HANDBOOK FOR SIGHT TRANSLATION



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HANDBOOK FOR SIGHT TRANSLATION



В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин

Мир перевода - 6

ТРУДНОСТИ ПЕРЕВОДА В ПРИМЕРАХ

ПРАКТИЧЕСКОЕ ПОСОБИЕ
ДЛЯ СТУДЕНТОВ III-IV КУРСОВ

HANDBOOK FOR SIGHT TRANSLATION

Difficult Cases & Pitfalls as Translated into Russian

V. Lanchicov, A. Chuzhakin

For medium and advanced levels

World of Interpreting and Translation =WIT=

Москва

Р.Валент

 

Сканирование, распознавание, вычитка:

Корректор, 2004

Только для некоммерческих целей.


ББК81.2Англ. 7я73

Мир перевода -6

Трудности перевода в примерах.

Практическое пособие для студентов III-IV курсов.

Данное пособие предназначено для отработки навыков письменного перевода и перевода с листа (ПСЛ) с английского на русский язык. Несмотря на кажущуюся легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с устным переводом на слух, на практике такой перевод часто вызывает наибольшие трудности, что в основном объясняется недостаточным знанием учащимися родного языка, неумением адекватно выразить свои мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста, что приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм русского языка.

Материалы пособия можно использовать для перевода на слух и отработке навыков с применением лексико-грамматических трансформаций.

Трудности перевода.Пособие для студентов III-IV курсов переводческих факультетов / В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин. — М.:Р.Валент, 2001. — С. 64 ISBN 5-93439-070-8

Тел./факс издательства: 917 41 53 e-mail: rvalent@online.ru

© В.Ланчиков, А.Чужакин, 2001 © "Р.Валент", 2001

© Концепция, составление, комментарий, обработка текста и эскиз обложки А.П.Чужакин, 2001


ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Данное пособие является практическим пополнением серии "Мир перевода" по углублению практических навыков перевода с листа (ПСЛ)на русский язык. Парадоксально, что, несмотря на кажущуюся сравнительную легкость ПСЛ по сравнению с переводом на слух, на практике он часто вызывает наибольшие трудности. Это в основном объясняется недостаточным знанием учащимися родного языка, неумением адекватно выразить свои мысли, а также сильным влиянием английского текста в процессе ПСЛ, что приводит к калькированию, буквализму, нарушению норм русского языка.

Материалы пособия можно использовать, в зависимости от уровня учащихся, для письменного перевода или перевода на слух с применением лексико-грамматических трансформаций.

Примеры в пособии взяты из прессы 1960—1990 годов, а также художественной литературы XX века и дают представление о развитии языка и изменениях значений некоторых слов.

Переводческие трудности выделены полужирным шрифтом.В некоторых разделах даются варианты перевода, не претендующие на совершенство, но указывающие на возможные переводческие решения проблем.

Рекомендуется обратить внимание на передачу сложной модальности, особенно в случаях may have been, could have done, might as well have said и др., которые часто вызывают затруднение при переводе (см. разделы: Модальность, Would, Модальные глаголы).

Пособие состоит из двух частей: LEVELA (Introductory) — начальный уровень — основные виды трансформаций при переводе, LEVEL В(Advanced) — более сложные случаи переводческих трансформаций и распознавания "ловушек" в процессе как письменного, так и устного перевода с листа.

В Приложениирассматривается концепция модульного способа обучению устному переводу (Modules of Employable Skills), ориентированного на практическую деятельность и индивидуальный подход к обучению.

Источники:

Пособие по переводу кафедры перевода английского языка переводческого факультета МГЛУ (заведующий — В.Ф.Усов), подготовленное проф. В.Ланчиковым под редакцией Д.Псурцева, а также материалы С.С.Толстого, Р. Ледерера.

Дополнительная литература:

С.Толстой. Как переводить с английского языка. М., 1960, Изд-во ИНО

R. Lederer. Anguished English. Robson Books. London, 1987


Особенности перевода с листа (ПСЛ) — (sight translation) на русский язык

Переводящий получает незнакомый текст — иногда времени на подготовку совсем нет, иногда предоставляется немного времени на ознакомление; затем переводит вслух, — в идеале — быстро, четко и на хорошем русском языке.

Факторы, усложняющие задачу переводящего при ПСЛ:

Необходимость:

— одновременно читать, переводить и проговаривать свой перевод;

— членить текст или объединять фразы/предложения на такие отрезки, которые могут быть успешно переведены и лучше восприняты слушателем;

— недостаточная культура языка и речи переводящего.

Факторы, облегчающие задачу ПСЛ:

— возможность получить время для подготовки (не всегда);

— наличие зрительной опоры для уверенного перевода;

— зрительное восприятие прецизионной информации, что значительно облегчает перевод, делает его более точным;

— другие преимущества восприятия информации не на слух, а зрительно.

Необходимые навыки и умения:

— быстрое переключение на язык перевода при широком использовании полуавтоматической подстановки готовых соответствий (клише, штампов);

— умение совмещать проговаривание перевода с чтением следующего отрезка оригинала;

— владение всеми выразительными средствами родного языка и умение пользоваться ими для достижения максимальной адекватности ПСЛ.

Главные требования к переводящему с листа:

профессиональное владение родным языком, отвлечение от "давления" оригинала, умелое использование всех видов переводческих трансформаций.

Методические рекомендации к учебнику

Пособие может быть применяться на начальном этапе обучения письменному переводу для обработки перевода наиболее сложных случаев, а также как часть практического курса теории перевода.


NB! ПЕРЕВОДИШЬ С АНГЛИЙСКОГО - ДУМАЙ О РУССКОМ!

LEVEL A (Introductory)


Полисемия

А. Многозначные служебные слова: as, but, but for, either, neither, which.

as может означать: постольку; так как; по мере того, как; что касается (as to); как; в том виде, как; иногда может переводиться причастным оборотом (... as they took their seats — занимая свои места).

Варианты перевода:

a)As we go further and further to the South it grows warmer and warmer.

По мере того как мы приближаемся к Югу...

b) As tomy mother's health it is much better. Что касается здоровья моей матери...

1. Members were solemn as they took their seats: The Prime Minister gave a measured account of interests at stake and events of the past. Neitherpace nortone altered ashe passed on to "what our next step should be." (" The New York Times")

2. The Premier's speech followed a weekend of warnings by the Chinese leaders in Peking as celebrations for New China's National Day got underway. ("Daily Worker")*

3. The resolution considered it unnecessary — and so that part disappeared from the resolution as adopted. (''Economic Issues")

4. As stated in the program of the Communist Party of Great Britain, the aims of the working class are expressed both clearly and pointedly.

5. As released to the press, the communiqué was as softly toned as just only possible, butrumour has it that, there had been another communiqué which was withheld at the very last moment. ("DW")

but— означает: лишь; but for — если бы не


6. He is but a child, do not be angry with him!

7. But foryour help I shouldn't be able to understand this.

* далее "DW"



8. He is anything but a good poet.

9. Woods grew on eitherside of the river.

10. Howevertired you are, you must finish your work.

11. Yesterday my little son went out of the house to play without his overcoat. Now he recovered from pneumonia only a short time ago which will easily make you understand how anxious I was forhim.

12. Now little David Copperfield saw the young man with his donkey- cart, now he did not see him, now he caught a glimpse of him, now he lost him. (Ch. Dickens)

13. Who will come with me, your brother or your sister? — Neither.They are both busy.

14. The weather is very bad today, whichprevents us from taking a long walk.

15. Wherea young bibliographer may make a mistake, a more experienced one will find the mattereasy.

16. Everystudent whetherof the junior or senior courses must attend the lectures regularly.

В. Многозначные слова ("ложные друзья переводчика")

1. The crew of the boat consisted of her husband, his two mates,three engineers,twelve firemenand ten able-bodied seamen.

2. The undersecretarywas in evening dress.

3. "Take the chair" — shouted the comrades to comrade Johnson — "and don't give the floor to anybody for more than ten minutes; we want to hear your paperat full length."

4. A physicianworking with X-rays must be something of a physicist.

5. The work of a compositoris rather difficult.

6. The speakerof the House of Commons stops a speakerif he puts things too bluntly.

7. The tramptook up some kind of shipment at every port.

8. The book was edited by a famous scholar.

9. Mendeleyev was a great studentof chemistry.

10. A librarian must know both Sciencesand Arts.

11. The faculty of the New Orleans University consists of the best scholars,especially in Arts.


12. I asked the chemist whether they had these preparationsat the dispensary, I also asked him for dressing material.

13. The salesman showed me a number of patternsfor various fabrics.

14. The officersof that company consist of the president, the treasurer, the counsel, the auditor, etc.

15. "Look here, officer," said the old woman — "stop the traffic for a moment, so that I might walk over the square to the pavement on the other side."

16. Little Oliver Twist was very much afraid of the masterin the working house.

17. "It is so hot in the stokehold" — said Jackson — "we ought to have better fans."

18. Michael Jackson has lost many of his fansafter the scandal.

19. Five papersby excellent scholars were read at the Fuel Conference.

20. The film has been editedby A.Peterson. He is a very good specialist.

21. There are many creepers in the conservatory.

Неологизмы и эгологизмы

Some of these have been absorbed by the language and are widely used now.

1. It was a decorated, becatered and bewaiteredtable. (B. Tarkington)

2. She displayed wonders of horsemanship and horseman-woman-ship.(B.Tarkington)

3. A man doesn't come a thousand and odd miles to be not-at-homedat the end of it. (Ch. Lever)

4. There are people who have much and those who have nothing. — Well, you see. I'm among muchers.(G. Page)

5. Weare the not-wanteds.(R. Aldington)

6. "Weare has-beensnow Kelly," said the former policeman to his dog.

7. Summer at last. You look summarytoo. (E. Benson)

8. She did her duty by me completely, but it is clear that there was no motherhood, no sonshipbetween us. (H. Wells)

9. The white tiled, gleaming-tapped bathroom. (G. Frankau)


10. A strong northerly wind that found a few weary, half-skeletonedleaves to play with. (R. Sheriff)

11. The stage of coccoondomfor modern boys is soon gone out of. (A. Berkeley)

12. It was a dehumanizedapartment. (Я. Wells)

13. The pill was sugar-coated.(W.Adcock)

14. 1 may platitudinize,but I don't want any Shelleyan talk. (B. Shaw)

15. Ireland has a right to nationhood.

16. This man is an escapistfrom modern society.

17. Is the child, a mouth-breather?(" Medical Journal")

18. Modern Italy is an underbathroomed and overmonumentedcountry. (A. Huxley)

19. They had not so much Herbertianand Martaishin them when they came home from France. (A. Huxley)

20. The burstlesscrests of the waves were coming on and on. (J. Masefield)

21. She is air-minded.

22. We have many books for the world-mindedin our library.

23. There is after the blinds have been drawn a fine little roulette for every passenger in the Pullman. (B.Johnson)

24. To coventrateevery town under the sun — such is the wild dream of the war-mongers— and is there much difference between them and the brink-mongers? ("DW")

25. The parassaboteursare special troops, specially trained, specially equipped and provided with a special morale to do their task. ("DW")

26. I do not think a working girl should take her standards from a socialite. (" DW")

27. War and Peace filmizedis after all not War and Peace as we read it.

28. Cinemactors and cinemactressesare often chosen for general appeal rather than for their artistic merits.

29. Motelsare provided all the way down from New York to Chicago; car-owners find it most convenient. (E. Randolph)


Конверсия

1. I paperedmy room yesterday.

2. I have wateredmy flowers.

3. The hospital houses500 patients.

4. The goods have been tabled.

5. Don't gas so much.

6. I have a cut on my cheek.

7. He has a burnon his leg.

8. The test runof the locomotive was very successful.

9. There is a give in the beam.

10. He went through the cold and through the damp, never afraid of catching cold.

11. The thenPresident of the United States was Lincoln.

12. Don't syrupwater!

13. Don't water syrup!

14. Thedog spottedthe hare.

15. Jones was one of the best engine-drivers of that line. And Peter who fired forhim was considered a first-rate worker too.

16. The train steamed outof the station.

17. He thundered out a command.

18. I prefer to pencilthat note, because, otherwise, I'll ink my fingers with your bad penholder.

19. I don't like his looks.That red in his cheeks speaks of t.b.c.

20. The cow has been milked.

21. He clerkedat a small factory.

22. Your hat wants a brush.

23. It's a mere nothing.

24. It's a good buy.

25. I don't like the feelof flannel of my skin.

26. Give your horse a feed(give a read, give a thought).


27. Through London streets yesterday the king's funeral procession took two-and-half hours to slow-marchfrom Westminster to Paddington station. ("DW")

28. We should not porch-porchthe idea that this country should annex Egypt in order to safeguard the communications with India ... so say the Tories now and so they went on saying for years on end.("DW")

29. The die-hardsare in fact nothing but have-beens.("DW")

30. The whysand whereforesof a war in which children must die have never been made clear. ("DW")

31. We must live in the now and pursue a constructive policy. ("The Times")

32. Hiroshima was atombombedwithout the slightest mercy.

33. This is a robber budget,that the Tories want to introduce. ("DW")

34. Weigh the forsand the againstand the decision will be clear as daylight. ("DW")

35. She watched her son wolfinghis meal. (J. Hanley)

36. We are inchingforward to our target yet progressing we are. ("DW")

37. It was a novel experience to find himself head-lined.(J. London)

38. Don't be yankedinto war. ("DW")

39. Within the offices werenewly plastered,newly painted,newly papered,newly floorclothed,newly tabled,newly chaired,newly fitted upin every way with goods that were substantial and expensive. (Ch. Dickens)

40. How many a time have we mourned over the dead body of Julius Caeser and to be'd and not to be'd in this very room. (J.Austen)

41. The number of signatures to the Appeal will snowballrapidly. ("DW")

42. The short-time working which began in Lancashire has snowballedinto a large-scale slump in the cotton industry. ("Daily Mirror")

43. Both sides InkTreaty.

Образные выражения

1. He crowdeda lot of adventures intohis young life.

2. The invention of the printing press is among the highest points inthe history of education.

3. This political party contains a new plankin its platform.


4. His span of lifewas but short.

5. The steam drop hammer has a massive frame which takes the punishmentfrom the terrific impact of the ram.

6. Cast ironproof was given to show that he was guilty.

7. This was rather an unusual mood for Mr.N. whose mind navigatedrather larger seas than those where his daughter's small barques adventured. (R. William)

8. In spring plants shoot outrapidly.

9. Fear doggedin his steps.

10. It was then that I embarked onmy study of Shakespeare. (V.Spurgeon) 11. Time is disjoinedand outof frame. (W. Shakespeare)

12. Why should I write down what's riveted, screwedto my memory. (W. Shakespeare)

13. This alloy is first cousinto another one.

14. A number of conferences have been organized at which seasoned literary critics will discuss and analyze the works of buddingauthors.

15. Letus spurthe local industry of our country.

16. England considers Canada as her granary,Australia as her butcherand New Zealand as her henhouse.("DW")

17. Before the war Italy, not wanting to have all her eggs in one basket,

tried alternatively to make friends with all the great powers. ("DW")

Газетные заголовки

Part I. Dead serious:

1. Whither Modern Medicine?

2. Why Polar Expedition?

3. Steam Versus Electric Locomotives.

4. Anglo-French Drive in Egypt Halted.

5. Stay-in-Strikers at Chicago to Crush Bosses.

6. 1000 British Aircraft Stop Work.

7. Manchester Ship Canal Reconstruction.

8. Portrait Exhibition Opening in New Orleans.

9. Ford Automobile Repair Shop Organization.


10. More Arms in Italy's Budget.

11. Metal Works Reorganization Conference at Montreal.

12. Physical Conference to Open Tomorrow in Chicago.

13. Lorry Crushes into Shop-Window.

14. Australia Adds to Fleet.

15. Terrible Plight of Unemployed Miner. Family Living in Tent.

16. Homes Smashed from Bombing Plane.

17. Rise of Electric Traction. Electric Locomotives Cheaper and More Effective.

18. Industrial Power Plant Modernization.

19. Coal Handling Problems at Electric Stations.

20. Electrical Features of Kansas City Water Works.

21. Soil Water Supply Important for Subtropical Plants.

22. Norwegian Tug-Boat on Fire. Crew Saved by Soviet Sporting Yacht.

23. Maiden Speech of New M.P.Criticizes Premier.

Part II. Have a smile:

Юмористический эффект помимо воли авторов данных газетных заголовков вызывается многозначностью слов (полисемией) и усиливается из-за особенностей газетного стиля подачи информации в заголовках.

1. Farmer Bill Dies in House.

2. Lawyers Give Poor Free Legal Advice.

3. Lawmen From Mexico Barbecue Guests.

4. Juvenile Court to Try Shooters.

5. Defendant, Speech Ends in Long Sentence.

6. Stolen Painting Found by Tree.

7. Hitler, Nazi Papers Found in Attic.

8. Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim.

9. Asbestos Suit Pressed.

10. Deaf Mute Gets New Hearing in Killing.

11. Men Recommend More Clubs for Wives.

12. Milk Drinkers Are Turning to Powder.


Задание:Что означают эти хрестоматийные заголовки?

13. Big Apple Goes Bananas. (Нью-Йорк сходит с ума)

14. Dick Digs Pig Pix.

(Ричард Никсон обожает полицейские фильмы)

Полугерундий

1. The Lebanese crisis ended after all with the American troops goinghome. ("DW")

2. We have not yet heard of a budget being swollento such an extent — and all to the detriment of the working masses. ("DW")

3. Socialism is thrown in at the end, probably as an afterthought, and is defined as "mutual service"! Not a word about the working class taking overthe ownership of the factories, land and wealth of the country. ("DW")

4. Dr. Adenauer and his Foreign Minister are concerned about Bonn being cold-shoulderedby the three West Powers at the forthcoming Foreign Ministers' talks in Paris, which West Germany will attend only in a consultative capacity. ("DW")

5. Bonn wants the meetings to stop any of the allies drifting towards

dealings with the German Democratic Republic. ("DW")

Given



Given (в начале предложения) означает учитывая, в случае...


1. These target figures are not wildly extravagant, giventhe rate of development which Russia has already achieved. (" The Times")

2. Giventhe present industrial climate, the arrangement which grants the personnel no voice in determining the modes of payment or in the management of the enterprise seems to have proven insufficient to bring about the improvement of labour-management relations necessary for greater productivity. ("Economic Issues")

3. Givengood weather the campaign should greatly help the supply of fodder. ("The Times")

Пассивная конструкция

1. Such trifles should be put up with.

2. The drowning man was throwna rope.

3. This poor old blind man is never read to.

4. The ship was lost sight of.

5. Are we really meantto learn this by heart?

6. The room could be enteredthrough a massive oak door.

7. This case of mental illness should be dealt withseparately.

8. Edgar Рое is felt to beof insane mind in his later poems.

9. Such results are not to be wondered at.

10. His presence was taken no notice of.

11. This boy isnot spoken to.

12. I don't understand why I am askedsuch a question.

13. John is not to berelied upon.

14. The bed was not slept in.

15. The house wasnot lived in.


Модальные глаголы

Pay attention to patterns modal verb + Past Participle.

B. Would

1. "Chris is a business woman," said Roy Drover and Roy wouldknow. (S. Lewis)

2. He wondered what had become of the boys who were his companions; they were nearly thirty now; some wouldbe dead but others were married and had children. (W.S. Таugham)


3. As World War II also underscored, the Latin American countries control much of the mineral and other natural resources that the U.S. needs to supplement its own. That wouldappear a guarantee of instability of the Western Hemisphere. ("The New York Times")

4. Some of your remarks about hay fever in your topics of Aug. 6 wouldindicate that your knowledge is based upon American experience only.

Глагольное подлежащее

1. Mention has been madeof a new material

2. Application should be madeby post.

3. Use is made of anew machine.

4. Advantage has beentaken of these factors.

Эллиптические конструкции

1. The students have very limited, if any,opportunity to speak Russian outside of school. ("The Modern Language Journal")

2. Sacco and Vancetti were electrocuted many years ago. The intervening time has enhanced, if anything,the importance of the

case. ("The Nation")

3. Harriman, the head of the ticket was, if anything,an even more ardent upholder of the cold war line than his opponent. ("The Worker)

4. On the whole, Canada appears to have shown much wisdom in developing its end of the expanding neighbourly relationship with the U.S. Rather than inhibiting Ottawa's world position, the process has, if anything,increased it. ("The New York Times")

5. I do not believe for one moment that a merger of our armed services would save the taxpayer one thin dime. If anything,I am sure that merger might bring about greater expenditure.

6. In general she has changed little, if at all,in the two years of her absence.

7. The inhabitants of his real saw him, if at all,only in passing.

8. Some 2 billion people — three quarters of the world's population - speak languages that are rarely, if ever,taught in the U.S. ("The Modern Language Journal")


9. Thus the U.S. was under pressure to come forward with a serious reply to the Russian proposals — if onlyfor the sake of public opinion in an apprehensive world. ("The New Times")

10. With French consent, the United States was becoming officially involved for the first time in the Algerian question, if only,on its fringes. ("The New York Times")

11. Under no circumstances must the Labour movement permit divisions to arise between workers, whateverthe colour of their skin. In strike after strike — with the London bus strike as the most recent example — the coloured workers have stood firm with their colleagues against the boss.("DW")

12. Whateverthe outcome, the emphasis of both parties is more on "liberal" candidates. ("The Times")

Двузначные глаголы

1. But the Volga cascade pales into insignificancebeside the new schema for tappingthe electric power resources of Russian rivers like the Ob, the Yenisei, the Angara and others in Siberia. (" DW")

2. We are not in all truth, big enough or powerful enough to simply scare the world into adopting our image of what it ought to be. (" Wall Street Journal")

3. Anti-labour legislation in California, Ohio, Washington, Idaho, Colorado and Kansas, helped to stringLabour into activityin these and other States but that alone is not the answer. ("DW")

4. There is danger in the very fact that we are becoming accustomedto the idea of the bomb. We have lived with itfor so long that we may be lulled into a feelingthat there is no harm in living with it for ever. ("The Times")

Трудные для перевода слова

1. He is of a morbiddisposition — he only thinks about his illness.

2. Where was that mysterious treasure they were looking for? It was to be found in none of the rooms; of course there was some bulk in the thick walls to be accounted for — but could they have hidden it there? (E.Poe)

3. The morning sun had melted all the mist. Only a little whiff of cloud still clung to one of the summits.

4. He is a steadyworker. He goes on with his work slowly, but assuredly.

5. After having oil'sfirst book accepted one might do anything — begin dancing in the street, kiss the first passer-by. (H. Walpole)

6. How did you begin to write? Well, I justsat down and began. (H. Walpole)

7. Mother will tuck you up in bed, little Johnnie, and you will be snug and cosy.

8. There is nothing like a brisk walk in the bracing August sun and wind to keep a fellow fit the whole day long!

9. That little girlie dying of hunger in the middle of the street — the sight was truly pathetic!

10. 1 wonder and wonder and wonder at all the extraordinary things such little insects as ants and bees can do and never stop wondering.

11. We had lost our way in the jungle, we were wet to the skin and simply dying of hunger — what misery!

12. A pattern of wild geese stood against the yellow evening sky.

13. Not a few schools for girl's feature domestic training.

14. With a paper covering a wide territory there may be a field editor stationed at each important center throughout the country.

15. Several members of the faculty complained that they were having trouble with students who "asked questions out of season."

16. When the President receives newspaper representatives at the White House, he sometimes prefaces or supplements a statement by remarking: "This is off the record." That is to say, it is for their private information, and not for publication.

17. Both secretary and co-secretary are my co-authors.


LEVEL B (Advanced)


Пассивный залог

1. Six months after he spent six hours talking to Saddam Hussein in Baghdad and gained the release of 250 American hostages, Jesse Jackson has still not been interviewed by any major US television network.


2. An idealist defending his system by the fact that when we sleep we often believe ourselves awake, was well answered by his plain neighbour, "Ay, but when awake do we ever believed ourselves asleep?"

3. Finally watches were consulted, tunics buttoned, hats donned. (E.E. Cumтings)

4. He was accustomed to being showered with praise and affection by significant figures from his mother to his boss at the Navy Department. (T.Morgan)

5. During these days she suffered from mental starvation, until she was rescued by a family friend, Bernard Berenson, who arranged for her to be tutored in Greek and Latin by a classical scholar. To be taught so, in the country where earth is saturated with classical myth and poetry, gave her what she most needed. ("S.R.")

6. On our arrival to Elevston, she readily adopted my suggestion that we should walk together; so as soon as our luggage had been duly taken charge of— hers by the servant who met her at the station, and mine by one of the porters — we set out together along the familiar lanes. (L. Carroll)

7. In New York, Dorothy Donohue, the widow of a murdered policeman, finds it incredible that the killer may be spared the electric chair. ("Nsw.")

8. And then Waldemar is coaxed and dragged out of bed, yelling and fighting. (Ch. Isherwood)

9. If nothing is done, the problem will acquire the momentum it has in the United States, where senior executives are paid so much more than workers that fundamental questions of equity and even decency are being widely discussed. ("G.")

10. The care of dangerous mentally ill patients should be taken away from prison officers and given to nurses, an inquiry is expected to say today. ("G.")

11. Physically Mr. Clinton is an imposing man. But he was dwarfed by the huge black chair he sat in. ("Ind.")

12. In fact, being with them here tonight was really an adventure, and somehow quite a wonderful adventure. But being an English adventure it was liable to be rained upon; and at this very moment down the rain came.

13. He was pitchforked into the post of Minister of Health.


14. "Ready?" said the old gentleman inquiringly, when his guests had been washed, mended, brushed and brandied.

15. "I think you had better be going back," he said. "It's rather late. They

may be missing you." Maud laughed happily. "I don't mind now what they do. But I suppose dinners must be dressed for, whatever happens."

16. "The weather report promises heavy snow moving in from the west," he said. It will be here by evening, so I'm going to New York today. By tomorrow we may be snowed in.

17. What's wrong with the way American students are taught foreign languages? Just about everything, says a report from the American Council of Education.

18. Ten years ago, government statisticians calculated that one in five children would be affected by the divorce of their parents by the age of 16. Yesterday they changed that estimate to one child in four.

19. When she came into the room it was empty and the bed had not been slept in.

20. He was elegant, bowler-hatted and umbrellaed.

21. But I have been trained not to let a man die, if I can help it.

22. The low square stone house was set upon rocks well above the narrow beach that was outlined with bent pines.

23. By 5 p.m. the line of clouds extended from near Mineral Wells to Jemple, and was being watched by radar units at three offices of the National Weather Service.

24. But then Cambridge was interrupted by three years in a Royal Navy.

25. All through the nineteenth century, America, Africa, India, Australia and parts of Europe were being developed largely by British capital, and British shareholders were thus being enriched by the world's movement towards industrialization.

26. No young people were of any importance. Young people's opinions were not consulted and weren't expected to be given either without being asked for.

Герундий

1. Hearing them talk about bathingmade me want to bath too.

2. At this moment, the room bore every mark of having been recently and hurriedly ransacked.

3. For some months there had been in our front only a small brigade of undisciplined troops, apparently without a commander, who were useful to us, for not disturbingthem we could create an impression of our weakness.

4. Having a wifewho let people know exactly what she thought was not always comfortable for him.

5. He encouraged, he almost compelled her to preserve her childishness. Keeping her a babyin spite of her age amused her. (A. Huxley)

6. Satisfying the sweet toothof weight-conscious Americans hasn't been easy for the food industry. ("Nsw.")

7. Riding in Hyde parkhas been in decline since the war, and there are now only two riding stables left serving the park. ("G.")

8. It was no explanation of the old woman's having eluded us to saythat she lived abroad, for our research had again and again taken us (not only by correspondence but by personal inquiry) to France, to Germany, to Italy. (H.James)

9. Going to concertswas about the only thing he thoroughly enjoyed.

10. You have no one, but yourself to blame for not having asked formore detailed information.

11. Perhaps he simply couldn't bear not being the centreof attention.

12. And there was one thing Reilly could not stand, he could not stand being embarrassed.And he could not stand being made a fool of.

13. He had the sense — as he had at their first meeting — of never being ableto recognize her or forgettingwhat she looked like when she was out of sight.

14. In seeing to whetherFleur was asleep he might wake her up.

15. On being carefully inspectedthe coat showed evident signs of having been worn onthe preceding night.


16. Parents who want the very best for their children usually expect the best from them. By knowing what to expect, but not expecting more

than the possible, parents can help their children.

17. He, after bowing, smiling, frowning, shaking his handin an amazingly rapid succession, walked away to eat a whole plateful of sandwiches, wash them down with beer and talk to five people at once with his mouth full.

18. These circumstances taken together prevented his seeing the matterin its proper light.

19. "Are you hinting that Joe had secret life?" said Donalson. "No. But I am hinting that he could have had a secret life without any of us knowing about it."

20. All the evidence of past words and deeds is against such an agreement being possible.

Определения, образованные соположением

1. President Chirac prepared yesterday to fly to France's Mururoa nuclear test atollin the Pacific.

2. I believe that TV is the least effective war reporting mediabecause it presents images rather than a whole story.

3. Worried councillors in North Wales have called a public meeting to discuss the extent of radioactive pollution from Sellafield along the coast. The meeting was called by Gwynned county council's public protection committeeafter councillors heard reports of the high risk of radioactivity in the Irish sea. ("MS")

4. The Evening Star's aggressive salesmen gobbled up more than half of the burgeoning metropolitan area's lucrative newspaper advertising market.("Nsw.")

5. Scepticism is growing in Europe over the feasibility of meeting the Soviet Union's huge food aid request,given disarray in the economy and the transfer of power to the republics. ("G.")

6. His school draws about 600 day pupils from 13 villages. Many of his boarders are service children,sometimes two of the same family. Their costs are covered by the Ministry of Defense's boarding school allowances.("G.")

7. The British Pest Control Associationwarned in a report that pests carried a "devastating range of diseases," but hospital pest control budgetswere being squeezed. ("MS")


8. A crisis meetingis being held in London next Monday between secretaries of the printing trade unionsand the proprietors of the Daily Sketch.

9. Glasgow faces evening paper closure crisis,their guessed, but unknown perils.

10. A Government bid to attract more fast-spending foreign touriststo Britain by improving hotels was revealed in the Commons yesterday in the second day of the four-day Budget debate. A new country-wide scheme of grants for hotel extensions and improvements was

announced.

Придаточные в функции

Модальность

Обратите внимание на перевод конструкции: modal verb + have done

1. When father gave me the money and tried to talk me out of the thought of marriage, I wouldnot listen.

2. She offended people right and left, made silly mistakes and wouldn'tlet herself be told.

3. "What's happened to sister Agatha?" I asked my nurse when she came in. — "Can't say," — "Won'tsay," I said. No answer.


4. "We can as well stayhere for the night." — "We could."

6. "You are so careless. You might have broken the cup."

7. When Mini unleashed her frustration in a rage, demanding an explanation for the way she was being treated, the woman paid no heed, and might well have been deaf and mute.

8. She must not expectto do two jobs well, to be a good mother and a good novelist.

9. Somebody had tobe controlled more or less; and I pulled myself together.

10. It was to be expected that something would happen to Sir George. But who could have guessedwhat?

11. I do not claim I can tell a story as it ought to be told.I only claim I know how a story ought tobe told, for I have been almost daily in the company of the most expert story-tellers for many years.

12. "Why do you live in the woods if you belong to the squadron?" the chaplain inquired curiously. "I have to livein the woods", the captain replied crabbily, as though the chaplain oughtto know.

13. "It's my fault — it's my fault!" Doris suddenly sobbed out. "I shouldn't haveloved you; I oughtn't to have letyou love me."

14. Lyn Siddon's case should — and must— increase the gathering momentum for reform.

15. When I was in concentration camp, I resolved that, if I was to live through the horrors of that experience, I wouldnever again shed one tear of regret for whatever Fate gave me.

16. When it has seemed that drinking is becoming too much of a habit I have given it up for a few months — if onlyto check that one can. One can.

Слова-заместители

(to do, to have; one, that; will)

1. "When I came here," she explained to Mary, "nobody took any notice of me, so I thought." "Well, I'll jolly well make them notice me; I'll be mad." "So I was, and they did."

2. British expenditure on health lags behind thatof other advanced countries, the Office of Health Economics estimates.

3. The only imaginable settlement in Vietnam is one that would lead to return to the 1954 Geneva agreements.

4. Immediately there was a burst of applause from all parts of the audience. Never in my lifetime has applause done me the good that did.

5. The real fool is he who does not know himself. I was such a one too long. You have been such a one too long. Be no more. (O. Wilde)

6. We (Democrats) must always be the party committed to caring, fairness and helping hand for the disadvantaged. But our compassion must be tempered with an awareness of the limitations of the government to solve every problem. Limitations exist, people know it, and they will not believe political leaders who don't.("Nsw.")

7. He believed the war made a stronger man as well — deepened his commitment to God and Christianity and helped him through prayer to master the fears he sensed in himself and saw in other men. "I asked Him not to let me be a coward," Roger says, and God did not.

("Nsw.")

8. As the economy shows signs of improvement, so too willthe Government's standing in the opinion polls. ("FT"')

9. I am here for having tried to put your father into prison. My attempt failed. Your father completely turned the tables on me, and had me in prison, hasme there still. (0. Wilde)

10. St. Louis was never what it thinks it was.But old cities, like old families, sustain themselves on dreams of vanished grandeur. ("HM")

11. As the assistant secretary of state for international narcotic matters, Melvin Levitsky, told a House task force in July, "Let me be clear: It is not our policy to fight someone else's drug war. We never have, nor willwe ever, force military assistance on any of the drug-producing countries." ("IHT")


12. While a return to totalitarianism in Moscow now seemed out of the question,several European ministers remarked, civil strife and repression of ethnic minorities by new national states was not,as some constituent republics in the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia wrested sovereignty from the wreckageof communism. ("IHT")

13. Two elegant rowing skiffs, the Liberté and the Egalité, kept up with us for longer than they could havedone we had a favourable wind. ("G.")

14. The Catholic schools of New York educate as many pupils as the schools board of Washington, DC, but doso with almost exactly 1 per cent of DC's administration. ("G.")

15. Bertrand Russel said that whenever he talked to another savant, he became convinced that happiness was not possible for humans: when he talked to his gardener, he was sure that itwas. ("T.")

16. When it has seemed that drinking is becoming too much of a habit I have given itup for a few months — if only to check that one can. Onecan. ("T.")

17. Today's conference speech by Neil Kinnock is the last set-piece occasion before the election campaign begins for Labour to state its own agenda and communicate its distinctive vision of society — for Labour to prove that it deserves to be elected not simply because the Tories don't,not just because we could manage things better than they have. ("G.")

18. There is something about the world of business which can (and often does)defeat television producers. Normal routines of business involving documents, highly technical negotiations and accounts are hardly the stuff that attracts a mainstream audience, ("Ind.")

Замена частей речи

1. You give me food and drinkand I'll tell you how to sail the ship.

2. "Possibly the most frequent criticism we get in letters from the public is about keeping lights burning all night,"a senior U.N. official said this week.

3. At the age of eighteen, George earned an honest living.

4. There was universal reliefat the safe return of the three U.S. astronauts from their epic voyage to the Moon.

5. Abstentions on,and even votes against,the coming anti-union Bill are certain in the Commons.


6. There were singing and storytelling and jokes and riddlesaround the fire as well as long conversations about business and politics.

7. She had a quick cigaretteto steady her nerves.

8. The beer for lunch made him sleepy.

9. I can't afford foreign holidays.

10. Heis an accomplished television performer.

11. That branch of the family had been reckless marriers.

12. Serious-facedJames Howden entered the high-ceilinged, beige- carpetedPrivy Council chamber.

13. Of course Washington was immediately recognizablebecause of his white mount and his customary blue and buff.

14. The BBC television comedy series "Yes Minister" has proved to be more than a delight. It has also been an eye-opener.

15. The shops were opening now and the fruitier on the opposite side of the street was putting up his sun-blind in anticipation of a fine day.

36. Различные средства выражения эмфазы (изменение порядка слов)

1. Up goes unemployment, up go prices,and downtumbles the Labour vote.

2. Indeed,there has been an increase in the bombing since the Paris meeting started. It isbombs, not U Thant's words which are sabotaging the talks.

3. Ulanova bidmore thanembellish the art of dance.

4. His audience last night may also have been less than enthusiasticabout the Prime Minister's attitude towards Government spending.

5. The sun was shining and the Mediterranean was at its bluest.

6. Hard isthe path of sportsmen chosen to represent Britain at the Olympic Games. They have to contend with a Government to mean to finance a team.

7. It was one of London's most famous citizens, Dr. Samuel Johnson, who said: "When a man is tired of London he is tired of life."

8. His chef was as good as anyin Paris and you could be sure at his table of having set before you the earliest delicacies of the season.


Учебный модуль

1. Тактическая цель

2. Содержание обучения (комплект учебных элементов)

3. Практический тест

Учебный элемент

1. Оперативная цель

2. Содержание обучения (текст)

3. Оценка результатов (тест проверки достижения целей)

Когнитивные умения

Стратегические умения

Механические умения

Проблемы

Решения

1. Протокол

2. Типы переводческих ситуаций и дискурсов


3. Переводческая нотация

4. Профессиональная этика

5. Методы подготовки к переводу

Лексические проблемы

1. Перевод прецизионной информации

2. Перевод культурологической лексики

3. Перевод фразеологизмов (устойчивых словосочетаний и клише)

4. Перевод неологизмов

5. Перевод "ложных друзей переводчика"

Грамматические проблемы

1. Артикли / система времен

2. Залог/модальность

3. Абсолютная конструкция

4. Инфинитив

5. Побудительные конструкции/обороты, не свойственные русскому языку

Стилистические проблемы

1. Перевод метафор

2. Передача юмора / жаргонизмов

3. Перевод цитат и аллюзий

4. Функциональный стиль

Переводческие приемы

1. Перестановка компонентов

2. Функциональная замена

3. Антонимический перевод

4. Нулевой перевод

5. Развертывание/сужение

6. Описательный перевод

7. Расщепление / объединение


8. Добавление / опущение

9. Прочие лексико-грамматические трансформации

***

1. Реакция / концентрация внимания

2. Переключение внимания

3. Оперативная память

4. Навыки речепорождения — правильность речи на русском языке

5. Синтез информации

6. Компрессия информации / развертывание информации

7. Скорость речи и артикуляция

8. Вероятностное прогнозирование

9. Тембр, звучание речи

10. Манера презентации перевода

11. Внешний вид

12. Хладнокровие, спокойствие, уверенность в себе (позитивная установка на успех)

***

1. Больше теоретической информации, тест на понимание — вопросник.

2. Способы решения проблемы, примеры, проверка умения вы брать нужную стратегию на практическом тесте — тексте, содержащем трудности.

3. Определение и указание на роль навыка в переводческой деятельности, набор упражнений, способствующих выработке и за креплению навыка, проверка на практических упражнениях того же типа.

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