ТОП 10:

Перевод герундия на русский язык



Поскольку формы герундия в русском языке нет, его значение может передаваться

существительным,

Reading English books every day will improve your knowledge of the language. - Ежедневное чтение английских книг улучшит ваше знание языка.

инфинитивом,

Does your son like skating? - Ваш сын любит кататься на коньках?

деепричастием,

Не left the room without saying good-bye or looking at us. - Oн вышел из комнаты, не простившись и не взглянув на нас.

глаголом в личной форме

I remember hearing this song in my childhood. - Я помню, что слышал эту песню в детстве.

и придаточным предложением:

The patient's quick recovery depends on his following the doctor's advice. - Быстрое выздоровление больного зависит от того, будет ли он следовать советам врача.

Перфектные формы герундия (Perfect Gerund) обозначают действия, предшествующие действию, выраженному глаголом-сказуемым.

He is proud of having invited this man to his place. - Он гордится тем, что пригласил этого человека к себе.

He was proud of having been invitedto the party. - Он гордился тем, что его пригласили на вечер.

 

7. Составьте предложения по образцу:

Melting turns water into liquid.

___ing turns water into ____

 

8. Ответьте на вопросы теста:

1. When ice melts

a) a phase change occurs from a solid phase to liquid phase

b) an endothermic process occurs which requires energy

c) the water changes from a crystalline solid to a liquid

d) all of the above

2. When water freezes

a) a phase change occurs from a liquid phase to a solid phase

b) an exothermic process occurs where energy is lost from ice to the surroundings

c) the liquid water changes from a random structure to a crystalline solid

d) all of the above

3. The Bose- Einstein phase of matter occurs closest to what temperature?

a) boiling point of water

b) freezing point of water

c) absolute zero

d) 10,000 degrees F.

4. Which statement is not true.

a) to change from a solid to a liquid requires energy

b) depending upon the temperature, water can exist in solid, liquid or gas states

c) solids and liquids have similar densities because particles of solids and liquids both touch

d) in a solid the molecules have no motion, and no energy.

5. Lightning is best classified as:

a) plasma

b) liquid

c) gas

d) solid

 

9. Прочитайте и переведите текст, ответьте на вопросы:

1. What country was Langmuir from?

2. What improvement did he introduce to the light bulb?

3. What did the ionized gases reminded him of?

4. What substance did Langmuir study when he discovered the state of matter that he later called plasma?

Обратите внимание на перевод некоторых слов и выражений:

many wonder - многие задаются

electric discharge - электрический разряд

in this way - таким образом

graduate with a B.S. – получить степень бакалавра наук

doctoral thesis - докторская диссертация

entitle - давать право

partial recombination - частичное рекомбинации

dissolved gases - растворенные газы

initial contribution - первоначальный вклад

light bulb - лампочки

tungsten filament - вольфрамовая нить

lengthen - удлинять

fill with an inert gas - заполнить инертным газом

emission of charged particles - эмиссии заряженных частиц

thermionic emission - термоэмиссия

remind of blood plasma - напомнить плазмы крови

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Труды Национальной академии наук

various types - различные типы

mercury-vapor discharges - разряд в парах ртути

notice similarities - замечать сходство

boundary - граница

main body of the discharge - основной разряд

immediately adjacent - в непосредственной близости

sheath - оболочка

quasi-neutral stuff - квазинейтральна материал

 

Irving Langmuir

Many wonder how the term "plasma" became applied to an ionized gas. Irving Langmuir, a researcher working to understand electric discharges, was the first to use the term in this way.

Irving Langmuir was born in Brooklyn, New York on January 31, 1881. He graduated with a B.S. in metallurgical engineering from the Columbia University School of Mines in 1903. His doctoral thesis was entitled “On the Partial Recombination of Dissolved Gases During Cooling.”

His initial contributions to science came from his study of light bulbs. He discovered that the lifetime of a tungsten filament was greatly lengthened by filling the bulb with an inert gas, such as argon. As he continued to study filaments in vacuum and different gas environments, he began to study the emission of charged particles from hot filaments (thermionic emission). He was one of the first scientists to work with plasmas and was the first to call these ionized gases by that name, because they reminded him of blood plasma.

During the 1920's Irving Langmuir was studying various types of mercury-vapor discharges, and he noticed similarities in their structure - near the boundaries as well as in the main body of the discharge. While the region immediately adjacent to a wall or electrode was already called a "sheath," there was no name for the quasi-neutral stuff filling most of the discharge space. He decided to call it plasma.

The first published use of the term was in Langmuir's "Oscillations in Ionized Gases," published in 1928 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Unit 4







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