Here are the answers to some questions. What are the questions? 

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Here are the answers to some questions. What are the questions?

a) Gasoline and diesel engines, transmissions, suspension systems, chassis, door handles, seats, etc.

b) Plastics and painting systems.

c) Mechanical majority of knowledge in nature.

d) A computer on wheels.

e) Intelligent vehicle technology.

f) "Throw their designs over the wall".

g) "Give us a design and we will build it".

h) Software development.

Put each of the following words or phrases in correct sentence below.

Overtake, mpg (miles per gallon), rear, reverse, petrol tank, vehicle, fuel consumption, body, performance, instruments, indicate.

a) The amount of petrol a car uses is called the ________ and it is measured in ________. The petrol goes in the ________.

b) The way a car behaves (speed, brakes, acceleration etc.) is called the car’s ________.

c) We can talk about the back of a ________ (car, bus, lorry etc.) but more often we use the word ________.

d) The speedometer, fuel gauge and so on are called ________.

e) To ________ means to pass another vehicle going in the same direction.

f) If you have to go backwards, you ________.

g) The outside surface of the car, made of metal or fiberglass, is called the ________.

h) Make sure you ________ before turning left or right.

Find the words hidden in the jumbles. Translate the sentences.

a) Both in the past and today …………… work at the problem of getting lower specific fuel consumption.   SREDNEGIS
b) Many cars are not really new, but are successors to or derivatives of existing …………… DOMLSE
c) Although these technical options are promising, cost-benefit analysis is needed to understand the environmental and consumer benefits they offer compared to other potential ……………   LCEHEVI LOTEESNOCHIG
d) An unsafe vehicle is a source of constant danger in a road …………… system of the world. NONASTPORTATIR
e) The cost of a heavier …………… is less than that of a lighter one. LEUF
f) A final marketing clinic is carried out to confirm …………… and market positioning. PEIRC
g) The fuel consumption of a diesel is much less than that of gasoline ……………. EENNIG
h) The …………… is to have a long life with maximum of time between overhaul periods. GENINE
i) One of the most important problems worked at by the designers is the engine …………… ALITIBIRELY
j) The higher the ………, the higher the temperature. SUSERREP


6. Tick the verbs which go with each form of transport:

  car bus bike train plain ship/ferry
get into/out of            
get on/off            
take off            


Complete the table below with the nouns in the box. Some can go into more than one column.

runway crash helmet life jacket platform
tyres traffic lights season ticket harbour
port service station one-way street track
Customs traffic jam cycle lane timetable
porter charter flight seat belt deck
carriage ticket collector check-in desk cabin
trolley aisle seat hand luggage tunnel
horn head lights number plate cargo


car   bus bike
train   plane ship/ferry


Complete the table with these phrases used to talk about the future. Can you add any more?

Without doubt, is expected to, I’m absolutely certain, there is a good chance, it is quite likely, you may feel, there’s no doubt that, we are convinced, it’s highly probable.


certainty probability possibility


Now use the phrases from Exercise 1 to discuss these statements in small groups.

In the next five / ten / twenty years ………

a) India will be a major automotive market in the world.

b) Cars will use only one liter of petrol per 100km.

c) Sports cars will have a top speed of more than 300km/h.

d) Cars will be like offices with on-board computers and email facilities.

e) Cars will have an auto pilot.

f) Cars will be 100% recyclable.

g) Environmentally-friendly cars will be more important and popular.

h) There will be a lot of hydrogen fuelling stations.


It is a cold winter morning but your car is waiting for you, warm and comfortable, at exactly the temperature you like. You open the door by pressing your finger against the lock and your car greets you with a friendly ‘Hi, how are you?’ You seat down and the computer reminds you of the schedule. You start the car. You now have a joystick, steering-by-wire. The old mechanical parts of the past are gone.

As you back out of your driveway, warning sensors warn you about objects and pedestrians in your way. Using voice commands you programme your route, check your emails and dictate answers, ask for local and international news, look up phone numbers and play music. The car also looks after your health. Sensors in your seat and armrest tell you your weight and blood pressure, while sensors in the dashboard notice if you are drowsy and vibrate the joystick to wake you.

Many of the old worries associated with driving are gone. Traffic jams don’t happen anymore because your car automatically avoids crowded roads. Collision avoidance sensors prevent accidents. Speeding tickets are also a thing of the past – sensors pick up signals from traffic signals and automatically adjust your speed or stop your car. And breaking down is no longer a problem. Your car diagnoses any potential faults or worn parts and warns you and the service station. When you arrive at the service station, the spare parts are already waiting for you.

Your car can even park itself. Just stop at any parking space (your car knows if parking is permitted here) and operate the automatic parking system. The car scans the size and shape of the available space and then reverses in.


Are these sentences about the text true (T) or false (F)?

a) You’ll still need a key to open the car door.

b) You’ll no longer have a steering wheel.

c) Sensors in the dashboard will measure your blood pressure.

d) You won’t be able to fall asleep while driving.

e) You won’t need to read traffic signs any more.

f) You’ll still need good parking skills.

4. Find words and expressions in the text which match these definitions:

a) spoken instructions to the car
b) possible problems
c) a recognition system which stops your car from hitting another car
d) slightly sleepy
e) congested roads
f) a list of your appointments for the day
g) fines for driving too fast
h) people on foot


5. Find the words hidden in the jumbles:

a) place for stowing baggage KRUNT
b) apparatus at the front and rear of a vehicle that protects the body from minor bumps MERPUB
c) plastic or metal decoration over the radiator GIRLL
d) opening used to enter the passenger compartment ROOD
e) window pane situated approximately above the rear wheel RETRAUQ NIWWOD
f) piece of metal that carries a number used to identify the automobile NECSELI TELAP
g) movable device made partly of rubber that wipes the windshield and rear window of a car. DWINSILHED PERIW
h) cover of the engine compartment at the front of a car DOHO

6. Complete the sentences with the passive form of the verb in brackets:

a) This model is produced in the new factory in Poland.

b) German cars ………… (sell) all over the world.

c) The orders ………… (can / place) by fax or online.

d) The cars ………… (assemble) by robots and by hands.

e) Spare parts …………. (can / buy) from your local dealer.

f) The interiors ………… (design) by computer.

g) Tires ………… (should / replace) before they wear down completely.

Put the verb into the correct tense form in Passive.

a) Studies have shown that 86% of serious accidents ___________ (to cause) by drivers.

b) All the companies investigating diesels are trying to reduce noise and smoke, but the problems _____ yet entirely _____ (not / to solve).

c) Suppliers ____________ (usually / to give) about two weeks to move from design to production of a new item.

d) The road to be repaired __________ (to destroy) many years ago by heavy vehicles.

e) This method __________ (to introduce) in the factory next year to achieve better results.

f) Goods to be transported to the North __________ (to store) at the station.

g) He __________ (to present) BMW X5 some months ago.

h) The goods __________ (normally / to deliver) in time.

Prepare a report or presentation of your own, describing the car of the future. Try to think about a new model of your own. You may also use drawings and pictures.



At the present rate of production oil supplies will run out rather soon, and we will have to look for other sources of energy. What kind of vehicle will then dominate? Nowadays car makers discuss four promising types of cars: fuel cell cars, electric cars, hybrid cars, and solar electric cars.

The electric car has a long history. The first electrical cars were built at the end of 19th century, but they could not compete against the internal combustion engine. Success of the electric car depends on light weight battery, capable of being recharged quickly, and the availability of electric energy. Several companies already sell electrics. For example, Solar Electric Engineering of Santa Rosa, California, offers Solar Electric's Destiny 2000 which includes an array of solar cells which provides a tiny bit of power and extends battery life. With its lightweight fiberglass body, it can travel 40 to 60 miles on a charge and cruises at 60-70 mph.

There are many different electric cars around the world. They are used for local deliveries, post offices and the services. But will the electric car ever be­come a universal means of transport? Today there are several hundred million cars in the world not to mention millions of motorcycles. It is estimated that if these changed over to electricity, they would require six million kilowatt hours, and all the power stations in the world now generate only a little over a third of that.

The hydrogen/air fuel cells look very hopeful. These do not have to be charged, they generate their own energy from a chemical reaction. They convert fuel energy to electrical energy with better than 80% efficiency. But at present the fuel cells prove too expensive. A hybrid system where electric batteries for city driving would be recharged in highway driving with gasoline fuel is an alternative to the totally electrical system.

The use of fuel cells promises a reduction in environmental pollution from car exhaust emissions and the end of our dependence on oil for fuel. A fuel cell produces an electric current and heat by converting hydrogen and oxygen into water. When many cells are combined into a stack, enough energy is produced to power a 50kW engine. The fuel cell has the highest efficiency in power generation, reaching over 60%, compared to a gasoline-powered car which has 20%. Pure hydrogen could be stored on-board the car, but this would use too much space. Alternatively, car makers could use reformer technology to convert gasoline or methanol into hydrogen, but this would reduce the efficiency of the cell.

There are many practical considerations for drivers. Fuel cell-powered cars are neither as fast nor as quiet as gasoline- or diesel-powered cars. At present there are very few hydrogen fuelling stations, so refueling could be a problem. Fuel cell cars are very expensive to develop and produce, which means they will also be expensive for the customer. Many drivers will not pay extra for ‘green’ car technology. Nevertheless, the race is on to produce the first fuel cell-powered family car with CO2 emissions of 90g/km.


9. Answer these questions:

a) What kind of vehicle will dominate in the nearest future?

b) What do you know about electric cars?

c) How does fuel cell technology work?

d) What are the advantages and disadvantages of fuel cell-powered cars?

e) How important do you think fuel cell cars are or will be?

f) Fuel cell cars are very expensive to develop and produce, aren’t they?

g) Would you buy a fuel cell car? Why or why not?

h) What do you know about new automotive technologies?


10. Make sure that you know these terms:

To put into mass production, to subject to tests, to meet up-to-date demands (require­ments), source of power, accessories, by means of, recharge, to trace the fault, fastening bolts, ……………….


11. Match these English phrases with their equivalents in Ukrainian:

A emission requirements, weight reduction, storage compartment, manually adjustable system, flyover, total vehicle emissions, base curb weight, auxiliary mechanism, rust, to recycle, air changeover, can of fuel, a reduction in environmental pollution, to reduce the efficiency.
B естакада, каністра з паливом, зменшення забруднення навколишнього середовища, переробляти, циркуляція повітря, гранична вага бази авто, вимоги щодо викидів, зменшення ваги, зменшити ефективність, відділення для запчастин, допоміжний механізм, сумарні викиди авто, механічно регульована система, іржа.

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