Особенности перевода с листа (ПСЛ) — (sight translation) на русский язык

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Особенности перевода с листа (ПСЛ) — (sight translation) на русский язык

Переводящий получает незнакомый текст — иногда времени на подготовку совсем нет, иногда предоставляется немного времени на ознакомление; затем переводит вслух, — в идеале — быстро, четко и на хорошем русском языке.

Факторы, усложняющие задачу переводящего при ПСЛ:


— одновременно читать, переводить и проговаривать свой перевод;

— членить текст или объединять фразы/предложения на такие отрезки, которые могут быть успешно переведены и лучше восприняты слушателем;

— недостаточная культура языка и речи переводящего.

Факторы, облегчающие задачу ПСЛ:

— возможность получить время для подготовки (не всегда);

— наличие зрительной опоры для уверенного перевода;

— зрительное восприятие прецизионной информации, что значительно облегчает перевод, делает его более точным;

— другие преимущества восприятия информации не на слух, а зрительно.

Необходимые навыки и умения:

— быстрое переключение на язык перевода при широком использовании полуавтоматической подстановки готовых соответствий (клише, штампов);

— умение совмещать проговаривание перевода с чтением следующего отрезка оригинала;

— владение всеми выразительными средствами родного языка и умение пользоваться ими для достижения максимальной адекватности ПСЛ.

Главные требования к переводящему с листа:

профессиональное владение родным языком, отвлечение от "давления" оригинала, умелое использование всех видов переводческих трансформаций.

Методические рекомендации к учебнику

Пособие может быть применяться на начальном этапе обучения письменному переводу для обработки перевода наиболее сложных случаев, а также как часть практического курса теории перевода.


LEVEL A (Introductory)


А. Многозначные служебные слова: as, but, but for, either, neither, which.

as может означать: постольку; так как; по мере того, как; что касается (as to); как; в том виде, как; иногда может переводиться причастным оборотом (... as they took their seats — занимая свои места).

Варианты перевода:

a)As we go further and further to the South it grows warmer and warmer.

По мере того как мы приближаемся к Югу...

b) As tomy mother's health it is much better. Что касается здоровья моей матери...

1. Members were solemn as they took their seats: The Prime Minister gave a measured account of interests at stake and events of the past. Neitherpace nortone altered ashe passed on to "what our next step should be." (" The New York Times")

2. The Premier's speech followed a weekend of warnings by the Chinese leaders in Peking as celebrations for New China's National Day got underway. ("Daily Worker")*

3. The resolution considered it unnecessary — and so that part disappeared from the resolution as adopted. (''Economic Issues")

4. As stated in the program of the Communist Party of Great Britain, the aims of the working class are expressed both clearly and pointedly.

5. As released to the press, the communiqué was as softly toned as just only possible, butrumour has it that, there had been another communiqué which was withheld at the very last moment. ("DW")

but— означает: лишь; but for — если бы не

6. He is but a child, do not be angry with him!

7. But foryour help I shouldn't be able to understand this.

* далее "DW"

8. He is anything but a good poet.

9. Woods grew on eitherside of the river.

10. Howevertired you are, you must finish your work.

11. Yesterday my little son went out of the house to play without his overcoat. Now he recovered from pneumonia only a short time ago which will easily make you understand how anxious I was forhim.

12. Now little David Copperfield saw the young man with his donkey- cart, now he did not see him, now he caught a glimpse of him, now he lost him. (Ch. Dickens)

13. Who will come with me, your brother or your sister? — Neither.They are both busy.

14. The weather is very bad today, whichprevents us from taking a long walk.

15. Wherea young bibliographer may make a mistake, a more experienced one will find the mattereasy.

16. Everystudent whetherof the junior or senior courses must attend the lectures regularly.

В. Многозначные слова ("ложные друзья переводчика")

1. The crew of the boat consisted of her husband, his two mates,three engineers,twelve firemenand ten able-bodied seamen.

2. The undersecretarywas in evening dress.

3. "Take the chair" — shouted the comrades to comrade Johnson — "and don't give the floor to anybody for more than ten minutes; we want to hear your paperat full length."

4. A physicianworking with X-rays must be something of a physicist.

5. The work of a compositoris rather difficult.

6. The speakerof the House of Commons stops a speakerif he puts things too bluntly.

7. The tramptook up some kind of shipment at every port.

8. The book was edited by a famous scholar.

9. Mendeleyev was a great studentof chemistry.

10. A librarian must know both Sciencesand Arts.

11. The faculty of the New Orleans University consists of the best scholars,especially in Arts.

12. I asked the chemist whether they had these preparationsat the dispensary, I also asked him for dressing material.

13. The salesman showed me a number of patternsfor various fabrics.

14. The officersof that company consist of the president, the treasurer, the counsel, the auditor, etc.

15. "Look here, officer," said the old woman — "stop the traffic for a moment, so that I might walk over the square to the pavement on the other side."

16. Little Oliver Twist was very much afraid of the masterin the working house.

17. "It is so hot in the stokehold" — said Jackson — "we ought to have better fans."

18. Michael Jackson has lost many of his fansafter the scandal.

19. Five papersby excellent scholars were read at the Fuel Conference.

20. The film has been editedby A.Peterson. He is a very good specialist.

21. There are many creepers in the conservatory.

Неологизмы и эгологизмы

Some of these have been absorbed by the language and are widely used now.

1. It was a decorated, becatered and bewaiteredtable. (B. Tarkington)

2. She displayed wonders of horsemanship and horseman-woman-ship.(B.Tarkington)

3. A man doesn't come a thousand and odd miles to be not-at-homedat the end of it. (Ch. Lever)

4. There are people who have much and those who have nothing. — Well, you see. I'm among muchers.(G. Page)

5. Weare the not-wanteds.(R. Aldington)

6. "Weare has-beensnow Kelly," said the former policeman to his dog.

7. Summer at last. You look summarytoo. (E. Benson)

8. She did her duty by me completely, but it is clear that there was no motherhood, no sonshipbetween us. (H. Wells)

9. The white tiled, gleaming-tapped bathroom. (G. Frankau)

10. A strong northerly wind that found a few weary, half-skeletonedleaves to play with. (R. Sheriff)

11. The stage of coccoondomfor modern boys is soon gone out of. (A. Berkeley)

12. It was a dehumanizedapartment. (Я. Wells)

13. The pill was sugar-coated.(W.Adcock)

14. 1 may platitudinize,but I don't want any Shelleyan talk. (B. Shaw)

15. Ireland has a right to nationhood.

16. This man is an escapistfrom modern society.

17. Is the child, a mouth-breather?(" Medical Journal")

18. Modern Italy is an underbathroomed and overmonumentedcountry. (A. Huxley)

19. They had not so much Herbertianand Martaishin them when they came home from France. (A. Huxley)

20. The burstlesscrests of the waves were coming on and on. (J. Masefield)

21. She is air-minded.

22. We have many books for the world-mindedin our library.

23. There is after the blinds have been drawn a fine little roulette for every passenger in the Pullman. (B.Johnson)

24. To coventrateevery town under the sun — such is the wild dream of the war-mongers— and is there much difference between them and the brink-mongers? ("DW")

25. The parassaboteursare special troops, specially trained, specially equipped and provided with a special morale to do their task. ("DW")

26. I do not think a working girl should take her standards from a socialite. (" DW")

27. War and Peace filmizedis after all not War and Peace as we read it.

28. Cinemactors and cinemactressesare often chosen for general appeal rather than for their artistic merits.

29. Motelsare provided all the way down from New York to Chicago; car-owners find it most convenient. (E. Randolph)


1. I paperedmy room yesterday.

2. I have wateredmy flowers.

3. The hospital houses500 patients.

4. The goods have been tabled.

5. Don't gas so much.

6. I have a cut on my cheek.

7. He has a burnon his leg.

8. The test runof the locomotive was very successful.

9. There is a give in the beam.

10. He went through the cold and through the damp, never afraid of catching cold.

11. The thenPresident of the United States was Lincoln.

12. Don't syrupwater!

13. Don't water syrup!

14. Thedog spottedthe hare.

15. Jones was one of the best engine-drivers of that line. And Peter who fired forhim was considered a first-rate worker too.

16. The train steamed outof the station.

17. He thundered out a command.

18. I prefer to pencilthat note, because, otherwise, I'll ink my fingers with your bad penholder.

19. I don't like his looks.That red in his cheeks speaks of t.b.c.

20. The cow has been milked.

21. He clerkedat a small factory.

22. Your hat wants a brush.

23. It's a mere nothing.

24. It's a good buy.

25. I don't like the feelof flannel of my skin.

26. Give your horse a feed(give a read, give a thought).

27. Through London streets yesterday the king's funeral procession took two-and-half hours to slow-marchfrom Westminster to Paddington station. ("DW")

28. We should not porch-porchthe idea that this country should annex Egypt in order to safeguard the communications with India ... so say the Tories now and so they went on saying for years on end.("DW")

29. The die-hardsare in fact nothing but have-beens.("DW")

30. The whysand whereforesof a war in which children must die have never been made clear. ("DW")

31. We must live in the now and pursue a constructive policy. ("The Times")

32. Hiroshima was atombombedwithout the slightest mercy.

33. This is a robber budget,that the Tories want to introduce. ("DW")

34. Weigh the forsand the againstand the decision will be clear as daylight. ("DW")

35. She watched her son wolfinghis meal. (J. Hanley)

36. We are inchingforward to our target yet progressing we are. ("DW")

37. It was a novel experience to find himself head-lined.(J. London)

38. Don't be yankedinto war. ("DW")

39. Within the offices werenewly plastered,newly painted,newly papered,newly floorclothed,newly tabled,newly chaired,newly fitted upin every way with goods that were substantial and expensive. (Ch. Dickens)

40. How many a time have we mourned over the dead body of Julius Caeser and to be'd and not to be'd in this very room. (J.Austen)

41. The number of signatures to the Appeal will snowballrapidly. ("DW")

42. The short-time working which began in Lancashire has snowballedinto a large-scale slump in the cotton industry. ("Daily Mirror")

43. Both sides InkTreaty.

Образные выражения

1. He crowdeda lot of adventures intohis young life.

2. The invention of the printing press is among the highest points inthe history of education.

3. This political party contains a new plankin its platform.

4. His span of lifewas but short.

5. The steam drop hammer has a massive frame which takes the punishmentfrom the terrific impact of the ram.

6. Cast ironproof was given to show that he was guilty.

7. This was rather an unusual mood for Mr.N. whose mind navigatedrather larger seas than those where his daughter's small barques adventured. (R. William)

8. In spring plants shoot outrapidly.

9. Fear doggedin his steps.

10. It was then that I embarked onmy study of Shakespeare. (V.Spurgeon) 11. Time is disjoinedand outof frame. (W. Shakespeare)

12. Why should I write down what's riveted, screwedto my memory. (W. Shakespeare)

13. This alloy is first cousinto another one.

14. A number of conferences have been organized at which seasoned literary critics will discuss and analyze the works of buddingauthors.

15. Letus spurthe local industry of our country.

16. England considers Canada as her granary,Australia as her butcherand New Zealand as her henhouse.("DW")

17. Before the war Italy, not wanting to have all her eggs in one basket,

tried alternatively to make friends with all the great powers. ("DW")

Газетные заголовки

Part I. Dead serious:

1. Whither Modern Medicine?

2. Why Polar Expedition?

3. Steam Versus Electric Locomotives.

4. Anglo-French Drive in Egypt Halted.

5. Stay-in-Strikers at Chicago to Crush Bosses.

6. 1000 British Aircraft Stop Work.

7. Manchester Ship Canal Reconstruction.

8. Portrait Exhibition Opening in New Orleans.

9. Ford Automobile Repair Shop Organization.

10. More Arms in Italy's Budget.

11. Metal Works Reorganization Conference at Montreal.

12. Physical Conference to Open Tomorrow in Chicago.

13. Lorry Crushes into Shop-Window.

14. Australia Adds to Fleet.

15. Terrible Plight of Unemployed Miner. Family Living in Tent.

16. Homes Smashed from Bombing Plane.

17. Rise of Electric Traction. Electric Locomotives Cheaper and More Effective.

18. Industrial Power Plant Modernization.

19. Coal Handling Problems at Electric Stations.

20. Electrical Features of Kansas City Water Works.

21. Soil Water Supply Important for Subtropical Plants.

22. Norwegian Tug-Boat on Fire. Crew Saved by Soviet Sporting Yacht.

23. Maiden Speech of New M.P.Criticizes Premier.

Part II. Have a smile:

Юмористический эффект помимо воли авторов данных газетных заголовков вызывается многозначностью слов (полисемией) и усиливается из-за особенностей газетного стиля подачи информации в заголовках.

1. Farmer Bill Dies in House.

2. Lawyers Give Poor Free Legal Advice.

3. Lawmen From Mexico Barbecue Guests.

4. Juvenile Court to Try Shooters.

5. Defendant, Speech Ends in Long Sentence.

6. Stolen Painting Found by Tree.

7. Hitler, Nazi Papers Found in Attic.

8. Squad Helps Dog Bite Victim.

9. Asbestos Suit Pressed.

10. Deaf Mute Gets New Hearing in Killing.

11. Men Recommend More Clubs for Wives.

12. Milk Drinkers Are Turning to Powder.

Задание:Что означают эти хрестоматийные заголовки?

13. Big Apple Goes Bananas. (Нью-Йорк сходит с ума)

14. Dick Digs Pig Pix.

(Ричард Никсон обожает полицейские фильмы)


1. The Lebanese crisis ended after all with the American troops goinghome. ("DW")

2. We have not yet heard of a budget being swollento such an extent — and all to the detriment of the working masses. ("DW")

3. Socialism is thrown in at the end, probably as an afterthought, and is defined as "mutual service"! Not a word about the working class taking overthe ownership of the factories, land and wealth of the country. ("DW")

4. Dr. Adenauer and his Foreign Minister are concerned about Bonn being cold-shoulderedby the three West Powers at the forthcoming Foreign Ministers' talks in Paris, which West Germany will attend only in a consultative capacity. ("DW")

5. Bonn wants the meetings to stop any of the allies drifting towards

dealings with the German Democratic Republic. ("DW")

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