ТОП 10:

Ичкинеева Д.А., Сабирова Л.Д.



Guide to Physics

Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов

2 курса физико-технического института Башгосуниверситета

 

 

Уфа

РИЦ БашГУ

УДК 811.111

ББК 81.2Англ

И

 

Печатается по решению учебно-методической комиссии

кафедры иностранных языков естественных факультетов БашГУ

(протокол № 11 от 27 июня 2014 г.)

 

 

Рецензенты:

кафедра иностранных языков Башкирского государственного аграрного университета;

кандидат филологических наук, доцент М.В. Галочкина (БГПУ им. Акмуллы, г.Уфа)

 

 

Ичкинеева Д.А., Сабирова Л.Д.

 

И Учебное пособие по английскому языку для студентов 2 курса физического факультета университета: – Уфа: РИЦ БашГУ, 2014. – 98 с.

 

Цель пособия – развитие навыков устной речи в сфере профессиональной коммуникации, а также навыков различных видов чтения и перевода текстов по специальности «Физика». Обучение по данному пособию ориентировано на развитие и углубление знаний лексико-грамматического материала профориентационного характера, полученных на предыдущем этапе обучения.

Учебное пособие предназначено для студентов 2 курса физико-технического института.

 

УДК 811.111

ББК 81.2 Англ

 

© Ичкинеева Д.А., Сабирова Л.Д.., 2014

© БашГУ, 2014

Content

 

UNIT 1:   Physics as a science………………………………….
UNIT 2:   Mechanics…………………………………………...
UNIT 3:   State of Matter……………………………………….
UNIT 4:   Physical properties…………………………………..
UNIT 5:   Electrical and magnetic properties…………………..
UNIT 6:   Magnetism…………………………………………...
UNIT 7:   Resistivity……………………………………………
UNIT 8:   Conductors…………………………………………..
UNIT 9:   Energy bands and band gaps………………………...
UNIT 10:   Nuclear Energy……………………………………...
Literature:   ……………………………………………………….

Unit 1

Physics as a science

“Physics is really nothing more than a search for ultimate simplicity, but so far all we have is a kind of elegant messiness.”

Bill Bryson

1. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:

To deal with – иметь дело с

matter – материя

fundamental constituents – фундаментальные составляющие

observable – наблюдаемый

scope – сфера (деятельности)

to encompass – заключать в себе

ultimate – основной, окончательный

comprehensive principles – комплексные (всеобъемлющие) принципы

disparate phenomena – разрозненные явления

interchangeably – взаимозаменяемо

to denote – обозначать

increasingly – все больше и больше

measurements – измерение (система мер)

receive получать

emphasis – особое внимание

astrophysics – астрофизика

geophysics – геофизика

biophysics – биофизика

psychophysics – психофизика

precision – точность

physical – laws физические законы

scale – шкала

account for – объяснять, вычислять

relativity – относительность, теория относительности

quantum mechanics – квантовая механика

tiny – крошечный. Микроскопический

Прочитайте и переведите текст, скажите, верны ли следующие утверждения, используя слова ”TRUE”, ”FALSE”.

1. The ultimate aim of physics is to find a unified set of laws governing matter, motion, and energy.

2. Physics came to denote that part of physical science included in astronomy, chemistry, geology, and engineering.

3. Physics can be defined as the science of matter, motion, and energy.

4. A completely unified theory of physical phenomena has been achieved.

5. The body of physics developed up to about the turn of the 20th century is known as classical physics.

6. Physicists deal with such phenomena as heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, and light.

Physics

Physics, science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe. In the broadest sense, physics (from the Greek physikos) is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels. Its scope of study encompasses not only the behaviour of objects under the action of given forces but also the nature and origin of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear force fields. Its ultimate objective is the formulation of a few comprehensive principles that bring together and explain all such disparate phenomena.

Physics is the basic physical science. Until rather recent times physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably for the science whose aim is the discovery and formulation of the fundamental laws of nature. As the modern sciences developed and became increasingly specialized, physics came to denote that part of physical science not included in astronomy, chemistry, geology, and engineering. Physics plays an important role in all the natural sciences, however, and all such fields have branches in which physical laws and measurements receive special emphasis, bearing such names as astrophysics, geophysics, biophysics, and even psychophysics. Physics can, at base, be defined as the science of matter, motion, and energy. Its laws are typically expressed with economy and precision in the language of mathematics.

The ultimate aim of physics is to find a unified set of laws governing matter, motion, and energy at small (microscopic) subatomic distances, at the human (macroscopic) scale of everyday life, and out to the largest distances (e.g., those on the extragalactic scale). This ambitious goal has been realized to a notable extent. Although a completely unified theory of physical phenomena has not yet been achieved (and possibly never will be), a remarkably small set of fundamental physical laws appears able to account for all known phenomena. The body of physics developed up to about the turn of the 20th century, known as classical physics, can largely account for the motions of macroscopic objects that move slowly with respect to the speed of light and for such phenomena as heat, sound, electricity, magnetism, and light. The modern developments of relativity and quantum mechanics modify these laws insofar as they apply to higher speeds, very massive objects, and to the tiny elementary constituents of matter, such as electrons, protons, and neutrons.

3. Сопоставьте термины с определениями.

1.Precision a) something that always happens in nature or society, or a statement that describes this
2.Scale b) he material that everything in the universe is made of, including solids, liquids, and gases
3. Law c) the range of things that a subject, activity, book etc. deals with
4. Scope d) the quality of being very exact or correct
5. Observable e)to be the reason why something exists or happens
6. Relativity f) numbers that is used for measuring the amount, speed, quality etc. of something
7. Encompass g) can be seen or noticed
8. Matter h) the relationship in physics between time, space, and movement according to the relationship in physics between time, space, and movement according to Einstein's theory
9.Ultimate aim i) to include a wide range of ideas, subjects, etc.
10.Quantum mechanics j) main and most important aim, that someone hopes to achieve in the future
11.account for k) the scientific study of the way that atoms and smaller parts of things behave

4. Ознакомившись с правилами словообразования. Распределите слова по частям речи и переведите их:

Наиболее употребительные суффиксы СУЩЕСТВИТЕЛЬНЫХ
Суффикс Значение Пример
(гл. +)-er, -or (сущ. +)-ist принадлежность к какой-л. профессии teacher учитель physicist физик
(прил. +)-ness свойство, качество lightness легкость
(прил. +)-ity, -ty состояние, условие, качество activity деятельность
(гл. +)-age акт или факт действия breakage поломка
(сущ. +)-age содержание чего-либо (единиц измерения) percentageпроцентное соотношение
(гл. +)-ment Отвлеченные понятия (абстрактные существительные) statement заявление
(гл. +)–ance,-ence Existenceсуществование
-ure обозначение действия или состояния procedure процедура
-ism обозначение отвлеченных понятий criticism (критицизм, критика)
-cs обозначение наук и дисциплин physicsфизика mechanicsмеханика
-y geography география
Наиболее употребительные суффиксы ГЛАГОЛОВ
Суффикс Значение Пример
(сущ. +)-ize (прил.+)-en делать(ся) таким, как на то указывает основа summarizeсуммировать   hardenделать(ся) твёрдым
(сущ.+)-ate подвергать воздействию, превращать в то, на что указывает основа Formulate(формулировать)
(сущ. +)-ify,-fy превращать в, делать то, на что указывает основа classify классифицировать
-er совершать действие whisper шептать
-ish establish устанавливать
Наиболее употребительные суффиксы ПРИЛАГАТЕЛЬНЫХ
с Значение Пример
(сущ. +)-al наличие признаков, свойств и качеств, выраженных основой central центральный
(сущ. +)-ic atomic атомный
(сущ. +)-ical biological биологический
(сущ. +)-ous numerous многочисленный
(сущ. +)-ful useful полезный
(гл. +) -able,-ible accessible доступный
(гл. +) -ant, -ent dependent зависимый
(гл. +) -ive active активный
(сущ. +)-ly friendly дружелюбный
-ate moderate умеренный
Наиболее употребительные суффиксы НАРЕЧИЙ
Суффикс Значение Значение
(прил.+)-ly таким образом, способом loudly громко
-ward(s) направление движения backwardsназад
-wise В таком направлении, таким способом clockwiseпо часовой стрелке

 

Structure, interaction, fundamental, observable, macroscopic, encompass, gravitational, electromagnetic, ultimate, comprehensive, remarkably, disparate, natural, formulation, develop, denote, astronomy, chemistry, slowly, geology, measurement, astrophysics, interchangeably , define, geophysics, deal with, biophysics, specialize, psychophysics, completely, precision, express, motion, ultimate, subatomic, ambitious, notable, classical, ambitious, electricity, magnetism, relativity, elementary, move, important, realize.

noun adjective adverb verb
       

GRAMMAR CHALLENGE

Passive Voice (Страдательный залог) устанавливает, что лицо или предмет, обозначенные подлежащим, являются объектами действия, выраженного сказуемым. Passive Voice образуется с помощь глагола to be в соответствующем времени и причастия смыслового глагола.

Passive Voice существует в следующих временных формах:

The Present Simple is (am, are) done
The Past Simple was (were) done
The Future Simple will be done
The Present Perfect have (has) been done
The Past Perfect had been done
The Future Perfect will have been done
The Present Continuous Is (am, are) being done
The Past Continuous Was (were) being done
Modals (modal verb+be+ Participle II) Can (may, must etc.) be done

 

Вопросительная форма образуется путём переноса первого вспомогательного глагола на место перед подлежащим: Has the work been done?

Отрицательная форма образуется с помощью отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится после первого вспомогательного глагола: The work has not been done.

Глаголы в страдательном залоге переводятся следующим образом:

1) русским страдательным залогом или кратким страдательным причастием:

The law of gravity was discovered by Isaac Newton.

Закон всемирного тяготения (был) открыт Исааком Ньютоном.

2) русским действительным залогом (чаще всего с обратным порядком слов, то есть с подлежащим в конце предложения):

The moons of Jupiter were discovered by Galileo.

Спутники Юпитера открылГалилей.

3) Русскими возвратными глаголами:

How is this phenomenon accounted for?

Как объясняется это явление?

4) Русским неопределенно-личным предложением:

The research was done a few a few years ago.

Это исследование проводили несколько лет назад.

 

12. a) Переведите следующие предложения из текста 1.

1. In the broadest sense, physics is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels.

2. Until rather recent times physics and natural philosophy were used interchangeably for the science whose aim is the discovery and formulation of the fundamental laws of nature.

3. Physics can, at base, be defined as the science of matter, motion, and energy.

4. Its laws are typically expressed with economy and precision in the language of mathematics.

5. This ambitious goal has been realized to a notable extent.

6. Although a completely unified theory of physical phenomena has not yet been achieved (and possibly never will be), a remarkably small set of fundamental physical laws appears able to account for all known phenomena.

б) Задайте вопросы к предложениям из упражнения а.

Unit 2

Mechanics

“Nothing happens until something moves.”

Albert Einstein

1. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:

To concern with – oтноситься к

To remain – оставаться

To seek – искать,

to exert – приводить в действие

exact sciences – точные науки

quantitative – количественный

accounting – учет

enormous influence – огромное влияние

impetus –импульс, толчок

in relation to – относительно

force – сила

momentum – импульс

equilibrium – равновесие

properties – свойства

lever – рычаг

axle – ось

dam – плотина, дамба

mechanical devices – механические устройства

dimension – размер

to determine – определять

to provide – обеспечивать

to describe – описывать

velocity – скорость

acceleration – ускорение

torque – вращающий момент

without regard без учета

 

 

2. Прочитайте и переведите текст, скажите, верны ли следующие утверждения, используя слова ”TRUE”, ”FALSE”

1. Historically, mechanics was among the first of the exact sciences to be developed.

2. Mechanics may be divided into two branches: statics and kinematics

3. The methods and results of the science of statics have proved especially useful in designing buildings, bridges, and dams, as well as cranes and other similar mechanical devices.

Mechanics

Mechanics is a science concerned with the motion of bodies under the action of forces, including the special case in which a body remains at rest. Of first concern in the problem of motion are the forces that bodies exert on one another. This leads to the study of such topics as gravitation, electricity, and magnetism, according to the nature of the forces involved. Given the forces, one can seek the manner in which bodies move under the action of forces; this is the subject matter of mechanics proper.

Historically, mechanics was among the first of the exact sciences to be developed. Its internal beauty as a mathematical discipline and its early remarkable success in accounting in quantitative detail for the motions of the Moon, the Earth, and other planetary bodies had enormous influence on philosophical thought and provided impetus for the systematic development of science into the 20th century.

Mechanics may be divided into two branches: statics, which deals with forces acting on and in a body at rest and dynamics, branch of physical science and subdivision of mechanics that is concerned with the motion of material objects in relation to the physical factors that affect them: force, mass, momentum, energy.

Statics, in physics, is the subdivision of mechanics that is concerned with the forces that act on bodies at rest under equilibrium conditions. Its foundations were laid more than 2,200 years ago by the ancient Greek mathematician Archimedes and others while studying the force-amplifying properties of simple machines such as the lever and the axle. The methods and results of the science of statics have proved especially useful in designing buildings, bridges, and dams, as well as cranes and other similar mechanical devices. To be able to calculate the dimensions of such structures and machines, architects and engineers must first determine the forces that act on their interconnected parts. Statics provides the analytical and graphical procedures needed to identify and describe these unknown forces.

Dynamics can be subdivided into kinematics, which describes motion, without regard to its causes, in terms of position, velocity (the rate at which the particles are moving), and acceleration (rate at which their velocity is changing); and kinetics, which is concerned with the effect of forces and torques on the motion of bodies having mass.

3. Сопоставьте термины с определениями.

1. force a) the length, height, width, depth, or diameter of something
2. velocity b) the force that causes something to turn around a central point
3. acceleration c) the amount of physical power with which something moves or hits another thing
4. dimension d) to control what something will be
5. axle e) the speed of something that is moving in a particular direction:
6. lever f) the amount of material in something
7. torque g) the rate at which the speed of an object increases
8. to determine h) the force that makes an object start moving, or keeps it moving
9. equilibrium i) a solid bar, often made of metal, that you put under a heavy object to move it.
10. mass j) a situation in which there is a balance between different forces or aspects
11.impetus k) a metal bar that connects a pair of wheels on a car or other vehicle

 

4. Распределите слова по частям речи и переведите их.

Special, exert, gravitation, mechanics, electricity, remarkable, magnetism, mathematical, quantitative, acceleration, enormous, provide, philosophical, statics, subdivision, material, conditions, describe, foundations, useful, mechanical, determine, analytical, action, graphical, identify, procedures, describe, velocity position, statics, property, energy, material, motion, planetary, remain, influence, dynamics, dimensions.

noun adjective verb
     

GRAMMAR CHALLENGE

Archimedes

Archimedes was born in the city of Syracuse on the island of Sicily in 287 BC. He was the son of an astronomer and mathematician named Phidias. Aside from that, very little is known about the early life of Archimedes or his family. Some maintain that he belonged to the nobility of Syracuse, and that his family was in some way related to that of Hiero II, King of Syracuse.

In the third century BC, Syracuse was a hub of commerce, art and science. As a youth in Syracuse Archimedes developed his natural curiosity and penchant for problem solving. When he had learned as much as he could from his teachers, Archimedes traveled to Egypt in order to study in Alexandria. Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BC, Alexandria had, by Archimedes' time, earned a reputation for great learning and scholarship.

After his studies in Alexandria, Archimedes returned to Syracuse and pursued a life of thought and invention. Many apocryphal legends record how Archimedes endeared himself to King Hiero II, discovering solutions to problems that vexed the king.

One such story recounts how a perplexed King Hiero was unable to empty rainwater from the hull of one of his ships. The King called upon Archimedes for assistance. Archimedes’ solution was to create a machine consisting of a hollow tube containing a spiral that could be turned by a handle at one end. When the lower end of the tube was placed into the hull and the handle turned, water was carried up the tube and out of the boat. The Archimedes Screw is still used as a method of irrigation in developing countries.

Despite the many fantastic tales surrounding the life of Archimedes, we are most indebted to him for his mathematical treaties and the contributions he made to the understanding of fundamental physical phenomena. Through the medium of geometry, he was able to elucidate the principles for such basic devices as the pulley, the fulcrum and the lever – devices still utilized today. Archimedes is also credited with the discovery of the principle of buoyancy, or the power of fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it. His further research into volume and density was fundamental to the development of theories of hydrostatic – the brunch of physics dealing with liquids at rest.

Unit 3

State of matter

“The scientist is motivated primarily by curiosity and a desire for truth.”

Irving Langmuir

1. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:

state of matter - состояние вещества

solid твердый

liquid - жидкий

Bose–Einstein condensates - конденсаты Бозе-Эйнштейна

neutron-degenerate matter - нейтронно-вырожденное вещество

ultra dense matter - ультра плотной материя

quark–gluon plasma - кварк-глюонная плазма

qualitative differences - качественные различия

component particles - частицы компонента

gaseous state - газообразное состояние

The Earth - Земля

lower atmosphere - в нижних слоях атмосферы

plasma-free oasis - безплазменный оазис

upper atmosphere - верхние слои атмосферы

plasma effect - эффект плазмы

gas discharge – газовый разряд

energy-efficient lighting - энергоэффективное освещение

waste recycling - переработка отходов

surface engineering - обработка поверхности

through high-speed deposition – посредством высокоскоростного осаждения

etching – гравировка, травление

fusion science - плазменные исследования

commercial application - коммерческое применение

2. Запомните следующие выражения, встречающиеся в научных текстах:

such as - такой как

it is believed to be possible – это считается возможным

based on - на основе

close together - близко друг к другу

fixed into place - зафиксированный

variable shape - переменная форма

neither close together nor fixed in place - не близкие и не зафиксированные

as well as - а также

significant number - значительное число

both of which - оба из которых

thus - таким образом

on the other hand - с другой стороны

by comparison with - по сравнению с

 

3. Запомните перевод следующих глаголов встречающихся в научных текстах:

take on distinct forms - принять различные формы

maintain a fixed volume and shape - поддерживать фиксированный объем и форму

occur - происходить

adapt to - адаптироваться к

fit a container – поместиться идеально в контейнер

move freely - свободно перемещаться

contain - содержать

describe - описывать

seem prosaic - казаться прозаическим, обычным

stretch into the ionosphere and beyond – растянуться до ионосферы и дальше

lay firm foundations for - заложить прочную основу для

turn into – превращаться в

 

4. Распределите слова по частям речи и переведите:

commercial fusion deposition comparison
qualitative neutral etching prosaic
distinction visible significant recycling
historically theoretical application lighting
Physics possible gaseous freely
exception foundation difference container
observable situation property variable

States of matter. Plasma

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms that different phases of matter take on. Four states of matter are observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Many other states are known such as Bose–Einstein condensates and neutron-degenerate matter but these only occur in extreme situations such as ultra cold or ultra dense matter. Other states, such as quark–gluon plasmas, are believed to be possible but remain theoretical for now.

Historically, the distinction is made based on qualitative differences in properties. Matter in the solid state maintains a fixed volume and shape, with component particles (atoms, molecules or ions) close together and fixed into place. Matter in the liquid state maintains a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are still close together but move freely. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, adapting both to fit its container. Its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place. Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape, but as well as neutral atoms, it contains a significant number of ions and electrons, both of which can move around freely. Plasma is the most common form of visible matter in the universe

Thus, much of the matter in the Universe exists in the plasma state. The Earth and its lower atmosphere is an exception, forming a plasma-free oasis in a plasma universe. The upper atmosphere on the other hand, stretching into the ionosphere and beyond to the magnetosphere, is rich in plasma effects.

The word plasma was first used by Langmuir in 1928 to describe the ionized regions in gas discharges.

The use of plasmas as sources for energy-efficient lighting and for metal and waste recycling and their role in surface engineering through high-speed deposition and etching may seem prosaic by comparison with fusion and space science but these and other commercial applications have laid firm foundations for a new plasma technology.

6. Проверьте усвоенную информацию, ответив на следующие вопросы на английском языке:

1. What states of matter are mentioned in the text?

2. What distinguishes liquid from gas?

3. What do you call a state that contains ions?

4. When was the fourth state of matter discovered?

5. Where does plasma find application?

 

GRAMMAR CHALLENGE

The Gerund. Герундий — это неличная форма английского глагола с суффиксом -ing, соединяющая в себе черты существительного и глагола и несущая в себе оттенок значения некого процесса:

playingигра

reading - чтение

walking - прогулка

В русском языке формы, аналогичной герундию, нет. Ближе всего к герундию по смыслу в русском языке отглагольные существительные с суффиксами -(е) ние, -тие, -ка, -ство и др., а также глаголы в неопределенной форме:

singing - пение, петь

rubbing - трение, тереть

waiting - ожидание, ожидать

Отрицательная форма герундия образуется при помощи отрицательной частицы not, которая ставится перед формой герундия:

for coming in time - за то, что пришел вовремя

for not coming in time - за то, что не пришел вовремя

Различие между существительным с окончанием -ing и герундием заключается в том, что существительное с -ing обозначает предмет, а герундий передает процесс (-ание, -ение):

Finding a new method is the only way out. (герундий)

Нахождение (чего?) нового метода — единственный выход.

The findings were of great importance. (существительное)

Эти находки имели огромное значение.

Irving Langmuir

Many wonder how the term "plasma" became applied to an ionized gas. Irving Langmuir, a researcher working to understand electric discharges, was the first to use the term in this way.

Irving Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York on January 31, 1881. He graduated with a B.S. in metallurgical engineering from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1903. His doctoral thesis was entitled “On the Partial Recombination of Dissolved Gases During Cooling.”

His initial contributions to science came from his study of light bulbs. He discovered that the lifetime of a tungsten filament was greatly lengthened by filling the bulb with an inert gas, such as argon. As he continued to study filaments in vacuum and different gas environments, he began to study the emission of charged particles from hot filaments (thermionic emission). He was one of the first scientists to work with plasmas and was the first to call these ionized gases by that name, because they reminded him of blood plasma.

During the 1920's Irving Langmuir was studying various types of mercury-vapor discharges, and he noticed similarities in their structure - near the boundaries as well as in the main body of the discharge. While the region immediately adjacent to a wall or electrode was already called a "sheath," there was no name for the quasi-neutral stuff filling most of the discharge space. He decided to call it plasma.

The first published use of the term was in Langmuir's "Oscillations in Ionized Gases," published in 1928 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Unit 4

Properties of materials

While in use, all materials are exposed to external stimuli that cause some kind of response. A property is a material characteristic that describes the kind and magnitude of response to a specific stimulus. For example, a specimen exposed to forces will experience deformation, or a metal surface that has been polished will reflect light. In general, definitions of property are made independent of material shape and size.

Virtually all important properties of solid materials may be grouped into six different categories:

– mechanical

– electrical

– thermal (including melting and glass transition temperatures)

– magnetic

– optical

– deteriorative

Mechanical Properties relate deformation to an applied load or force; examples include elastic modulus and strength.

Electrical Properties are, e.g. electrical conductivity, resistivity and dielectric constant. The stimulus is voltage or an electric field.

Thermal Properties of solids can be described by heat capacity and thermal conductivity. Poor thermal conductivity is responsible for the fact that space shuttle tiles containing amorphous, porous silica (SiO2) can be held at the corners, even when glowing at 1000 °C.

Magnetic Properties demonstrate a material’s response to the application of a magnetic field.

Optical Properties are a material’s response to electromagnetic or visible light. The index of refraction and reflectivity are representative optical properties.

Deteriorative Propertiesrelate to the chemical reactivity of materials. The chemical reactivity, e.g. corrosion, of a material such as an alloy, can be reduced by heat treating the alloy prior to exposure in salt water. Heat treatment changes the inner structure of the alloy. Thus crack propagation leading to mechanical failure can be delayed.

stimulus (единств число)- stimuli (множ. число)

7. Проверьте усвоенную информацию, ответив на следующие вопросы на английском языке:

1. What is a material’s property?

2. Do mechanical properties deal with deformation?

3. How can the thermal behavior of solids be characterized?

4. How to delay the crack propagation leading to mechanical failure?

 

8. Приведите примеры предметов, которые вы используете дома или в аудитории. Заполните таблицу по образцу и обсудите свойства материалов в группе:

GRAMMAR CHALLENGE

The Gerund

Герундий имеет четыре формы – одну простую и три сложных, образованных с помощью вспомогательных глаголов.

 

Форма причастия Active Voice Passive Voice
Simple writing being written
Perfect having written having been written

 

Из четырех форм герундия в основном употребляется простой герундий – Indefinite Active.

Charles Goodyear

In the early years of the Industrial Revolution, natural rubber seemed like a wonder substance. In its original form, it was a thick sap that was drained from trees in tropics like Brazil. Coagulated with acid, it became malleable enough to shape and form.

A lot of experiments at that time were geared toward making rubber stable enough that it would be reliable in industrial settings. No matter what scientists tried, though, summertime heat destroyed the rubber, turning it into a mass of sticky, smelly gum.

By the mid 1830s, it seemed as though the rubber industry was going under. Miraculously the industry was saved by inventor Charles Goodyear – a man with no knowledge of chemistry who worked stubbornly and tenaciously to develop vulcanized rubber.

It was not until 1841, after much hardship and time spent in jail for debt, that Goodyear found a solution. He found that by uniformly heating sulfur- and lead-fortified rubber at a relatively low temperature, he could render the substance melt-proof and reliable. He patented his process in June 1844, licensed it to manufacturers, and showcased it at exhibitions. Vulcanized rubber could be used to manufacture shoes, waterproof clothing, life jackets, balls, hats, umbrellas, rafts... and one day, it would be an important component in tires, roofs, floors, transmission belts, assembly lines, shock absorbers, seals and gaskets.

Years after his death, when the age of automobiles dawned, two brothers from Ohio decided to name their company after the man who made their product possible – hence Goodyear tires were born.

 

Inside joke

The optimist sees the glass half full. The pessimist sees the glass half empty. The scientist sees the glass completely full, half with liquid and half with air.

 

Unit 5

GRAMMAR CHALLENGE

Complex Object. Сложное дополнение представляет собой сочетание существительного в общем падеже или личного местоимения в объектном падеже с инфинитивом. Эта конструкция строится по следующей схеме:

We Мы expect надеемся, him to do it in time. что он сделает это вовремя.

Complex object употребляется:

1. После глаголов, выражающих желание: to want, to wish, to desire, would like;

 

Переведите, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки
I like him to do it so well. Мне нравится, что он делает это так хорошо.
He wanted his students to note the colours of animals. Он хотел, чтобы его студенты отметили окрас животных.
The inspector would like you to explain everything to him. Инспектор хотел бы, чтобы вы все ему объяснили.

 

2. После глаголов, выражающих предположения: to expect, to believe, to think, to suppose, to consider, to find;

 

Переведите, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки
He supposes his friend to complete the experiments soon. Он полагает, что его товарищи скоро закончат опыт.
They expected him to be caught by the police. Они думали (ожидали), что его поймает полиция.
Margaret believes Elizabeth to be very bright. Маргарита считает Елизавету очень умной

3. После глаголов, выражающих приказание, просьбу: to command, to order, to ask, to allow;

 

Переведите, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки
He doesn’t allow anyone to smoke in his house. Он не позволяет никому курить в своем доме.
Children asked us to turn on TV. Дети попросили нас включить телевизор.
He ordered him to stop this conversation. Он приказал ему прекратить этот разговор.

 

4. После глаголов, выражающих чувственное восприятие: to see, to hear, to notice, to feel, to watch, to observe;

 

Переведите, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки
We noticed the woman enter the house through the back door. Мы заметили, как женщина вошла через заднюю дверь.
I saw you take my copy-book. Я видел, как (что) ты взял мою тетрадь.
He heard me open the door. Он слышал, что (как) я открыла дверь.
I felt someone touch me on the hand. Я почувствовал, что кто-то притронулся к моей руке.

 

5. После глаголов, выражающих побуждение: to make, to force, to have, to let.

 

Переведите, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки
You can’t make me do such things. Ты не можешь заставить меня сделать это.
Never let him go. Никогда не отпускай его.
They had the man do what they wanted. Они заставили этого человека сделать то, что они хотели.

8. Выполните следующее задание в парах, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки:

1. The men building that house are my friends. a. Люди, строящие тот дом - мои друзья.
2. The house being built in our street is a new building of school. b. Дом, строящийся на нашей улице - это новое здание школы.
3. Being built of wood the bridge could not carry heavy loads. c. Так как мост был построен из дерева, он не мог выдержать больших нагрузок.
4. Having built a house he began building a garage. d. Построив дом, он начал строить гараж.
5. Having been built of concrete, the house was cold in winter. e. Так как дом был построен из бетона, зимой в нём было холодно.
6. The house being built in our street is very good. f. Дом, строящийся на нашей улице, очень хороший.
7. Translating the article he consulted the dictionary. g. Переводя статью, он пользовался словарём.
8. While translating the article the student consulted the dictionary. h. Когда студент переводил статью, он пользовался словарём.

 

9. Верните слова с окончанием –ing в предложения:

forming, containing, adapting, glowing, settings,

heating, engineering, turning, making, clothing

1. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, _______ both to fit its container.

2. The Earth and its lower atmosphere is an exception, _______ a plasma-free oasis in a plasma universe.

3. He graduated with a B.S. in metallurgical _______ from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1903.

4. Space shuttle tiles _______ amorphous, porous silica (SiO2) can be held at the corners, even when _______ at 1000 °C.

5. A lot of experiments were geared toward _______ rubber stable enough that it would be reliable in industrial _______.

6. No matter what scientists tried summertime heat destroyed the rubber, _______ it into a mass of sticky, smelly gum.

7. By _______ sulfur- and lead-fortified rubber at a low temperature, it is possible to make the substance melt-proof.

8. Vulcanized rubber is used to manufacture waterproof _______.

 

10. Прочитайте и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы:

1. Who was Kamerlingh Onnes?

2. What did he study after graduation?

3. What was his most praised contribution into science?

4. What was proven impossible after his death?

Обратите внимание на перевод некоторых слов и выражений:

distinguished for - получивший известность за

graduate from - выпуститься из

pursue - преследовать

low-temperature physics - физика низких температур

also known as - также известный, как

relatively unknown - плохо известный

succeed in - преуспеть в

liquefy helium - сжижать гелий

accomplishment meant that - достижение означало, что

unattainable degree of cold - практически недостижимый холод

at one’s disposal - в чьем-либо распоряжении

characterized by - характеризуется

complete absence of heat - полное отсутствие тепла

equivalent to about равно примерно

Celsius - Цельсий

Fahrenheit - Фаренгейт

set out to - начать

in order to - для того, чтобы

boil - кипятить

numerous awards - многочисленные награды

extend the range of his research - расширить диапазон его исследований

yet another breakthrough - еще один прорыв

various - различный

approach - подход

Despite - несмотря

prove - доказывать

experimental setting - экспериментальная установка

articulate –сформулировать

 

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes

Heike Kamerlingh Onnes was a Dutch experimental physicist distinguished for his work in the field of low-temperature physics. Kamerlingh Onnes was born in 1853 in Groningen, the Netherlands. He graduated from the University of Heidelberg in Germany. In 1882, at the age of twenty-nine, Kamerlingh Onnes became the director of the laboratory there, where he was able to pursue his interest in low-temperature physics, also known as cryogenics.

At that time cryogenic physics was a relatively unknown science. In 1908, Kamerlingh Onnes finally succeeded in liquefying helium. The accomplishment meant that a previously unattainable degree of cold was now at their disposal. Liquid helium was found to have a temperature of -268.8 degrees Celsius, only about four degrees above absolute zero - absolute zero being a hypothetical temperature characterized by a complete absence of heat and equivalent to about -273.15 degrees Celsius or -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit. Kamerlingh Onnes now set out to solidify the liquid helium in order to reach even lower temperatures, and in 1910, by boiling liquid helium under reduced pressure, he reached just over one degree above absolute zero.This accomplishment won him the 1913 Nobel Prize in physics, in addition to numerous other awards.

Kamerlingh Onnes used these temperatures to extend the range of his research into the properties of substances at low temperatures. In 1911, he made yet another breakthrough when he discovered superconductivity, the complete disappearance of electrical resistance in various metals at temperatures approaching absolute zero.

Despite being known by his friends as "the gentleman of absolute zero," Kamerlingh Onnes died at in 1926 without ever having achieved it. German chemist Walther Nernst proved it was impossible to reach absolute zero in an experimental setting when he articulated the Third Law of Thermodynamics in 1905.

 

UNIT 6

Magnetism

"Magnetism, as you recall from physics class, is a powerful force that causes certain items to be attracted to refrigerators".
Dave Barry

 

1. Запомните следующие слова и выражения:

metal wire - металлическая проволока

magnetic field - магнитное поле

coil - катушка

ferromagnetism - ферромагнетизм

permanent magnet - постоянный магнит

rapid reversal of magnetization - резкое изменение намагниченности

permanent magnetic moment - постоянный магнитный момент

bar magnet - стержневой магнит

at random - беспорядочно

to align in the same direction - ориентироваться; выстраиваться в одном направлении

atomic moment - атомный момент

adjacent domains - соседние домены

thermally induced oscillations термически вынужденные колебания

Curie point - Точка Кюри; температура Кюри

 

2. Запомните следующие выражения, встречающиеся в научных текстах:

known as – известный как

to be useful as – быть полезным в качестве

at random – беспорядочно, наугад

to brake up into – разбиваться на

at the expense of – за счет

 

3. Запомните перевод следующих глаголов встречающихся в научных текстах:

pass through - проходить через

place inside - разместить внутри

increase by 1 percent - увеличится на 1 процент

list above - перечисляться выше

remove from - удалить из

arrange at random - организовать беспорядочно

align in the same direction - выровнять в том же направлении

brake up into – подразделяться на

line up - выстраиваться

tend to – стремиться к

cancel one another - отменить друг друга

take on the same orientation – принять такую же ориентацию

 

4. Переведите следующие глаголы и приведите все возможные варианты перевода глаголов с окончанием –ing на русский язык как в примере:

 

develop - развивать

developing – развитие, развивающий, развивая

develop retain harden lose possess cause reduce happen magnetize induce

 

5. Выполните следующее задание в парах, закрывая поочередно левую и правую колонки:

1. Electric current is passed through a coil of metal wire. a. Электрический ток проходит через катушку из металлической проволоки.
2. A magnetic field is developed around the coil. b. Магнитное поле образуется вокруг катушки.
3. A piece of copper is placed inside the coil. c. Кусочек меди помещается внутри катушки.
4. Piece of iron is placed inside the coil. d. Кусок железа помещается внутри катушки.
5. This strong magnetic property is known as ferromagnetism. e. Это сильное магнитное свойство известно как ферромагнетизм.
6. The three metals listed above. f. Три металла, перечисленные выше.
7. The ferromagnetic metal is removed from the coil. g. Ферромагнитный металл удаляется из катушки.
8. A hardened piece of steel. h. Закаленный кусок стали.
9. Atoms lined up in the same direction. i. Атомы выстроенные в том же направлении.
10. Energy would be reduced. j. Энергии будет меньше.
11. A ferromagnetic metal is magnetized. k. Ферромагнитный металл намагничивается.
12. The alignment of atomic magnetic moments is weakened. l. Выравнивание магнитных моментов атома ослаблено.
13. Thermally induced oscillations. m. Колебания вызванные нагревом.
14. Ferromagnetism is lost. n. Ферромагнетизм теряется.

 

Magnetic moments

When an electric current is pas







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