ТОП 10 на сайтеПриготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Техника нижней прямой подачи мяча.
Франко-прусская война (причины и последствия)
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Смысловое и механическое запоминание, их место и роль в усвоении знаний
Коммуникативные барьеры и пути их преодоления
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Образцы текста публицистического стиля
Четыре типа изменения баланса
Задачи с ответами для Всероссийской олимпиады по праву
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Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
A COCKPIT FOR BUSINESS CLASS
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Only individuals who set high standards will reach demanding targets. This also applies to the world of technology and to cars, especially to the BMW 7 Series. As this car meets demanding requirement to impress dedicated motorists it is perfect. Ease of control is ensured by clearly structured instruments and switches. This car is known for the superiority and comfort of ergonomic design, where you find just what you need without even having a look. This allows you to keep your eyes on the road.
A new dimension is oriented towards the driver. The controls and instruments are exactly where they should be. The iDrive Controller is on the centre console. The Control Display forms one line with the circular instruments within the driver’s vision.
The interior follows the principle of horizontal balance. All controls and instruments are arranged on two levels guiding your eye and creating a perfect aesthetic structure inside the car. All this ensures spontaneous, simple and straightforward handling.
Complete the sentences with a verb from the box in its participle form.
a) Joe was in bad mood for the whole week, completely ruining our holiday.
b) After _________ her exams, Maggie went out to celebrate.
c) Jewellery _________ in the robbery has never been recovered.
d) I got a letter from the Tax Office _________ that I owe them $100.
e) _________ hungry, I decided to make myself a sandwich.
f) Books _________ from the library must be returned in two weeks.
g) Not _________ what to do, she burst out crying.
h) I had a long talk to Jack, _________ why it was important to work hard.
i) _________ everything into consideration, I’ve decided to give you a second chance.
j) With both children _________ at university, the house seems really quiet.
What are your predictions for the next ten years for instruments and switches of the car? Prepare a short report or presentation.
Transport is an important part of our everyday life, an essential element of economy, a bridge between a producer and a customer, a push to economic activities. Can you think of any other discoveries or inventions that contributed to the development of our civilization? Make a list and discuss it with your partner.
BODY PANEL DESIGN
CAN PREVENT CORROSIO
Careful design of body panels and joints is the best starting point for corrosion prevention. Prevention of oxidation or corrosion of steel auto body panels requires prevention of contact between the oxygen-rich environment (air) and metal. Road salt usage and general environment sources, coupled with often marginal vehicle cleaning and maintenance cause corrosion cells to accumulate and thrive.
Building lighter, smaller, more fuel-efficient cars has resulted in reduced steel gauge and reduced percentage of corrosion tolerance. Dips, sprays and different coatings are among the methods for preventing contact between hostile environmental elements and metal.
Hood. For corrosion resistance, the following items should be considered by the designer: all essentially horizontal inner panel surfaces should be sloped toward a drain hole; drain holes should be located at low points of all areas which trap fluid. In the hood latch region a flat area is generally needed for the latch mechanism and should be checked for proper drainage.
Fender. Fender assemblies generally have three major components: fender outer panel, fender rear reinforcement or fender inner panel. Splash shields and aprons often serve to protect fender, dash panel, lamp housings and wiring from stone abrasion and wheel splash as well as being structural panels. To improve corrosion resistance reinforcement and fender are preferably separated to a maximum allowable distance. Attachment of rear reinforcement to fender at their lower contact should be a minimum 15 degrees angle to provide proper drainage. Large openings around headlamps are preferably avoided or shielded to prevent erosion corrosion (this is accelerated corrosion of a metal surface due to movement of a corrosive fluid over its surface; in this case the fluid is hot humid salty air).
Doors. Sheet metal panels of a door assembly consist basically of a door outer panel, door inner panel, hinge reinforcement and a side impact or intrusion bar. A completed door assembly with glass, weather strips, water shields and trim panels installed presents the most unfavorable problem for a corrosion protection engineer. Water, road salt and dirt will enter the door, but it’s basically sealed-off condition and lack of air circulation creates an undesirable humidity chamber.
` This effect can be minimized by the following: all horizontal areas should be sloped a minimum of 10 degrees toward drain holes, drain holes at the door bottom should be at its lowest point.
2. Answer the following questions:
a) What can cause corrosion?
b) What is among the methods for preventing contact between environmental elements and metal?
c) What should be considered by the designer for corrosion resistance?
d) Can you name the three major components that fender assemblies have?
e) What is usually done to improve corrosion resistance?
f) Can you define the term ‘erosion corrosion’?
g) What do panels of a door assembly consist of?
h) What presents the biggest problem for a corrosion protection engineer?
i) What can be done to minimize corrosion?
j) Do you have any other ideas about corrosion prevention?
3. Make sure that you know these terms:
Starting point for sth, corrosion prevention, oxidation, oxygen-rich environment, marginal vehicle cleaning, maintenance, to accumulate and thrive, fuel-efficient cars, corrosion resistance, drain hole, hood latch region, proper drainage, a maximum allowable distance, erosion corrosion, door outer panel, door inner panel, hinge reinforcement, a side impact or intrusion bar, water shields, trim panels, sealed-off condition, lack of air circulation, humidity chamber.
Find the words hidden in the jumbles.
Match each column of the English words with its Ukrainian equivalent.
Translate these sentences into Ukrainian. Find the Infinitive and state its function.
a) We had to stop to fill up the car.
b) To improve corrosion resistance reinforcement and fender are preferably separated to a maximum allowable distance.
c) He demanded to be told everything about the accident.
d) Large openings around headlamps are preferably avoided or shielded to prevent erosion corrosion.
e) Splash shields and aprons often serve to protect fender, dash panel, lamp housings and wiring.
f) Marginal vehicle cleaning and maintenance cause corrosion cells to accumulate and thrive.
1. Do you think the materials are clever, fashionable or formal? Read the text about ‘Smart materials’ and check.
Smart – or shape memory – materials are an invention that has changed the world of engineering. There are two types of them: metal alloys and plastic polymers. The metal alloys were made first and they are usually an expensive mixture of titanium and nickel. Shape memory materials are called ‘smart’ because they react to changes in their environment, for example:
· Plastics that return to their original shape when the temperature changes. One use is in surgery where plastic threads ‘remember’ the shape of a knot, react to the patient’s body temperature and make themselves into stitches.
· Metal alloys that have a ‘memory’ and can return to their original shape. They are used in medical implants. More everyday uses are for flexible spectacle frames and teeth braces.
· Solids that darken in sunlight, like the lenses in some sunglasses.
· Liquid crystals that change shape and colour. These have been used in climbing ropes that change colour if there is too much strain and weight on them.
The future of these materials and their possible uses is limited only by human imagination. One clever idea is that if cars were made of smart metal, a minor accident could be repaired by leaving the car in the sun!
2. Choose the correct answer:
a) Smart materials change when
A the weather changes; B something affects them; C the light is switched on.
b) Plastic threads are used for
A sewing; B stitching; C knitting.
c) Climbing ropes with liquid crystals change colour to
A warn you; B amuse you; C make you heavy.
3. Complete the following sentences with words from the box:
a) An ________ is something medical put inside the body, e.g. a heart valve.
b) You need a good ________ to think of new and interesting ideas.
c) The ________ is the first or earliest.
d) ________ are materials made from mixing two metals.
e) To ________ means to become bigger.
f) To ________ is to change because something else happens.
g) The ________ is everything around a person or thing.
h) To be ________ means to be made smaller.
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