ТОП 10:

Task 12. Write a mini-composition for or against the following statement «Laws are not for ordinary people, they are for lawyers».



UNIT 6 Branches of the Law of Ukraine

Task 1. Before you read the text look through the following words to make sure that you know them. Learn those that you don’t know:

differentiation диференціація, розрізнення;
inalienable невід’ємний;
to enforce вводити (в життя), впроваджувати;
factoring промислове виробництво;
franchising   франчайзер (договір на продаж свого торгівельного імені, марки, ноу-хау або виробничої системи)
solemnization святкування, урочиста церемонія;
dissolution розірвання, розривання;
spouse чоловік / дружина;
adoption усиновлення;
to incorporate об’єднувати, включати;
budget бюджет;
comprehensive всеосяжний, всеохоплюючий;
infractions порушення (закону, правила);
acquit звільнення, виправдання (підсудного);
mitigation пом’якшення, зменшення;
novel додаткове узаконення, новела;
grave тяжкий, серйозний, небезпечний;
perpetual довічний, безстроковий;
to envisage передбачати; розглядати;
deprivation позбавлення;
penal карний,
legal entity юридична особа;
entrepreneurial підприємницький;
claim позов; претензія; заявка;
notice сповіщення, оповіщення, повідомлення;
suit судовий позов;
commencement початок, порушення (кримінальної справи)

Task 2. Read the following text and translate it:

Branches of the Law of Ukraine

In accordance with the differentiation of public and private law the following branches are defined in the legislative system of Ukraine.

Constitutional Law

Constitutional law establishes the political and state system, rights, freedoms and duties of citizens, legal status of the Verkhovna Rada, the president, the Cabinet of Ministers, other bodies of state executive power and of local authorities, the justice system, territorial structure, state symbols, etc. The main source of constitutional law is the Constitution of Ukraine.

Civil Law

Civil law includes the legal rules governing the ownership and non-property relations, as well as personal relations between the objects of public relations in order to satisfy their demands. The main act in this branch is the Civil Code of Ukraine which entered in force on December 1, 2004. It contains six books and sets basically a new (for Ukraine) system of norms to govern civil relations. Taking into account new constitutional approaches to the human being and its inalienable rights it fixes individual non-property rights of a person and governs relations which enforce these rights. This code introduces new types of agreements into the legal practice: factoring, franchising, and rent service or inherited contracts etc.

Labour Law

Labour Law includes the legal rules collected in the Labour Code and governs the relations as to the labour contracts, working time and conditions, safety at the working place, social protection, the order of labour disputes resolution, etc.

Matrimonial Law

Matrimonial law relates to the grounds of marriage, its solemnization and dissolution, personal ownership and non-property rights and duties of the spouses, relations between parents and children, adoption issues, etc. Such rules are incorporated into the Family Code which was adopted on January 10, 2002 and came in force on January 1, 2003.

Financial Law

Financial lawregulates the state budget, banking, tax system, etc and its object of regulation is money and securities. The formation of financial system of Ukraine is in progress. In 2001 the Budget Code was adopted on June 21, 2001 and came in force on June, 2001.

Land Law

Land law includes the legal rules governing land use and protection. Here the main source is the Land Code of Ukraine adopted on October 26, 2001, which established the private ownership of lands. The Land Code came in force on Jabuary,1, 2002.

Administrative Law

Administrative law is based on the legal rules on the relations between the bodies of state government, executive and command activities, corpus delicti (Eng. body of crime) of administrative offences, etc. The main source of administrative law is the Code on Administrative Infractions, which entered in force on September, 9, 2005.

Criminal Law

Criminal law includes the legal rules defining criminal acts, forms of guilt, punishment making, acquitting or mitigation. The main source of criminal law is the new Criminal Code of Ukraine. The Code was adopted on April 5, 2001 and came into force from September 1, 2001. Its main novel is the replacement of the death penalty for the grave crimes by the perpetual imprisonment. It also envisages such new types of punishment as public works, arrest, deprivation of liberty, and official restrictions for persons on military service.

Correctional Law

Correctional law includes the legal rules governing the relations resulting from the execution of punishment and penal treatment. The main source of the law is the Correctional Code, came in force on January, 1, 2004.

Law of Civil Procedure

Law of civil procedure includes the legal rules governing the procedure of the court consideration and solving civil cases, and enforcement of writs. They are combined in the Civil Procedural Code, which entered in force on January, 1, 2005.

Commercial Law

Commercial Law regulates contractual relations and conflicts between legal entities, citizens and/or a state. Commercial Procedural Code provides that commercial court should bring an action on the basis of the entrepreneurial activity subject claim about protection of its legal rights, as well as the notices of suit from state authorities, the Office of Public Prosecutor or the Chamber of Accounting of Ukraine.

Law of Criminal Procedure

Procedural criminal law relates to the commencement of criminal proceedings, investigation and court examination of criminal cases. The Criminal Action Code regulates these issues.

International Law

International law governs relations between states (public) or between citizens of different countries and their associations (private). As Ukraine is a part to numerous multilateral and bilateral international treaties, agreements and conventions, they are included into the domestic legislation and determine international status of Ukraine.

The legislative system of Ukraine includes other specialized codes, each of them has its own inner structure and governs relations in its field.

Task 3. Give Ukrainian equivalents for the following words and expressions. Make up sentences or situations using them:

Public and private law; legislative system; local authorities; justice system; territorial structure; state symbols; non-property relations; as well as; in order to; objects of public relations; taking into account; new constitutional approaches to the human being; legal practice; factoring; franchising; rent service; inherited contracts; working time and conditions; grounds of marriage; state budget; banking; tax system; private ownership of lands; administrative infractions; death penalty; military service; penal treatment; court consideration; Civil Procedural Code; commercial court; entrepreneurial activity subject claim; the Office of Public Prosecutor; the Chamber of Accounting; multilateral and bilateral international treaties

Task 4. Find in the text English equivalents for the following words and expressions:

правовий статус; виконавча влада; система правосуддя; державні символи; задовольняти потреби; невід’ємні права; впроваджувати права; соціальний захист; порядок вирішення трудових спорів; питання усиновлення; використання та захист землі; розробка проекту закону; земельна реформа; кримінальні дії; винесення покарання; змінення смертної кари за тяжкі злочини на довічне ув’язнення; передбачити нові види покарання; позбавлення волі; виконання покарання; судовий розгляд; виконання судових приписів; подавати позов; позов, про підприємницьку діяльність суб’єкта; порушення кримінальної справи; розслідування.

Task 5. Match the definitions in the right column to the words given in the left:

1)franchising     2) deprivation 3) discharge 4) mitigation 5) perpetual   6) corpus delicti   7) penal treatment   8) inalienable a) the body of facts, showing that a breach of the law has taken place, esp. the body of the victim in a case of murder; b) making less severe or painful; c) continuing or valid forever; for an unlimited time; d) incapable of being removed; e) the techniques and actions customarily applied when relating to punishment; f) the state of being without something, esp. vital to one’s well-being; loss; g) the act of relieving somebody of an obligation, accusation, penalty; h) the right granted to an individual or group to market company’s goods or services in a particular territory;

Task 6. Find in the text a word or a phrase that means:

1. to cause (a rule or law) to be obeyed or carried out;

2. relating to marriage;

3. relating to prisons or other places or methods of punishment;

4. the termination of an association or union, esp. marriage;

5. to consider as a possibility in future;

6. the upbringing of a child of other parents as one’s own child after undergoing certain legal formalities;

7. business of a bank or banker;

8. a formal document of a court commanding or forbidding an act specified in it;

9. beginning;

10. formal interrogation, e.g. in a law court.

Task 7. Fill in the appropriate word:

сlaim, took into account, investigation, enforce, envisaged, acquitted, notice, the death penalty. consideration, imprisonment

1. The proposals are still under ……… .

2.His ……. to own the house is invalid.

3. The timetable is subject to change …….. .

4. He had not ……. the matter in that light.

5. He was sentenced to one-year’s …… . .

6. The causes of the railway accident are under …….. .

7. The accused man was found not guilty and was …….. .

8. The judge …… the mitigating circumstances ……… when passing sentence.

9. The main task of the executive power is to ……… laws.

10. The murderer was sentenced to ………. .

 

Task 8. Read and say whether these statements are true or false:

1. Constitutional law specifies the branches of the state power in Ukraine. 2. Civil law regulates contractual relations and conflicts between legal entities, citizens and a state. 3. Such legal practices as factoring, franchising, rent services are incorporated in the Correctional Code. 4. The Civil Code regulates relations in regard to the labour contract, working time and conditions, safety at the working place, social protection and the order of labour disputes resolution. 5. The Family Code deals with the issues of marriage and relations between parents and children. 6. The financial system of Ukraine is determined by Financial law. 7. The Land Code established the state monopoly ownership of lands. 8. Administrative law provides for relations between state and local authorities. 9. Corpus delicti is the Latin phrase meaning ‘body of crime’. 10. Under the new Criminal Code of Ukraine the perpetual imprisonment was replaced by the death penalty. 11. The Correctional Code provides for new forms of punishment. 12. The execution of punishment and penal treatment are regulated by Correctional Law. 13. The Civil Procedural Code regulates entrepreneurial activities. 14. The Criminal Action Code regulates issues connected with the commencement of criminal proceedings, investigation and court examination. 15. International law regulates relationships between public and private associations.

Task 9. Speak on the topics:

1. What issues Constitutional law establishes and what the main source of the Constitutional law is;

2. What relations each branch of law regulates;

3. What the main provisions of the Civil Code / Civil Procedural Code / Labour Code / Family Code / Land Code / Criminal Code / Criminal Action Code / Correctional Code / Commercial Procedural Code are.

 

Task 10. Translate into English:

1. Адміністративне право регулює суспільні відносини, що виникають у сфері державного управління, яке здійснюється органами виконавчої влади, а у деяких випадках – й іншими державними органами та органами місцевого самоврядування. 2. Шлюбно-сімейні – це особисті немайнові відносини, які виникають з кровного споріднення, шлюбу, усиновлення, та майнові відносини, які випливають з особистих. 3. Фінансове право розглядає питання, пов’язані з економікою, підприємницькою діяльністю та фінансовою діяльністю. 4. Кримінальне право визначає види злочинів, види і строки покарань та звільнення від покарань. 5. Цивільне право регулює певні майнові відносини, відносини у сфері товарообігу (commodity circulation), а також деякі категорії немайнових відносин. 6. Завданням земельного законодавства є регулювання земельних відносин з метою створення умов для раціонального використання й охорони земель, рівноправного розвитку всіх форм власності на землю, поліпшення природного середовища, охорона прав громадян, підприємств, установ і організацій на землі. 7. «Господарський процесуальний кодекс» розглядає організацію господарських судів в Україні, статус судді господарського суду та інші питання діяльності господарського суду. 8. Суб’єктами міжнародного права виступають держави, міжнародні міжурядові організації, урядові організації, тобто учасники міжнародних відносин, які володіють міжнародними правами та обов’язками і здійснюють їх відповідно до міжнародного права та в його межах. 9. До сфери міжнародного права належать питання право та дієздатності (capability) іноземних фізичних та юридичних осіб, держави; відносин по зовнішньоторговельних угодах; прав авторів (copyright) на твори, виданих за кордоном; трудоправового та соціального статусу осіб, які знаходяться на території іноземної держави.

Unit 7 HUMAN RIGHTS

Task 1. Before you read the text look through the following words to make sure that you know them. Learn those that you don’t know:

Vocabulary section

subsidiary додатковий, допоміжний
to report звітувати
UN Charter Статут ООН
to rank займати певне місце
mandate доручення, наказ, мандат
to suspend тимчасово припиняти, усувати
urgent негайний, терміновий
to allege голослівно заявляти, твердити
action судовий процес, позов
to take action порушувати судову справу
to retain запрошувати, наймати

Task 2. Read the text and decide which paragraph :

1. gives information about member states;

2. informs about human rights violations;

3. says about the creation of the Human Rights Council.

United Nations Human Rights Council

The United Nations Human Rights Council, created at the 2005 World Summit to replace the United Nations Commission on Human Rights, has a mandate to investigate violations of human rights. The Human Rights Council is a subsidiary body of the General Assembly and reports directly to it. It ranks below the Security Council, which is the final authority for the interpretation of the United Nations Charter.

Forty-seven of the one hundred ninety-one member states sit on the council, elected by simple majority in a secret ballot of the United
Nations General Assembly. Members serve a maximum of six years and may have their membership suspended for gross human rights abuses.
The Council is based in Geneva, and meets three times a year; with additional meetings to respond to urgent situations.

Independent experts (rapporteurs) are retained by the Council to investigate alleged human rights abuses and to provide the Council with reports. The Human Rights Council may request that the Security Council take action when human rights violations occur. This action may be direct actions, may involve sanctions, and the Security Council may also refer cases to the International Criminal Court (ICC) even if the issue being referred is outside the normal jurisdiction of the ICC.

Task 3. Define by the suffixes to what part of speech the following words belong to. Translate the words:

agree-agreement-agreeable

participate-participator-participative-participation

develop-development-developmental- developable

equal- equality- equally- equalize

humane- humanely- humaneness-humanity

legislate-legislation-legislative-legislator

Task 4. Form the words with negative meaning (using the prefixes un, dis, in, il, mis) from the following words:

 

agree limited

direct legal

important national

inform order

responsible effective

 

Task 5. Compose the word-families of the following words as in the example. Translate them:

lawfulness-законність

law lawgiver- законодавець

lawmaking- видання законів

 

to create to enforce

 

to protect to organize

 

Task 6 Choose the synonyms from the box:

Judicial mistake, freedom, judgment, to annul, trial, violation of law, case

Court decision, to abolish, liberty, miscarriage of justice, breach of law, judicial proceeding, cause.

Task 7. Match the term (column A) and its definition (column B):

A B
treaty Ø something which you must do because you’ve promised, because of law;
court Ø the whole system of rules that everyone in a country must obey;
law Ø an area or a country in which a particular system of laws has authority ;
jurisdiction Ø a class or group having common interests;
community Ø a case that goes to a court of law ;
obligation Ø a formal agreement between two or more countries.
cause Ø a place where trials are conducted

Task 8. Make up the sentences of your own with the following words and word combinations:

 

  Right to   life work education marry found a family Right of   defence settlement action passage dwelling search

Task 9. Complete the sentences below:

 

1. The Human Rights Council reports directly to it …

2. Members may have their membership suspended for …

3. Independent experts (rapporteurs) are retained by …

4. The Human Rights Council may request … when human rights
violations occur.

Task 10. Answer the questions:

1. When and where was the UN Human Rights Council created?

2. Does it rank above or below the Security Council?

3. What is the maximum term of serving for the Council members?

4. Where is the Council based?

5. How often does it meet a year?

6. Why does the Council have additional meetings?

7. Why are Independent experts retained by?

Task 11. Read and translate the text. Speak on the tasks of the Human rights:

The text (article) carries the material about ... At the beginning it deals with... The author dwells on … To summarize the author writes ...

Human rights refers to the "basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled." Examples of rights and freedoms which are often thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and liberty, freedom of expression, and equality before the law; and social, cultural and economic rights, including the right to participate in culture, the right to food, the right to work, and the right to education.

" All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood ." (Article 1 of the United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights)

Human rights law

The enforcement of international human rights law is the responsibility of the Nation State, and its the primary responsibility of the State to make human rights a reality. There is currently no international court that upholds human rights law (the International Criminal Court deals with crimes against humanity, war crimes and genocide), although the Council of Europe is responsible for both the European Convention on Human Rights, and the European Court of Human Rights that acts as a court of last appeal for human rights issues in member states (see the section Europe below).

In practice, many human rights are very difficult to legally enforce due to the absence of consensus on the application of certain rights, the lack of relevant national legislation or of bodies empowered to take legal action to enforce them.

Task 12. Render the text. Use the following phrases. Write down an annotation in English:







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