Match the headings with their extracts.



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Match the headings with their extracts.



PART II

LESSON 26

1. Put the missing prepositions into the questions. Ask them your partner:

a) Do you often go ________ the speed limit?

b) When you see an amber light, do you step ________ the gas or the brakes?

c) Do you become very annoyed and angry when you are stuck ________ traffic?

d) Have you ever gone ________ a red light?

e) Do you always slow ________ for pedestrians?

f) Do you often honk your horn ________ other drivers?

g) Do you always look both ways before you turn ________ intersections?

h) Do you always remember to turn ________ your turn signal when you are making a turn?

Match the headings with their extracts.

  Engineering is everywhere Engineers use theory (ideas about engineering) to produce practical answers. The design solution must be a reasonable price, safe and reliable. A new idea that is expensive, dangerous or doesn’t always work is not a good solution.
  Engineering is both theoretical and practical This method of problem-solving is useful in everyday life. For example, you can use the five steps next time you prepare for a test. · Define the problem: I want to pass my test next week. · Design a solution: I will study for three hours a day. · Test the solution: study for three hours a day and take the test. · Evaluate the solution: Have I passed the test with a good mark? (Yes=a good solution. No=a bad solution, so think of a better one.) · Communicate the solution: Tell your friends about your test-passing technique.
  They use different methods Generally, engineers solve problems in a methodological way. They: define the problem, design a solution, test it and evaluate the solution. If the solution isn’t right, the process is repeated.
  Anyone can use engineering ideas Almost everything we use in modern life is made by engineers. For example, if a manufacturer wants a faster car or a better pen, they will ask a design engineer to find a practical solution.

THE CHANGING EXPECTATIONS

OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS

In the past, automotive engineers were closely associated with the field of mechanical engineering. After all, most automotive engineers dealt with topics such as gasoline and diesel engines, transmissions, suspension systems, chassis, door handles, seats, etc. A few ventured off into new developments such as turbine gas engines, continuously variable transmissions, or even Sterling engines. Some dealt with plastics and painting systems. The vast majority of knowledge needed by the automotive engineer of the past was mechanical in nature.

The reality of today is that the automotive engineer is expected to know about far more than just mechanical engineering. To attract the best and brightest, the industry needs to project an image of the automotive engineer as someone with skills and knowledge beyond mechanical engineering.

The modern automobile has often been described as a computer on wheels. It is that and more — much more. Electronics control component systems such as the engine, transmission, and brakes. Those controls have become not just add-ons but integral parts of the operation of each system and the whole vehicle. A focus is on intelligent vehicle technology, which highlighted the integration of more electronics into the vehicle.

No longer can design engineers "throw their designs over the wall" to the manufacturing engineer. The design engineer must know enough about the manufacturing capability of his/her organization or supplier, and the manufacturing engineer must be an early participant in the design team. Competitive quality and cost require that the design specifications match the manufacturing capability. Empty promises by manufacturing ("give us a design and we will build it") are no longer accepted.

Software development is not only necessary to achieve optimum operation of each vehicle computer, but vehicle performance evaluation prior to design is becoming standard practice. Computer simulation for demonstrating compliance with regulations will probably be widely accepted in the not-too-distant future.

 

Here are the answers to some questions. What are the questions?

a) Gasoline and diesel engines, transmissions, suspension systems, chassis, door handles, seats, etc.

b) Plastics and painting systems.

c) Mechanical majority of knowledge in nature.

d) A computer on wheels.

e) Intelligent vehicle technology.

f) "Throw their designs over the wall".

g) "Give us a design and we will build it".

h) Software development.

Put each of the following words or phrases in correct sentence below.

Overtake, mpg (miles per gallon), rear, reverse, petrol tank, vehicle, fuel consumption, body, performance, instruments, indicate.

a) The amount of petrol a car uses is called the ________ and it is measured in ________. The petrol goes in the ________.

b) The way a car behaves (speed, brakes, acceleration etc.) is called the car’s ________.

c) We can talk about the back of a ________ (car, bus, lorry etc.) but more often we use the word ________.

d) The speedometer, fuel gauge and so on are called ________.

e) To ________ means to pass another vehicle going in the same direction.

f) If you have to go backwards, you ________.

g) The outside surface of the car, made of metal or fiberglass, is called the ________.

h) Make sure you ________ before turning left or right.

Find the words hidden in the jumbles. Translate the sentences.

a) Both in the past and today …………… work at the problem of getting lower specific fuel consumption.   SREDNEGIS
b) Many cars are not really new, but are successors to or derivatives of existing …………… DOMLSE
c) Although these technical options are promising, cost-benefit analysis is needed to understand the environmental and consumer benefits they offer compared to other potential ……………   LCEHEVI LOTEESNOCHIG
d) An unsafe vehicle is a source of constant danger in a road …………… system of the world. NONASTPORTATIR
e) The cost of a heavier …………… is less than that of a lighter one. LEUF
f) A final marketing clinic is carried out to confirm …………… and market positioning. PEIRC
g) The fuel consumption of a diesel is much less than that of gasoline ……………. EENNIG
h) The …………… is to have a long life with maximum of time between overhaul periods. GENINE
i) One of the most important problems worked at by the designers is the engine …………… ALITIBIRELY
j) The higher the ………, the higher the temperature. SUSERREP

 

6. Tick the verbs which go with each form of transport:

  car bus bike train plain ship/ferry
get into/out of            
get on/off            
take off            
land            
ride            
drive            
catch            
miss            
board            
park            

 

Complete the table below with the nouns in the box. Some can go into more than one column.

runway crash helmet life jacket platform
tyres traffic lights season ticket harbour
port service station one-way street track
Customs traffic jam cycle lane timetable
porter charter flight seat belt deck
carriage ticket collector check-in desk cabin
trolley aisle seat hand luggage tunnel
horn head lights number plate cargo

 

car   bus bike
train   plane ship/ferry

LESSON 27

Complete the table with these phrases used to talk about the future. Can you add any more?

Without doubt, is expected to, I’m absolutely certain, there is a good chance, it is quite likely, you may feel, there’s no doubt that, we are convinced, it’s highly probable.

 

certainty probability possibility
     
     
     
     
     
     

 

Now use the phrases from Exercise 1 to discuss these statements in small groups.

In the next five / ten / twenty years ………

a) India will be a major automotive market in the world.

b) Cars will use only one liter of petrol per 100km.

c) Sports cars will have a top speed of more than 300km/h.

d) Cars will be like offices with on-board computers and email facilities.

e) Cars will have an auto pilot.

f) Cars will be 100% recyclable.

g) Environmentally-friendly cars will be more important and popular.

h) There will be a lot of hydrogen fuelling stations.

THE CAR OF THE FUTURE

It is a cold winter morning but your car is waiting for you, warm and comfortable, at exactly the temperature you like. You open the door by pressing your finger against the lock and your car greets you with a friendly ‘Hi, how are you?’ You seat down and the computer reminds you of the schedule. You start the car. You now have a joystick, steering-by-wire. The old mechanical parts of the past are gone.

As you back out of your driveway, warning sensors warn you about objects and pedestrians in your way. Using voice commands you programme your route, check your emails and dictate answers, ask for local and international news, look up phone numbers and play music. The car also looks after your health. Sensors in your seat and armrest tell you your weight and blood pressure, while sensors in the dashboard notice if you are drowsy and vibrate the joystick to wake you.

Many of the old worries associated with driving are gone. Traffic jams don’t happen anymore because your car automatically avoids crowded roads. Collision avoidance sensors prevent accidents. Speeding tickets are also a thing of the past – sensors pick up signals from traffic signals and automatically adjust your speed or stop your car. And breaking down is no longer a problem. Your car diagnoses any potential faults or worn parts and warns you and the service station. When you arrive at the service station, the spare parts are already waiting for you.

Your car can even park itself. Just stop at any parking space (your car knows if parking is permitted here) and operate the automatic parking system. The car scans the size and shape of the available space and then reverses in.

 

LESSON 28

ALTERNATIVE VEHICLES

At the present rate of production oil supplies will run out rather soon, and we will have to look for other sources of energy. What kind of vehicle will then dominate? Nowadays car makers discuss four promising types of cars: fuel cell cars, electric cars, hybrid cars, and solar electric cars.

The electric car has a long history. The first electrical cars were built at the end of 19th century, but they could not compete against the internal combustion engine. Success of the electric car depends on light weight battery, capable of being recharged quickly, and the availability of electric energy. Several companies already sell electrics. For example, Solar Electric Engineering of Santa Rosa, California, offers Solar Electric's Destiny 2000 which includes an array of solar cells which provides a tiny bit of power and extends battery life. With its lightweight fiberglass body, it can travel 40 to 60 miles on a charge and cruises at 60-70 mph.

There are many different electric cars around the world. They are used for local deliveries, post offices and the services. But will the electric car ever be­come a universal means of transport? Today there are several hundred million cars in the world not to mention millions of motorcycles. It is estimated that if these changed over to electricity, they would require six million kilowatt hours, and all the power stations in the world now generate only a little over a third of that.

The hydrogen/air fuel cells look very hopeful. These do not have to be charged, they generate their own energy from a chemical reaction. They convert fuel energy to electrical energy with better than 80% efficiency. But at present the fuel cells prove too expensive. A hybrid system where electric batteries for city driving would be recharged in highway driving with gasoline fuel is an alternative to the totally electrical system.

The use of fuel cells promises a reduction in environmental pollution from car exhaust emissions and the end of our dependence on oil for fuel. A fuel cell produces an electric current and heat by converting hydrogen and oxygen into water. When many cells are combined into a stack, enough energy is produced to power a 50kW engine. The fuel cell has the highest efficiency in power generation, reaching over 60%, compared to a gasoline-powered car which has 20%. Pure hydrogen could be stored on-board the car, but this would use too much space. Alternatively, car makers could use reformer technology to convert gasoline or methanol into hydrogen, but this would reduce the efficiency of the cell.

There are many practical considerations for drivers. Fuel cell-powered cars are neither as fast nor as quiet as gasoline- or diesel-powered cars. At present there are very few hydrogen fuelling stations, so refueling could be a problem. Fuel cell cars are very expensive to develop and produce, which means they will also be expensive for the customer. Many drivers will not pay extra for ‘green’ car technology. Nevertheless, the race is on to produce the first fuel cell-powered family car with CO2 emissions of 90g/km.

 

9. Answer these questions:

a) What kind of vehicle will dominate in the nearest future?

b) What do you know about electric cars?

c) How does fuel cell technology work?

d) What are the advantages and disadvantages of fuel cell-powered cars?

e) How important do you think fuel cell cars are or will be?

f) Fuel cell cars are very expensive to develop and produce, aren’t they?

g) Would you buy a fuel cell car? Why or why not?

h) What do you know about new automotive technologies?

 

10. Make sure that you know these terms:

To put into mass production, to subject to tests, to meet up-to-date demands (require­ments), source of power, accessories, by means of, recharge, to trace the fault, fastening bolts, ……………….

 

11. Match these English phrases with their equivalents in Ukrainian:

A emission requirements, weight reduction, storage compartment, manually adjustable system, flyover, total vehicle emissions, base curb weight, auxiliary mechanism, rust, to recycle, air changeover, can of fuel, a reduction in environmental pollution, to reduce the efficiency.
B естакада, каністра з паливом, зменшення забруднення навколишнього середовища, переробляти, циркуляція повітря, гранична вага бази авто, вимоги щодо викидів, зменшення ваги, зменшити ефективність, відділення для запчастин, допоміжний механізм, сумарні викиди авто, механічно регульована система, іржа.

LESSON 29

According to the safety precautions it is necessary to keep your car in good condition and well-repaired. Complete this report by the car mechanic (M) to his supervisor (S). Act out the dialogue with your partner.

S: Have you checked the tires yet?

M: Yes, we’ve checked all the tires first thing this morning and we ______ (find) that the rear tire was worn. So we ______ (replace) it.

S: What about the tire pressures? Have you adjusted them yet?

M:Yes, we ______ (adjust) them when we ______ (put) the tires on. Then, at about 10 this morning, we ______ (examine) the fuel system. We ______ (take) it apart and ______ (unblock) the fuel pipe.

S: Good have you repaired the damaged paintwork on the door?

M:Yes, we ______ (strip) off the damaged paint just before lunch and then we ______ (clean) the door, ______ (repair) it and ______ (repaint) it.

S: What about the air conditioner? Have you checked it?

M: Yes, we checked it. Then we ______ (pump) some new fluid into the air conditioning system.

S: What about the oil leak under the car? Have you had time to look at that yet?

M:Yes, we ______ (do) that about an hour ago.

S: Thank you guys. You are the best.

A CAR SAFETY PROGRAMME

Good morning everyone. For those of you who don’t know me, my name is Gordon Waters. I’m here to talk about the New Car Assessment Programme (NCAP). First of all, I’m going to tell you something about the history of the NCAP. Then I’ll talk about its passive vehicle safety programme. There’ll be time for questions at the end.

So, firstly, let’s look at the NCAP’s history. It was founded in 1997 and brings me on to my next point – the passive vehicle safety in Europe and America. Its aim is to provide the customer with an opportunity to compare passive vehicle safety in different car models. Just so that everyone’s clear about the terminology, when I say passive vehicle safety, I mean those features used if an accident happens. Features which are used to avoid an accident are referred to as active vehicle safety. One important feature of the programme is tests themselves. As you can see in this side, the programme first tested vehicles in a head-on collision with a rigid wall at 64km/h. in this side-on crash, a 1.5m wide deformable barrier weighing 950kg is rammed into the side of the car at 50km/h. A vehicle can be awarded up to five stars, depending on how it performs in the tests.

Four dummies are used inside the car in the test. The driver and front passenger dummies not only measure the usual injury criteria, such as head, thorax, pelvic acceleration and thigh pressure, but also neck pressure, thorax deformation, knee displacement and lower leg pressure. At the rear are two smaller dummies in children’s seats. A further test assesses the injury risk for pedestrians. So, I think that covers everything about the tests.

 

LESSON 30

AIRBAGS

Until a short time ago, most of the progress made in auto safety was in front and rear accidents, even though 40% of all serious injuries from accidents are the result of side impacts and 30% of all accidents are side-impact collisions.

Many car makers have reacted to these statistics and new standards of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) by making doors, door frames and floor and roof sections stronger. But cars that now offer side airbags represent a new type of occupant protection.

Engineers say that designing effective side airbags is much more difficult than designing front airbags. This is because much of the energy from a front-impact collision is absorbed by the bumper, hood, and engine, and it takes almost 30 to 40 milliseconds before the impact reaches the car’s occupant. In a side impact, only a relatively thin door and a few inches separate the occupant from another vehicle. This means that door-mounted side airbags must begin deploying within 5 or 6 milliseconds. It takes a collision of about 19kph to trigger side airbags.

The seatbelt airbag is intended to give back-seat passengers the same level of protection as front-seat occupants. The airbag is incorporated in the rear-seat seatbelt and inflates forward on impact.

Bosch has developed an airbag control unit with extended functional range for highly precise triggering of airbags and belt tensioners. According to the company, the system detects the impact speed of a frontal collision at a very early stage with the help of two ‘upfront’ sensors. The central crash sensor’s information ensures good decision precision. Depending on the type of accident, the occupant restraint system can be triggered either in one or two phases.

The new system has two acceleration sensors which transmit signals, from which the electronic control unit calculates early and precisely the energy absorption as well as the velocity of vehicle deformation. After only 15ms, it is clearly recognizable whether it will be a minor crash without the actuation of the airbag of a serious crash with triggering of the necessary passive safety system.

The side impact is detected by means of four side-impact sensors, the signals of which are checked for plausibility against those of the central sensors in the airbag. This concept ensures triggering of the side airbag for optimum protection of head and chest in a lateral collision.

Airbags, though, do not always save lives, they sometimes kill people who are too small or are in the wrong position when the airbags deploy. To prevent this from happening, car makers and suppliers are developing occupant-sensing systems. The three leading technologies for smart airbags are weight-sensing in the seat, position sensing within the car and camera monitoring. These detection systems can automatically deactivate the airbags if the situation is dangerous.

 

1. Answer the following questions:

a) Do you know anyone who has been saved by an airbag in an accident?

b) Which other safety features are car manufacturers working on?

c) Which features do you think will be developed in the future?

d) What do you remember about Bosch airbag control unit? How does it work?

e) How safe do you feel when driving your car?

f) Designing side airbags is more difficult than designing front airbags, isn’t it?

 

2. Make sure that you know these terms:

Auto safety, side impacts, side-impact collisions, occupant protection, door-mounted side airbags, to absorb, to deploy, to trigger, seatbelt airbag, level of protection, airbag control unit, extended functional range, to detect the impact speed, to transmit signals, to calculate, the energy absorption, velocity of vehicle deformation, actuation of the airbag, occupant-sensing system.

 

Prepare a short report or presentation to persuade your group mates that the model of car you like most of all is the safest in the world. Act out a meeting to negotiate automatic emergency braking, seat belts, airbags, ABS and other safety features.

 

LESSON 31

SENSORS AND THE AUTOMOBILE

In the 1960s, vehicles were equipped with oil pressure, fuel level and tem­perature coolant sensors. Their outputs were connected to analogue gauges or "idiot" lights. As we entered the 1970s and emissions became a driving factor, more sensors were added to help control the power train. With the addition of the catalytic converter, electronic ignition and fuel injection a number of sensors came required to help maintain tight air/fuel control and exhaust emissions. In 1980s, safety became a factor with antilock brakes and airbags.

Today sensors are everywhere. In the power train area, sensors are used to measure the temperature and pressure of most of the fluids (air temperature, manifold absolute pressure, coolant temperature, and fuel injection pressure). Speed and position sensors are connected to most moving parts (vehicle speed, throttle position, camshaft, crankshaft, transmission shift position, valve position and transmission speed sensors). Others measure knock, engine load, engine misfire and oxygen level in the exhaust. Climate control requires the use of various sensors in the air conditioning system to determine refrigerant pres­sure and temperature and interior air temperature.

Sensors have been added to the interior to determine seat position. With the addition of antilock braking and suspension control a number of sensors have been added to determine wheel speed, ride height and tire pressure. As airbags were added for frontal and side impact, more crash sensors and accelerometers were added to control airbag deployment. As the concern for front seat passen­gers has grown so has the need for sensors to determine if the passenger airbag needs to deploy.

Occupant position sensors, passenger weight sensors and oth­ers have been developed to ensure the correct deployment of the front passen­ger airbag. Other sensors are being added as car manufacturers add side impact bags, roof airbags and sophisticated side impact head protection airbags.

As engineers have moved beyond antilock braking and traction control into electronic stability control, more sensors are required. Yaw rate, steering wheel angle and collision avoidance sensors, such as radar sensors or sensors to deter­mine the proximity of other vehicles, will be added. Additional sensors to help control or determine lateral acceleration speed of each wheel and engine torque will be needed.

Control of the vehicle's braking system is tied into the stability control sys­tem. The first oil pressure and coolant temperature sensors were set up to work independently of each other. In fact some of them were nothing more than switches that were activated at certain maximum or minimum levels. As more sensors become electronic or digital, they are interconnected and their output is used for more than one vehicle system. Thus sensor manufacturers are searching for better ways to design and manufacture sensors.

 

2. Complete the sentences with the information from the text:

a) In the 1960s, vehicles were equipped with …………

b) In 1970s emissions became a driving factor and …………

c) In the power train area, sensors are used …………

d) Speed and position sensors are connected to …………

e) Climate control requires the use of …………

f) With the addition of antilock braking and suspension control …………

g) ………… the correct deployment of the front passen­ger airbag.

h) Other sensors are being added as …………

i) Collision avoidance sensors, …………, will be added.

j) As more sensors become electronic or digital …………

 

3. Make sure that you know these terms:

To implement, rev counter, sound engineering technologies, marker light, fog light, turn signal, location, safety requirements, speedometer, voltmeter, to face the problem, installation, horn, instrument panel, wiper switch, ignition switch, coolant temperature gauge, engine oil temperature gauge, hazard warning / indicator lights, fuel gauge.

 

4. Which instrument shows you:

· how fast the car is travelling? _________________________________

· warns you if the engine lubrication system gets too hot? ____________

· shows that you are indicating to turn left or right? _________________

· shows you how often the engine is turning over? __________________

· shows you how much petrol you have in the tank? ________________

· indicates the voltage of the car’s electrical system? ________________

5. Match each abbreviation with its meaning:

FWD a) rear-wheel drive
bhp b) grams per kilometer
GDI c) miles per gallon
rpm d) brake horsepower
RWD e) front-wheel drive
SI f) turbo direct injection
TDI g) Gasoline Direct Injection
mpg h) spark ignition
g/km i) revolutions per minute
mph j) miles per hour

6. Translate the following extract in written form:

LESSON 32

Transport is an important part of our everyday life, an essential element of economy, a bridge between a producer and a customer, a push to economic activities. Can you think of any other discoveries or inventions that contributed to the development of our civilization? Make a list and discuss it with your partner.

BODY PANEL DESIGN

CAN PREVENT CORROSIO

Careful design of body panels and joints is the best starting point for corrosion prevention. Prevention of oxidation or corrosion of steel auto body panels requires prevention of contact between the oxygen-rich environment (air) and metal. Road salt usage and general environment sources, coupled with often marginal vehicle cleaning and maintenance cause corrosion cells to accumulate and thrive.

Building lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars has resulted in reduced steel gauge and reduced percentage of corrosion tolerance. Dips, sprays and different coatings are among the methods for preventing contact between hostile environmental elements and metal.

Hood. For corrosion resistance, the following items should be considered by the designer: all essentially horizontal inner panel surfaces should be sloped toward a drain hole; drain holes should be located at low points of all areas which trap fluid. In the hood latch region a flat area is generally needed for the latch mechanism and should be checked for proper drainage.

Fender. Fender assemblies generally have three major components: fender outer panel, fender rear reinforcement or fender inner panel. Splash shields and aprons often serve to protect fender, dash panel, lamp housings and wiring from stone abrasion and wheel splash as well as being structural panels. To improve corrosion resistance reinforcement and fender are preferably separated to a maximum allowable distance. Attachment of rear reinforcement to fender at their lower contact should be a minimum 15 degrees angle to provide proper drainage. Large openings around headlamps are preferably avoided or shielded to prevent erosion corrosion (this is accelerated corrosion of a metal surface due to movement of a corrosive fluid over its surface; in this case the fluid is hot humid salty air).

Doors. Sheet metal panels of a door assembly consist basically of a door outer panel, door inner panel, hinge reinforcement and a side impact or intrusion bar. A completed door assembly with glass, weather strips, water shields and trim panels installed presents the most unfavorable problem for a corrosion protection engineer. Water, road salt and dirt will enter the door, but it’s basically sealed-off condition and lack of air circulation creates an undesirable humidity chamber.

` This effect can be minimized by the following: all horizontal areas should be sloped a minimum of 10 degrees toward drain holes, drain holes at the door bottom should be at its lowest point.

 

2. Answer the following questions:

a) What can cause corrosion?

b) What is among the methods for preventing contact between environmental elements and metal?

c) What should be considered by the designer for corrosion resistance?

d) Can you name the three major components that fender assemblies have?

e) What is usually done to improve corrosion resistance?

f) Can you define the term ‘erosion corrosion’?

g) What do panels of a door assembly consist of?

h) What presents the biggest problem for a corrosion protection engineer?

i) What can be done to minimize corrosion?

j) Do you have any other ideas about corrosion prevention?

 

3. Make sure that you know these terms:

Starting point for sth, corrosion prevention, oxidation, oxygen-rich environment, marginal vehicle cleaning, maintenance, to accumulate and thrive, fuel-efficient cars, corrosion resistance, drain hole, hood latch region, proper drainage, a maximum allowable distance, erosion corrosion, door outer panel, door inner panel, hinge reinforcement, a side impact or intrusion bar, water shields, trim panels, sealed-off condition, lack of air circulation, humidity chamber.

 

LESSON 33

1. Do you think the materials are clever, fashionable or formal? Read the text about ‘Smart materials’ and check.

SMART MATERIALS

Smart – or shape memory – materials are an invention that has changed the world of engineering. There are two types of them: metal alloys and plastic polymers. The metal alloys were made first and they are usually an expensive mixture of titanium and nickel. Shape memory materials are called ‘smart’ because they react to changes in their environment, for example:

· Plastics that return to their original shape when the temperature changes. One use is in surgery where plastic threads ‘remember’ the shape of a knot, react to the patient’s body temperature and make themselves into stitches.

· Metal alloys that have a ‘memory’ and can return to their original shape. They are used in medical implants. More everyday uses are for flexible spectacle frames and teeth braces.

· Solids that darken in sunlight, like the lenses in some sunglasses.

· Liquid crystals that change shape and colour. These have been used in climbing ropes that change colour if there is too much strain and weight on them.

The future of these materials and their possible uses is limited only by human imagination. One clever idea is that if cars were made of smart metal, a minor accident could be repaired by leaving the car in the sun!

 

2. Choose the correct answer:

a) Smart materials change when

A the weather changes; B something affects them; C the light is switched on.

b) Plastic threads are used for

A sewing; B stitching; C knitting.

c) Climbing ropes with liquid crystals change colour to

A warn you; B amuse you; C make you heavy.

 

3. Complete the following sentences with words from the box:

alloys, react, environment, original, implant, compressed, expand, imagination.

 

a) An ________ is something medical put inside the body, e.g. a heart valve.

b) You need a good ________ to think of new and interesting ideas.

c) The ________ is the first or earliest.

d) ________ are materials made from mixing two metals.

e) To ________ means to become bigger.

f) To ________ is to change because something else happens.

g) The ________ is everything around a person or thing.

h) To be ________ means to be made smaller.

 

AUTOMOTIVE MATERIALS

Materials are a fast-changing aspect for automotive engineers. Concept vehicles displayed demonstrate that new uses of plastics, composites, aluminum and other non-conventional materials are to be a part of future automobiles and light trucks. The engineer of the next generation must know the capability of a wide range of materials and the latest production processes for these materials.

By most accounts, aluminum is the most recently discovered commonly used metal that exists only in combination with other materials such as silicates and oxides. It has been produced commercially only since 1854. By contrast, the Iron Age, characterized by smelting of iron and its use in industry, began before 1000 B.C.

Considering its relatively recent entrance into not only the automotive industry but the metal industry as well; aluminum has made great strides in grabbing a respectable amount of the automotive spotlight from steel. Between 1991 and 1999 the use of automotive aluminum doubled and is expected to double again in the nearest future.

Audi 2 is claimed to be the world’s first aluminum car to be signed off for volume production. Its space frame is composed of 60% panels, 22% cast elements and 18% profiles. Audi’s A2 is aerodynamically efficient for a small car and uses the company’s aluminum space frame technology.

Among engineering alloys, titanium possesses the strength, density and modulus to use it in automotive applications. Various titanium alloys are suitable for making springs and exhaust system components. The cold spring winding and cold setting (blocking) are basically the same for titanium springs as for steel. But there are not as many turns required for titanium springs as steel springs. Since the density of titanium is about half that of steel, it can perform the same task as steel springs on most applications while weighing 60 – 70% less.

Unlike steel springs, titanium springs do not require protective coatings. A primary mechanical engineering property considered in the design of steel suspension springs is corrosion fatigue strength.

 

5. Complete the sentences with the information from the text:

a) Concept vehicles displayed demonstrate that ………

b) The engineer of the next generation must know ………

c) Aluminum is the most recently discovered commonly used metal ………

d) ……… aluminum has made great strides in ………

e) Audi 2 is claimed to be ………

f) Among engineering alloys ………

g) Since the density of titanium is about half that of steel, ………

h) A primary mechanical engineering property considered in ………

6. Find a better and cheaper way to produce parts and the auto industry takes notice! For example, hydroformed parts offer weight, design and cost advantages over stampings.

Tube hydroforming is a pressurized hydraulic forming process that produces complex shapes. Prime candidates include frame rails, engine cradles, radiator and instrument panel supports, roof headers and seat frames. Hydroformed blanks can be manufactured from a variety of less-expensive materials, including low carbon hot rolled steel, cold rolled steel, high strength low alloy steels and even aluminum.

PART II

LESSON 26

1. Put the missing prepositions into the questions. Ask them your partner:

a) Do you often go ________ the speed limit?

b) When you see an amber light, do you step ________ the gas or the brakes?

c) Do you become very annoyed and angry when you are stuck ________ traffic?

d) Have you ever gone ________ a red light?

e) Do you always slow ________ for pedestrians?

f) Do you often honk your horn ________ other drivers?

g) Do you always look both ways before you turn ________ intersections?

h) Do you always remember to turn ________ your turn signal when you are making a turn?

Match the headings with their extracts.

  Engineering is everywhere Engineers use theory (ideas about engineering) to produce practical answers. The design solution must be a reasonable price, safe and reliable. A new idea that is expensive, dangerous or doesn’t always work is not a good solution.
  Engineering is both theoretical and practical This method of problem-solving is useful in everyday life. For example, you can use the five steps next time you prepare for a test. · Define the problem: I want to pass my test next week. · Design a solution: I will study for three hours a day. · Test the solution: study for three hours a day and take the test. · Evaluate the solution: Have I passed the test with a good mark? (Yes=a good solution. No=a bad solution, so think of a better one.) · Communicate the solution: Tell your friends about your test-passing technique.
  They use different methods Generally, engineers solve problems in a methodological way. They: define the problem, design a solution, test it and evaluate the solution. If the solution isn’t right, the process is repeated.
  Anyone can use engineering ideas Almost everything we use in modern life is made by engineers. For example, if a manufacturer wants a faster car or a better pen, they will ask a design engineer to find a practical solution.

THE CHANGING EXPECTATIONS

OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS

In the past, automotive engineers were closely associated with the field of mechanical engineering. After all, most automotive engineers dealt with topics such as gasoline and diesel engines, transmissions, suspension systems, chassis, door handles, seats, etc. A few ventured off into new developments such as turbine gas engines, continuously variable transmissions, or even Sterling engines. Some dealt with plastics and painting systems. The vast majority of knowledge needed by the automotive engineer of the past was mechanical in nature.

The reality of today is that the automotive engineer is expected to know about far more than just mechanical engineering. To attract the best and brightest, the industry needs to project an image of the automotive engineer as someone with skills and knowledge beyond mechanical engineering.

The modern automobile has often been described as a computer on wheels. It is that and more — much more. Electronics control component systems such as the engine, transmission, and brakes. Those controls have become not just add-ons but integral parts of the operation of each system and the whole vehicle. A focus is on intelligent vehicle technology, which highlighted the integration of more electronics into the vehicle.

No longer can design engineers "throw their designs over the wall" to the manufacturing engineer. The design engineer must know enough about the manufacturing capability of his/her organization or supplier, and the manufacturing engineer must be an early participant in the design team. Competitive quality and cost require that the design specifications match the manufacturing capability. Empty promises by manufacturing ("give us a design and we will build it") are no longer accepted.

Software development is not only necessary to achieve optimum operation of each vehicle computer, but vehicle performance evaluation prior to design is becoming standard practice. Computer simulation for demonstrating compliance with regulations will probably be widely accepted in the not-too-distant future.

 



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