine and a robot. The various machines are 'integrated' and controlled by a single computer or PLC. How the robot interacts with other machines in the cell must be programmed, both with regard to their positions in the cell and synchronizing with them.
Software: The computer is installed with corresponding interface software. The use of a computer greatly simplifies the programming process. Specialized robot software is run either in the robot controller or in the computer or both depending on the system design.
There are two basic entities that need to be taught (or programmed): positional data and procedure. For example in a task to move a screw from a feeder to a hole the positions of the feeder and the hole must first be taught or programmed. Secondly the procedure to get the screw from the feeder to the hole must be programmed along with any I/O involved, for example a signal to indicate when the screw is in the feeder ready to be picked up. The purpose of the robot software is to facilitate both these programming tasks.
Teaching the robot positions may be achieved a number of ways:
Positional commands: The robot can be directed to the required position using a GUI or text based commands in which the required X-Y-Z position may be specified and edited.
Teach pendant: Robot positions can be taught via a teach pendant. This is a handheld control and programming unit. The common features of such units are the ability to manually send the robot to a desired position, or "inch" or "jog" to adjust a position. They also have a means to change the speed since a low speed is usually required for careful positioning, or while test-running through a new or modified routine. A large emergency stop button is usually included as well. Typically once the robot has been programmed there is no more use for the teach pendant.
Lead-by-the-nose is a technique offered by many robot manufacturers. In this method, one user holds the robot's manipulator, while another person enters a command which de-energizes the robot causing it to go limp. The user then moves the robot by hand to the required positions and/or along a required path while the software logs these positions into memory. The program can later run the robot to these positions or along the taught path. This technique is popular for tasks such as paint spraying.
Offline programming is where the entire cell, the robot and all the machines or instruments in the workspace are mapped graphically. The robot can then be moved on screen and the process simulated. The technique has limited value because it relies on accurate measurement of the positions of the associated equipment and also relies on the positional accuracy the robot which may or may not conform to what is programmed (see accuracy and repeatability, above).
Others In addition, machine operators often use user interface devices, typically touchscreen units, which serve as the operator control panel. The operator can switch from program to program, make adjustments within a program and also operate a host of peripheral devices that may be integrated within the same robotic system. These include end effectors, feeders that supply components to the robot, conveyor belts, emergency stop controls, machine vision systems, safety interlock systems, bar code printers and an almost infinite array of other industrial devices which are accessed and controlled via the operator control panel.
The teach pendant or PC is usually disconnected after programming and the robot then runs on the program that has been installed in its controller. However a computer is often used to 'supervise' the robot and any peripherals, or to provide additional storage for access to numerous complex paths and routines.
3. Look through the text and translate the following word combinations:
The procedure to get the screw from the feeder; via the operator control panel; additional storage; used to 'supervise'; make adjustments; , emergency stop controls; a handheld control; a large emergency stop button; log the positions into memory; a host of peripheral devices.
4. Make a sentence out of the two parts:
1) Mathematics a) any mechanical device operated automatically by remote control;
2) Sociology b) the science dealing with quantities, magnitudes and forms, and their relationships by the use of numbers and symbols;
3) Philosophy c) the power of regulating and directing the action of devices;
4) Physiology d) the branch of medicine dealing with the nervous system, its structure and its disease;
5) Neurology e) the transfer of part of the output of an active circuit or device back to the initial point;
6) Psychology f) the science of human society and of social relations, organization and change;
7) Feedback g) theory or logical analysis of the principles underlying conduct, thought, knowledge and nature of the universe;
8) Robot h) the branch of biology dealing with the functions and vital processes of living organisms, their parts and organs;
9) Algorithm i) the science dealing with the mind and with mental and emotional processes;
10) Control j) predetermined set of instructions for solving a problem in a limited number of steps.
5. Find nonfinite forms of verbs in the following sentences and define their forms and functions. Translate into Russian:
1) Cybernetics is considered to be the science of general laws of control. 2) I suppose the control process to involve the transmission, accumulation, storage and processing of information. 3) Automatic temperature regulators using the principle of feedback can maintain the required temperature. 4) The methods applied improved the quality of production. 5) The computer can perform various mathematical operations involved in solving scientific and engineering problems. 6) Electronic computers having appeared, automatic control of complex industrial processes became possible. 7) To exchange information a cybernetic system must operate with continuous or discrete signals. 8) A. Lyapunov proves to have given the exact definition of the subject matter of cybernetics. 9) The transformer is a device having no moving parts and used for changing the electric current from one voltage to another.
6. Translate the words into English:
Сильный – сила – усиливать; длинный – длина – удлинять; достигать – достижение – достижимый; реагировать - реакция – реактор – реактивный; творить – творение – творец – творческий – творчески; проводить – проводимость – проводник – полупроводник – проводимый; машина – обрабатывать – обрабатываемый; исследовать – исследователь – исследование
7. Study how to write a summary or an abstract:
Writing a Summary
A summary is condensed version of a larger reading. A summary is not a rewrite of the original piece and does not have to be long nor should it be long. To write a summary, use your own words to express briefly the main idea and relevant details of the piece you have read. Your purpose in writing the summary is to give the basic ideas of the original reading. What was it about and what did the author want to communicate?
While reading the original work, take note of what or who is the focus and ask the usual questions that reporters use: Who? What? When? Where? Why? How? Using these questions to examine what you are reading can help you to write the summary.
Sometimes, the central idea of the piece is stated in the introduction or first paragraph, and the supporting ideas of this central idea are presented one by one in the following paragraphs. Always read the introductory paragraph thoughtfully and look for a thesis statement. Finding the thesis statement is like finding a key to a locked door. Frequently, however, the thesis, or central idea, is implied or suggested. Thus, you will have to work harder to figure out what the author wants readers to understand. Use any hints that may shed light on the meaning of the piece: pay attention to the title and any headings and to the opening and closing lines of paragraphs.
Аннотация к статье составляется по такой же схеме, что и реферат, только объем аннотации обычно не превышает 600 печатных знаков. В конце аннотации даются ключевые слова.
8. Study the example of the summary (abstract) in English:
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