ТОП 10:

Переведите предложения из текста. Найдите структуры с использованием Причастия I и Причастия II.



1. Many apocryphal legends record how Archimedes endeared himself to King Hiero II, discovering solutions to problems that vexed the king.

2. One such story recounts how a perplexed King Hiero was unable to empty rainwater from the hull of one of his ships.

3. The Archimedes Screw is still used as a method of irrigation in developing countries.

4. Despite the many fantastic tales surrounding the life of Archimedes, we are most indebted to him for his mathematical treaties and the contributions he made to the understanding of fundamental physical phenomena.

5. Through the medium of geometry, he was able to elucidate the principles for such basic devices as the pulley, the fulcrum and the lever – devices still utilized today.

6. Archimedes is also credited with the discovery of the principle of buoyancy, or the power of fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it.

7. His further research into volume and density was fundamental to the development of theories of hydrostatic – the brunch of physics dealing with liquids at rest.

14. Прочитайте и переведите текст. Обратите внимание на перевод некоторых слов и выражений:

Submerged - погруженный

fluid, liquid - жидкость

buoyant - плавучий

displace –вытеснять

immersed погруженный

fraction доля, часть

equivalent –равный

launch - запускать

magnitude – величина

block of wood – блок из дерева

release – высвобождение

amount – количество

weighings - взвешивания

pressure –давление

surrounding air – окружающий воздух

gravity –вила тяжести

continuously – беспрерывно

Archimedes’ principle, physical law of buoyancy, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes, stating that anybody completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward, or buoyant, force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. The volume of displaced fluid is equivalent to the volume of an object fully immersed in a fluid or to that fraction of the volume below the surface for an object partially submerged in a liquid. The weight of the displaced portion of the fluid is equivalent to the magnitude of the buoyant force. The buoyant force on a body floating in a liquid or gas is also equivalent in magnitude to the weight of the floating object and is opposite in direction; the object neither rises nor sinks. For example, a ship that is launched sinks into the ocean until the weight of the water it displaces is just equal to its own weight. As the ship is loaded, it sinks deeper, displacing more water, and so the magnitude of the buoyant force continuously matches the weight of the ship and its cargo.

If the weight of an object is less than that of the displaced fluid, the object rises, as in the case of a block of wood that is released beneath the surface of water or a helium-filled balloon that is let loose in air. An object heavier than the amount of the fluid it displaces, though it sinks when released, has an apparent weight loss equal to the weight of the fluid displaced. In fact, in some accurate weighings, a correction must be made in order to compensate for the buoyancy effect of the surrounding air.

The buoyant force, which always opposes gravity, is nevertheless caused by gravity. Fluid pressure increases with depth because of the (gravitational) weight of the fluid above. This increasing pressure applies a force on a submerged object that increases with depth. The result is buoyancy.

Переведите предложения из текста. Найдите структуры с использованием Причастия I и Причастия II.

1. Archimedes’ principle, physical law of buoyancy, discovered by the ancient Greek mathematician and inventor Archimedes, stating that anybody completely or partially submerged in a fluid (gas or liquid) at rest is acted upon by an upward, or buoyant, force the magnitude of which is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body.

2. The buoyant force on a body floating in a liquid or gas is also equivalent in magnitude to the weight of the floating object and is opposite in direction; the object neither rises nor sinks.

3. As the ship is loaded, it sinks deeper, displacing more water, and so the magnitude of the buoyant force continuously matches the weight of the ship and its cargo.

4.In fact, in some accurate weighings, a correction must be made in order to compensate for the buoyancy effect of the surrounding air.

5. An object heavier than the amount of the fluid it displaces, though it sinks when released, has an apparent weight loss equal to the weight of the fluid displaced.

6. This increasing pressure applies a force on a submerged object that increases with depth.

С помощью рисунка расскажите о действии закона Архимеда.


Unit 3

State of matter

“The scientist is motivated primarily by curiosity and a desire for truth.”

Irving Langmuir

1. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:

state of matter - состояние вещества

solid твердый

liquid - жидкий

Bose–Einstein condensates - конденсаты Бозе-Эйнштейна

neutron-degenerate matter - нейтронно-вырожденное вещество

ultra dense matter - ультра плотной материя

quark–gluon plasma - кварк-глюонная плазма

qualitative differences - качественные различия

component particles - частицы компонента

gaseous state - газообразное состояние

The Earth - Земля

lower atmosphere - в нижних слоях атмосферы

plasma-free oasis - безплазменный оазис

upper atmosphere - верхние слои атмосферы

plasma effect - эффект плазмы

gas discharge – газовый разряд

energy-efficient lighting - энергоэффективное освещение

waste recycling - переработка отходов

surface engineering - обработка поверхности

through high-speed deposition – посредством высокоскоростного осаждения

etching – гравировка, травление

fusion science - плазменные исследования

commercial application - коммерческое применение

2. Запомните следующие выражения, встречающиеся в научных текстах:

such as - такой как

it is believed to be possible – это считается возможным

based on - на основе

close together - близко друг к другу

fixed into place - зафиксированный

variable shape - переменная форма

neither close together nor fixed in place - не близкие и не зафиксированные

as well as - а также

significant number - значительное число

both of which - оба из которых

thus - таким образом

on the other hand - с другой стороны

by comparison with - по сравнению с

 

3. Запомните перевод следующих глаголов встречающихся в научных текстах:

take on distinct forms - принять различные формы

maintain a fixed volume and shape - поддерживать фиксированный объем и форму

occur - происходить

adapt to - адаптироваться к

fit a container – поместиться идеально в контейнер

move freely - свободно перемещаться

contain - содержать

describe - описывать

seem prosaic - казаться прозаическим, обычным

stretch into the ionosphere and beyond – растянуться до ионосферы и дальше

lay firm foundations for - заложить прочную основу для

turn into – превращаться в

 

4. Распределите слова по частям речи и переведите:







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