ТОП 10:

Переведите на русский язык, обращая внимание на сложное подлежащее.

1. Не is said to know all about it. 2. Juri Gagarin is known to be the first man in the world to travel into space on April 12th, 1961. 3. He was said to have known the whole truth about it. 4. He is expected to be a very good student. 5. The American astronaut Neil Armstrong is known to be the first man to walk on the moon in 1969. 6. He is considered to be the smartest man in the world. 7. The students were thought to come on time and take part in the conference. 8. You are supposed to write a graduation paper before you get a degree in Physics. 9. He was heard to have passed the mathematics exam. 10. The expedition is reported to be missing for three days. His English is believed to be excellent. 11. True friends are known to be like diamonds, precious but rare. 12. The satellite was announced to reach upper atmosphere. The professor was seen to enter the dean’s office this morning.


11. Прочитайте и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы:

1. Who was Wolfgang Pauli?

2. What did he study after graduation?

3. Why did he move to the United States?

4. What was his most praised contribution into science?

Обратите внимание на перевод некоторых слов и выражений:

decisive contribution - значителный вклад

spin theory - теория спин

graduate with distinction - выпуститься с отличием

receive PhD - получить докторскую степень

thesis on - научная работа по

be appointed - быть назначенным

annexation of Austria - аннексия (присоединение) Австрии

outbreak of World War II - начало войны

try in vain - пытаться безрезультатно

obtain citizenship - получить гражданство

be employed - быть трудоустроенным

subsequently - впоследствии

for the rest of his life - всю оставшуюся жизнь

be granted citizenship - получить гражданство

be awarded a medal - быт награжденным медалью

pancreatic cancer - рак поджелудочной железы

prefer correspondences - предпочитать общаться в письмах

have close friendship with - близко дружить с


Wolfgang Pauli

Wolfgang Ernst Pauli (25 April 1900 – 15 December 1958) was an Austrian theoretical physicist and one of the pioneers of quantum physics.

Pauli was born in Vienna and attended the Döblinger-Gymnasium in Vienna, graduating with distinction in 1918. Only two months after graduation, he published his first paper, on Albert Einstein's theory of general relativity. He attended the Ludwig-Maximilians University in Munich where he received his PhD in July 1921 for his thesis on the quantum theory of ionized molecular hydrogen.

In 1928, he was appointed Professor of Theoretical Physics at ETH Zurich in Switzerland where he made significant scientific progress. The German annexation of Austria in 1938 made him a German citizen, which became a problem for him in 1939 after the outbreak of World War II. In 1940, he tried in vain to obtain Swiss citizenship, which would have allowed him to remain at the ETH.

Pauli moved to the United States in 1940, where he was employed as a professor of theoretical physics at the Institute for Advanced Study. In 1946, after the war, he became a citizen of the United States and subsequently returned to Zurich, where he mostly remained for the rest of his life. In 1949, he was granted Swiss citizenship.

In 1945, Pauli received the Nobel Prize in Physics for his "decisive contribution through his discovery of a new law of Nature, the exclusion principle or Pauli principle." The discovery involved spin theory, which is the basis of a theory of the structure of matter.

In 1958, Pauli was awarded the Max Planck medal. In that same year, he fell ill with pancreatic cancer. Pauli died on 15 December 1958.

Pauli seldom published papers, preferring lengthy correspondences with colleagues such as Niels Bohr and Werner Heisenberg, with whom he had close friendships. Many of his ideas and results were never published and appeared only in his letters, which were often copied and circulated by their recipients.



Inside joke

“It was absolutely marvelous working for Pauli. You could ask him anything. There was no worry that he would think a particular question was stupid, since he thought all questions were stupid.”

Victor Frederick Weisskopf (1908- ) Austrian physicist.

Unit 10

Nuclear Energy

“The release of atomic power has changed everything except our way of thinking ... the solution to this problem lies in the heart of mankind. If only I had known, I should have become a watchmaker.”

Albert Einstein

1. С помощью рисунка расскажите о строении атома, используя следующие глаголы:

consist of – состоять из

include – включать

combine – объединять, сочетать

rotates around / moves around – вращаться

constitute - составлять


2. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:

сore -центр

nucleus -ядро

release- освобождать

significant –значительный

distinct- отчетливый

involve –включать

nuclear fission-деление ядра

device –устройство

self-sustaining- самоподдерживающейся

prominently –заметно

nuclear power plants - атомные электростанции

excited states - возбужденные состояния

emit излучать, выделять

yield – приносить, производить

constitute – составлять

chain reaction–цепная реакция

rapid –быстрый

prompt –незамедлительный, быстрый

tremendously- чрезвычайно

to maintain – поддерживать

hydrogen –водород

deuterium –дейтерий

tritium –тритий

thermonuclear weapons - термоядерное оружие

limitless –безграничный

nuclear fusion - слияние топлива

encourage -поддерживать

to harness использовать


3. Прочитайте и переведите текст, ответьте на следующие вопросы:

1. What is nuclear energy?

2. Which type of electrons does nuclear energy involve?

3. What is nuclear reactor?

4. How does nuclear reactor work?

5. What is the role of chain reaction in atomic bomb?

6. What is released in the process of nuclear reaction?

7. What is nuclear fusion?

8. Where was the vast energy potential of nuclear fusion first exploited?

Nuclear Energy

Nuclear energy, also called Atomic Energy is energy that is released in significant amounts in processes that affect atomic nuclei, the dense cores of atoms. It is distinct from the energy of other atomic phenomena such as ordinary chemical reactions, which involve only the orbital electrons of atoms. One method of releasing nuclear energy is by controlled nuclear fission in devices called reactors, which now operate in many parts of the world.

Nuclear reactor is any of a class of devices that can initiate and control a self-sustaining series of nuclear fissions. Nuclear reactors are used as research tools, as systems for producing radioactive isotopes, and most prominently as energy sources for nuclear power plants.

Nuclear reactors operate on the principle of nuclear fission, the process in which a heavy atomic nucleus splits into two smaller fragments. The nuclear fragments are in very excited states and emit neutrons, other subatomic particles, and photons. The emitted neutrons may then cause new fissions, which in turn yield more neutrons, and so forth. Such a continuous self-sustaining series of fissions constitutes a fission chain reaction. A large amount of energy is released in this process, and this energy is the basis of nuclear power systems.

In an atomic bomb the chain reaction is designed to increase in intensity until much of the material has fissioned. This increase is very rapid and produces the extremely prompt, tremendously energetic explosions characteristic of such bombs. In a nuclear reactor the chain reaction is maintained at a controlled, nearly constant level.

Nuclear fusion is a process by which nuclear reactions between light elements form heavier elements (up to iron). In cases where the interacting nuclei belong to elements with low atomic numbers (e.g., hydrogen [atomic number 1] or its isotopes deuterium and tritium), substantial amounts of energy are released. The vast energy potential of nuclear fusion was first exploited in thermonuclear weapons, or hydrogen bombs, which were developed in the decade immediately following World War II. Meanwhile, the potential peaceful applications of nuclear fusion, especially in view of the essentially limitless supply of on Earth, have encouraged an immense effort to harness this process for the production of power.


Atomic bomb, also called atom bomb, that is a weapon with great explosive power that results from the sudden release of energy upon the splitting, or fission, of the nuclei of such heavy elements as plutonium or uranium.

When a neutron strikes the nucleus of an atom of the isotopes uranium 235 or plutonium-239, it causes that nucleus to split into two fragments, each of which is a nucleus with about half the protons and neutrons of the original nucleus. In the process of splitting, a great amount of thermal energy, as well as gamma rays and two or more neutrons, is released. Under certain conditions, the escaping neutrons strike and thus fission more of the surrounding uranium nuclei, which then emit more neutrons that split still more nuclei. This series of rapidly multiplying fissions culminates in a chain reaction in which nearly all the fissionable material is consumed, in the process generating the explosion of what is known as an atomic bomb. Another method for obtaining nuclear energy, controlled nuclear fusion, had not been perfected by the late 1980s.


4. Сопоставьте термины с определениями

1. nuclear fission reactor a) a large machine that produces nuclear energy, especially as a means of producing electricity
2.reactor b) a machine or piece of equipment that does a particular thing
3. device c) the splitting of the nucleus(=central part) of an atom which results in a lot of power being produced
4. nuclear fusion   d) the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
5. atomic number e) a nuclear reaction in which the nuclei (=central parts) of atoms join together, which produces power without producing any waste
6. isotope f) a beam of light with a short wavelenth that can pass through solid objects
7. thermonuclear g) a substance such as coal, gas, or oil that can be burned to produce heat or energy
8. fusion fuel h)involving nuclear reactions in which atoms join together at very high temperature sand produce a lot of energy
9. gamma rays i) one of the possible different forms of an atom of a particular element(=simple chemical substance)

5. Распределите слова по частям речи и переведите:

Release, significant, dense, distinct atomic, ordinary, chemical , orbital, nuclear, operate, initiate, self-sustaining, radioactive, isotopes, prominently, heavy, atomic, nucleus, continuous, self-sustaining, to increase, extremely, prompt, tremendously, energetic, explosions, characteristic, constant, heavier, substantial, immediately, to develop, fusion, potential, peaceful, applications, especially, immense, limitless, to maintain.

noun adjective adverb verb


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