ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Завдання ІІІ. Виберіть правильний переклад дієприкметника або герундія.



20. Having been insulated the wire may be used as a conductor.

A. ізолюючи

B. після того як було ізольовано

C. щоб ізолювати

D. ізольований

21. The experimenter suggested purifying the solution by a new method.

A. очищуючи

B. очистивши

C. який очищує

D. очистити

22. These instruments are produced by the plant situated in our town.

A. який розташований

B. розташовуючи

C. розташування

D. розташовувався

23. The function of a wattmeter is measuring the electric power.

A. вимірюючи

B. виміривши

C. вимірювати

D. вимірює

24. Radio waves are emitted from a conductor carrying the alternating current.

A. який проводив

B. проводячи

C. щоб проводити

D. який проводить

25. Knowing the physical properties of all the substances is very important to the chemist.

A. щоб взнати

B. знати

C. знаючи

D. який знає

26. All gases and liquids expand when heated.

A. коли нагріваються.

B. нагріваючи

C. щоб нагріти

D. коли треба нагріти

27. On carrying his experiment, Faraday discovered electromagnetic induction.

A. проведення

B. проводив

C. проводячи

D. провівши

28. Having achieved the necessary results we decided to describe them in our article.

A. отримані

B. отримання

C. отримуючи

D. отримавши

29. Gas products may be divided into two types as to the method of supplying air and steam.

A. постачання

B. який постачає

C. постачаючи

D. щоб постачати

30. Testing the mixture the experimenter noticed a few bright crystals of a new substance.

A. протестувавши

B. тестуючи

C. протестована

D. тестування

31. Asked to put down his ideas on paper Newton did it in a very short period of time.

A. прохання

B. попрохавши

C. коли попрохали

D. за проханням

 

Завдання ІV. Виберіть український еквівалент англійського речення.

32. Мета нашої дослідної роботи – знайти необхідні дані.

A. We set an objective to find the necessary data.

B. The aim of our research work is to find the necessary data.

C. We wanted to find the necessary data and that was our aim.

D. We did a lot of research work to find the necessary data.

33. Існує багато речей, які треба брати до уваги, коли проектуєш космічний корабель.

A. There are many things he took into consideration when designing a spaceship.

B. While constructing a spaceship a lot of things should be remembered.

C. There are many things to be taken into consideration when designing a spaceship.

D. One should pay attention to many things when designing a spaceship.

34. Вони пообіцяли нам накреслити проект нової машини.

A. They promised that we would draw the design of a new machine.

B. They had to draw us the design of a new machine.

C. We were promised to draw the design of a new machine.

D. They promised us to draw the design of a new machine.

35. Керування новими гнучкими лініями стало можливим завдяки комп’ютерам.

A. To operate new flexible lines became possible thanks to computers.

B. To operate new flexible lines one should increase the possibilities of the computer.

C. New flexible lines operated by the computer have become possible now.

D. It is impossible to operate new flexible lines without the computer.

36. Для того щоб знати принцип сучасного радару, спеціалісти повинні ретельно вивчати радіо та електроніку.

A. The knowledge of the principle of modern radar requires the studying of radio and electronics.

B. Specialists who thoroughly study radio and electronics know the principle of modern radar.

C. To know the principle of modern radar specialists must thoroughly study radio and electronics.

D. Radar technicians are known to study the principles of their operation, radio and electronics.

 

Завдання V. Вкажіть в якому реченні при перекладі вживається:

37. сполучник „коли”:

A. Any moving object can do work, the quantity of kinetic energy depending on its mass and velocity.

B. A magnet being broken in two pieces, each piece becomes a magnet with its own pair of poles.

C. To require much knowledge you must study much.

D. Since attractive force during a given interval exceeds the resistance to motion, the train will move with increasing speed.

38. сполучник „при чому”:

A. The equipment having been received, we began the experiments from the beginning.

B. The electrons move with varying velocity, their velocity depending on the temperature and nature of the material.

C. The experiment had been prepared by our laboratory assistant that’s why it was successfully carried out.

D. We found the loom being out of order though we didn’t switch on the light in the shop.

39. слова „ Казали, що”:

A. People say that they noticed some interesting properties of the elements.

B. Television is said to have both advantages and disadvantages.

C. The switchboard operator was said to be observing the ammeter at that moment.

D. This difficult problem was reported to have been solved.

40. підрядне додаткове реченням зі сполучником „щоб ”:

A. We want the experimental data to be represented in some detail.

B. They are likely to be familiar with this phenomenon.

C. To built the country’s economy by conventional methods meant to lead it back.

D. To know English well you have to work hard.

II. Тест з читання текстів

Завдання 1.

Інструкція: Прочитайте текст без словника. Виберіть правильний варіант завершення поданих нижче речень відповідно до змісту прочитаного тексту. На окремому бланку для відповідей позначте правильний варіант відповіді. Приклад (0) зроблений для вас.

The earliest dyes

0. Natural dyes can be sorted into three categories: natural dyes obtained from
plants (indigo), those obtained from animals (cochineal), and those obtained from
minerals (ocher). Although some fabrics such as silk and wool can be colored simply by being dipped in the dye, others such as cotton, require a mordant.

1. A mordant is an element which aids the chemical reaction that takes place between the dye and the fiber so that the dye is absorbed. Containers used for dying must be non-reactive (enamel, stainless steel.) Brass, copper or iron pots will do their own mordanting. Not all dyes need mordants to help them adhere to fabric. If they need no mordants, such as lichens (мох) and walnut hulls (горіхова шкаралупа), they are called substantive dyes (прямі). If they do need a mordant, they are called adjective dyes (протравні).

2. Natural dyes obtained from plants. One example of a natural dye obtained from plants is madder (марена), which is obtained from the roots of the madder plant. The plants are dug up, the roots washed and dried and ground into powder. During the 19th century, the most widely available fabrics were those which had been dyed with madder. The “turkey red” that was so popular at that time, was based on madder. This red was considered brilliant and exotic. The madder plant continued to be used for dyeing until the mid-1800s when a synthetic substitute was developed.

3. Another example of a natural dye obtained from plants is woad (вайда). Until the Middle Ages, Europeans used woad to create a blue fabric dye. The woad was a shrub that grew abundantly in parts of Europe. The coloring was in the leaves, which were dried and ground, mixed with water and made into a paste. This dye was replaced by indigo, an ancient shrub well known to the Egyptians and Indians. Like woad, its color lay in its leaflets and branches.

4. Indigo prevailed as the preferred blue dye for a number of reasons. It is a substantive dye, needing no mordant, yet the color achieved is extremely fast to washing and to light. The manufacture of natural indigo lasted well into the early 1900s. In 1905 Adolf von Baeyer (the scientist who also formulated aspirin) was awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the molecular structure of indigo, and developing a process to produce it synthetically. The natural dye was quickly replaced by the new synthetic, ending an ancient and honored botanical history.

5. Natural dyes obtained from minerals. Ocher is a dye obtained from an
impure earthy ore of iron or a ferruginous clay (залізиста глина), usually red (hematite) or yellow (limonite). Natural dyes obtained from animals. A good example is cochineal (кошеніль), which is a brilliant red dye produced from insects living on cactus plants.

0. Silk and wool can be colored by being dipped in the …

A) dye

B) alkali

C) acids

41. Containers used for dying must be …

A) reactive

B) brass

C) non-reactive

42. Substantive dyes don’t need …

A) acids

B) solutions

C) mordants

43. Europeans used wood to create …

A) a white dye

B) a red dye

C) a blue dye

44. Adolf von Baeyer was awarded the Nobel Prize for discovering the molecular structure of …

A) mordant

B) indigo

C) ocher

45. Cochineal is a brilliant red dye produced from ...

A) plants

B) wood

C) insects

Завдання 2. Інструкція. Визначте правильність / неправильність поданого твердження відповідно змісту прочитаного тексту. Виберіть Т (твердження правильне) та F (твердження неправильне). Напишіть ваші відповіді на бланку.

Приклад (0) зроблено для вас.

0. Cotton can be coloured only mordant.

46. All fabrics can be colored simply by being dipped in the dye.

47. Madder is obtained from the berries of the madder plant.

48. Natural dyes can be obtained from plants only.

49. Indigo can be obtained only synthetically.

50. Ocher is a dye obtained from a ferruginous clay.

Завдання 3.

Інструкція: За списком заголовків, поданих нижче (A - H), підберіть назву до кожної частини тексту. Два заголовки є зайвими. Напишіть відповіді на бланку. Приклад (0) зроблений для вас.

 

0. А) The classification of natural dyes.

 

51. B) The importance of Adolf von Baeyer’s discovery.

52. C) The effect of mordant.

53. D) The properties of ocher.

54. E) The present day application of cochineal.

55. F) The origin of madder.

56. G) The properties of wood.

57. H) History of mordant.

Завдання 4.

Інструкція:Прочитайте текст. Доповніть речення у тексті словами, які підходять за змістом із поданих варіантів. Напишіть ваші відповіді на бланку. Приклад (0) зроблений для вас.

 

Saturated salt solutions

If a large amount of water is present in the organic (0)__A_______after an extraction, most of it may be removed before using a drying (1)_______ by shaking the organic solvent with a saturated solution of sodium (2)__________ or potassium carbonate. The higher ionic strength of the salt solution makes this solution even less compatible with the organic solvent, making the water less soluble in the solvent.

Saturated salt solutions are also valuable for making water-soluble organic (3)__________ much less water soluble and, therefore, much more easily extracted into organic solvents. The water-soluble organic compound is said to be salted out from the aqueous layer into the organic layer. The much higher ionic (4)_________ of the salt solution is again responsible.

Saturated salt solutions are also commonly used to (5)__________water-soluble unwanted components from organic solvents such as (6)____________. This process is called (7)__________. The advantage over regular water is that the higher ionic strength of the salt solution dramatically reduces the solubility of the organic solvent in the aqueous phase.

0. A) solvent

58. B) chloride

59. C) compounds

60. D) ethylether

61. E) washing

62. F) strength

63. G) remove

64. H) agent

Завдання 5.

Інструкція:Прочитайте текст. Виберіть запитання з кількох запропонованих (A-F), які відповідають змісту тексту. Два запитання є зайвими, і не співпадають зі змістом тексту. Напишіть ваші відповіді на бланку. Приклад (0) зроблений для вас.

 

Finishing

Finishing is a final operation which the textile materials are subjected to when yarns, fabrics and garments have been scoured, bleached, dyed and printed.

Fabric after wet processing such as scouring, dyeing or printing is in a distorted condition. One of the most important functions of finishing is to straighten the fabric and bring it to the required dimensions. It is necessary to finish the fabric to a standard width of 36 or 48 inched. So by the term finishing is meant those final operations which are necessary to bring the textile materials into a presentable attractive condition.

Drying forms part of the finishing process. Sometimes this drying can be carried out at the same time that the fabric is straightened and brought to its desired finished width and length. But at others it must be dried first and then lightly damped for the final finishing treatment.

Before the textile material is dried it is important to remove the maximum possible amount of water from it.

0. A) What is finishing?

65. B) Why is finishing one of the most important functions?

66. C) Why is finishing used before bleaching?

67. D) In what condition is fabric after wet processing?

68. E) Why is it important to remove dyes before drying?

69. F) How can drying be carried out?


Варіант 2

I. Тест з граматики





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