A. Must, can, may, ought, might, to be



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A. Must, can, may, ought, might, to be



1. His early years are but littleknown to biographers. Yet, he must have startedstudying music at a much earlier age than is generally presupposed. (Biography)

2. You must have readabout many acts of violence directed against the negro communists of South Africa. Yet there mayand, indeed, there must have beenothers which have never reached the columns of the press.

3. The Algerians could never have committedthe atrocities the bourgeois press alleges they have done. ("DW")

4. The Costa-Rica Government may have incurredheavier debts than those officially started. ("The Economist")

5. War preparations in Germany must have startedearlier than was announced in the newspapers.

6. Development in India isto proceed at a faster rate than hitherto, the Indian Times announced yesterday

7. We arejust tostart immediately! Please none of your "Just another minute please". The steamer is leaving and we can't afford to miss it. (S. Brown)

8. The relaxation of international tension may yet prove to be a more potent factor than many continue to think.

9. What we oughtto do with all our might is to put struggle and struggle again against the infiltration of American comics in Great Britain. ("DW")

B. Would

1. "Chris is a business woman," said Roy Drover and Roy wouldknow. (S. Lewis)

2. He wondered what had become of the boys who were his companions; they were nearly thirty now; some wouldbe dead but others were married and had children. (W.S. Таugham)


3. As World War II also underscored, the Latin American countries control much of the mineral and other natural resources that the U.S. needs to supplement its own. That wouldappear a guarantee of instability of the Western Hemisphere. ("The New York Times")

4. Some of your remarks about hay fever in your topics of Aug. 6 wouldindicate that your knowledge is based upon American experience only.

Глагольное подлежащее

1. Mention has been madeof a new material

2. Application should be madeby post.

3. Use is made of anew machine.

4. Advantage has beentaken of these factors.

Эллиптические конструкции

1. The students have very limited, if any,opportunity to speak Russian outside of school. ("The Modern Language Journal")

2. Sacco and Vancetti were electrocuted many years ago. The intervening time has enhanced, if anything,the importance of the

case. ("The Nation")

3. Harriman, the head of the ticket was, if anything,an even more ardent upholder of the cold war line than his opponent. ("The Worker)

4. On the whole, Canada appears to have shown much wisdom in developing its end of the expanding neighbourly relationship with the U.S. Rather than inhibiting Ottawa's world position, the process has, if anything,increased it. ("The New York Times")

5. I do not believe for one moment that a merger of our armed services would save the taxpayer one thin dime. If anything,I am sure that merger might bring about greater expenditure.

6. In general she has changed little, if at all,in the two years of her absence.

7. The inhabitants of his real saw him, if at all,only in passing.

8. Some 2 billion people — three quarters of the world's population - speak languages that are rarely, if ever,taught in the U.S. ("The Modern Language Journal")


9. Thus the U.S. was under pressure to come forward with a serious reply to the Russian proposals — if onlyfor the sake of public opinion in an apprehensive world. ("The New Times")

10. With French consent, the United States was becoming officially involved for the first time in the Algerian question, if only,on its fringes. ("The New York Times")

11. Under no circumstances must the Labour movement permit divisions to arise between workers, whateverthe colour of their skin. In strike after strike — with the London bus strike as the most recent example — the coloured workers have stood firm with their colleagues against the boss.("DW")

12. Whateverthe outcome, the emphasis of both parties is more on "liberal" candidates. ("The Times")

Двузначные глаголы

1. But the Volga cascade pales into insignificancebeside the new schema for tappingthe electric power resources of Russian rivers like the Ob, the Yenisei, the Angara and others in Siberia. (" DW")

2. We are not in all truth, big enough or powerful enough to simply scare the world into adopting our image of what it ought to be. (" Wall Street Journal")

3. Anti-labour legislation in California, Ohio, Washington, Idaho, Colorado and Kansas, helped to stringLabour into activityin these and other States but that alone is not the answer. ("DW")

4. There is danger in the very fact that we are becoming accustomedto the idea of the bomb. We have lived with itfor so long that we may be lulled into a feelingthat there is no harm in living with it for ever. ("The Times")

Распространенные атрибутивные конструкции

1. From these bases Chiang's U.S.-supplied forces have repeatedly attacked cities on the mainland and Chinese shipping. (Chiang Kaishek Чан-Кайши)

2. Mr. Odinga, who is chairman of the African-elected members of the Legislative Council, is under vicious attack by the European settlers for his declaration that Jomo Kenyatta and his colleagues now in prison are regarded by the African as their political leaders. ("DW")

3. U.S.-shifted UN officials will presumably be obedient tools at the ready and full command of Mr.Dulles or his lieutenants. ("DW")


4. Time and again USSR-sponsored disarmament proposals have been killed, thrown into oblivion by some dexterous political combination or turned down to such an extent as to make them lose their edge and purport completely. ("DW")

5. The Democrats in Congress now have an overwhelming majority and don't have to depend on the votes of the Dixie-crats (Southern Democrats). With so many labour endorsed and negro-supported so- called liberal Democrats the People's Movement will expect the enactment of the program on which they were elected. ("DW")

6. Responding to the delegate's anti-Tory sentiments by making continual attacks on the Government, Mr. Wilson gave a few details of the national executive's mild-after-water proposals for remedying the defects of the economy. ("DW")

Изменение порядка слов при переводе

Варианты перевода:

a) A suburban train was derailed in London yesterday. Вчера в Лондоне с рельсов сошел пригородный поезд.

b) Huge tracts of arable land of nation-wide importance will appear in the neighbourhood of the canal.

В районе канала появятся огромные участки пахотных угодий общенационального значения.

1. A capacity of 1.4 million kilowatts has been slated for the largest hydroelectric station in the USA, the Grand Coulee on the Columbia river.

2. Other tasks that were then unprecedented for the workers were the fight for safety and sanitation in the mines. ("DW")

3. The next five years saw a new mighty upsurge in the culture of People's China. ("DW")

4. After the Second World war the world saw major changes in the economic position of all countries. ("The Economist")

5. This year a considerable increase has been registered in the field of the crop. ("The Economist")


Трудные для перевода слова

1. He is of a morbiddisposition — he only thinks about his illness.

2. Where was that mysterious treasure they were looking for? It was to be found in none of the rooms; of course there was some bulk in the thick walls to be accounted for — but could they have hidden it there? (E.Poe)

3. The morning sun had melted all the mist. Only a little whiff of cloud still clung to one of the summits.

4. He is a steadyworker. He goes on with his work slowly, but assuredly.

5. After having oil'sfirst book accepted one might do anything — begin dancing in the street, kiss the first passer-by. (H. Walpole)

6. How did you begin to write? Well, I justsat down and began. (H. Walpole)

7. Mother will tuck you up in bed, little Johnnie, and you will be snug and cosy.

8. There is nothing like a brisk walk in the bracing August sun and wind to keep a fellow fit the whole day long!

9. That little girlie dying of hunger in the middle of the street — the sight was truly pathetic!

10. 1 wonder and wonder and wonder at all the extraordinary things such little insects as ants and bees can do and never stop wondering.

11. We had lost our way in the jungle, we were wet to the skin and simply dying of hunger — what misery!

12. A pattern of wild geese stood against the yellow evening sky.

13. Not a few schools for girl's feature domestic training.

14. With a paper covering a wide territory there may be a field editor stationed at each important center throughout the country.

15. Several members of the faculty complained that they were having trouble with students who "asked questions out of season."

16. When the President receives newspaper representatives at the White House, he sometimes prefaces or supplements a statement by remarking: "This is off the record." That is to say, it is for their private information, and not for publication.

17. Both secretary and co-secretary are my co-authors.


LEVEL B (Advanced)



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