Exercise 2. Change the sentence according to the model.



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Exercise 2. Change the sentence according to the model.



Model: The sales are numerous. I can't mention them all.

They are too numerous for me to mention.

1. This software is very expensive. The company can't buy it.

2. The results are numerous. They can‘t remember them all.

3. The computers are complicated. I can't use them.

4. Processing thеsе data is difficult. John can't learn it.

5.I am tired. I can't do the billing right now.

6.I am busy. I can't go on a business trip right now.

7. The data is complicated. I can't explain it.

8. The situation is difficult. We can't overcome it at once.

Exercise 3. Reаd the text and put 10 questions to it.

Lorrain Weller from "Modern English International" warns us. However hard the manufacturers and advertisers of personal computers try to convince1 us of friendliness of their product, it is still a fact that if you want to programme your own computer, you have to learn its language. It doesn't understand yours. This simple fact is the reason why so many home computers are underused2. It also prevents3 lots of people from

buying their own computer. Rather than licking4 your hand the computer quite often bites5.

Imagine yourself having a conversation with an English person. You make one small grammar mistake, maybe you say have instead of has. It doesn't matter. The person understands your meaning and the conversation continues. This doesn't happen with a computer. If you make even the smallest mistake in its language, the conversation breaks down completely and you have to go back to the beginning. It can be very frustrating6.

In the United States, in Japan, in Britain, computer specialists are all trying to develop a computer that will under­stand human language.

1. to convince - переконувати

2. to underuse - використовувати на повну потужність

3. to prevent - припиняти, запобігати

4. to lick - лизати

5. to bite - кусати

6. frustrating - виснажливий

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Деякі компанії не виготовляють і не продають комп’ютери, а здають їх на прокат.

2. Програміст закладає дані у комп’ютер.

3. В бізнесі комп’ютер використовується для обробки даних.

4. Програмне забезпечення – дуже дороге.

5. Комп’ютер допомагає приймати рішення на вищому адміністративному рівні.

6. Комп’ютер використовується для виконання багатьох адміністративних функцій: підготовки відомостей, інвентаризаційного контролю.

Exercise 5.

a) Make a speech in favour of modern electronic equipment (personal computers, electronic printing aids). Why can't a modern enterprise do without them?

b) You are the Head of a firm producing computers. Advertise your product.

Grammar Exercise.

Transform the sentences from Future Indefinite into Future-in-the-Past.

Model: The accountant says that she will prepare the financial statement very soon.

The accountant said that she would prepare the financial statement very soon.

1. He confesses that their business will fail.

2. The government says that they will increase the taxes.

3. The secretary says that she will get credit reference letter in two days.

4. The lawyer states that the company won't be eligible for a loan.

5. He is sure that he will get a credit.

6. They suppose that the new product will be not so expensive.

7. He thinks he will buy the stove in the discount house.

8. He is happy that he will go on this business trip.

 

LESSON 15

INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS

Text

The international corporation or global company has its origin. Usually it is the outgrowth of the great trading companies of the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1811 a New York statute said corporations could be created by the filing of documents. After that it became a matter of bureaucratic operations to become a corporation. By 1850 it was a very common thing in the United States and was under general statute in European countries as well. Since that time the corporate movement began. As the jet plane, satellite communications and computers began, it became possible for a company to control business in all the world.

The growth of international corporates operations is faster than the economic growth of the industrialized nations. There are some projects which predict that within a generation almost a half of the free words production will be internationalized.

This trend for internationalism presupposes some benefits such as new jobs, higher living standards and the closing of the gaps between people - economic, educational and technological. At the same time serious questions can be asked. Is it the most efficient way to use world researches? Can the international corporation be the best force for a better world? Is it politically stronger than government? Can it take care of the self interest and competitiveness on behalf of the greatest good? And in what way can the global company work toward easing the worlds crises - monetary, political, energy and food?

Active Vocabulary

multinational corporation міжнародна корпорація

global company міжнародна компанія

outgrowth продукт, наслідок

statute законодавчий акт

satellite communication супутниковий зв’язок

closing of the gaps заповнювати прогалини

jet plane реактивний літак

bureaucratic бюрократичний

Comprehension Questions

1. What is the origin of the multinational company?

2. When did the corporate movement begin?

3. Why did it become possible for a company to control enterprises on the other side of the globe?

4. How quickly is internationalism growing?

5. What can internationalism bring?

6. What problems can arise with internationalism?

7. What are your own answers and explanations to this problems?

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

1 All countries must prepare for possible energy... in 1 internationalized

the future and save fuel. 2 bureaucratic

2. If you want to form a corporation today you must fulfil... operations.

3. When one deals with the currency of another country, it is

necessary to know the current... exchange rate. 3 statute

4.... is one factor to influence the growth of international business. 4 monetary

5. Some analysts state that most of the free worlds production 5 crisis

will be... internationalized within a generation. 6 satellite communication

6. In 1985 the... said that cooperatives could be created. 7 outgrowth

9. International corporation is very often an... of old trading companies.

Dialogue

Nick and Ann are having lunch. Nick is an executive in the international computer company.

Nick Do you like the idea of taking a month's trip to Europe and the Far East?

Ann What? You are kidding?!

Nick No. First of all I must say that it's a business trip. The company wants me to visit some of our operations. I should have meetings about the new computer I am developing. They think if we combine expertise we'll advance more quickly.

Ann Oh, Nick. It's great. Where are we going to?

Nick To nine countries. We have nine development laboratories. In fact, only now I

realize how large the company is, a real global company.

Ann But the company started here in America.

Nick Yes. In this sense, we're American. Each company has to be incorporated somewhere, here or in Japan or Canada or India. But our corporation is a real multinational one.

Ann What does it mean then?

Nick Well, we are in 126 countries and we have there 125000 employees. We do our business in 28 languages and more than 32 currencies. Our plants are situated in 13 countries and we have eight development labs.

Ann Now I see. You are multinational. But such industries as shipbuilding, aircraft,

automobiles can't survive without selling abroad.

NickRight. By the way, do you know that for the last seven years more than half of the corporation's net income has come from overseas business. We are the part of the world community.

Ann It's exciting, isn't it?

Nick Yes, now we really can feel that nations are tied to each other through business operations. This internationalism is our hope for a better world.

Ann Well it's time to pack.

NickLater.

AnnNick, can you explain me why do you sell a computer to a company in Canada when the company has a plant in Canada?

Nick Well, Ann. For example, it's not unusual for a automobile company from Britain

to manufacture automobiles in France for sale in Britain with Canadian-made

engine, Swiss transmission and German axles. It's international business.

Ann But it is so complicated to sell the goods to a foreign company with different currencies and all that.

Nick I can tell you how we do.

AnnIt's very interesting.

Nick When we deliver the machine to the shipping company, we receive a bill of

lading. It's a receipt from the shipping company and it's also the foreign

company's claim to the computer when it gets to England.

Ann And what's then?

Nick Then we write draft or check which direct the British company to pay a sum in

British pounds to a third party in, let's say, 90 days. We call it a "bill of

exchange", which includes the rate of exchange at the time and, in addition, the

interest. It must be paid in the 90 day extension of credit.

Ann That is hard time getting the money, isn't it?

Nick No. We take the draft, the bill of lading and other necessary papers to our New York bank. The draft is sold at discount, it means without interest change, for the face value and get dollars. That's the way.

Ann Well, but you get your money from the bank. How does the British company pay? Who do they pay?

NickIt's quite simple, New York bank sends the documents and the draft to its branch

in London or to a British bank. The transaction is finished usually by accepting

British pounds into a checking account in a London bank.

Ann It seems rather complicating.

NickIt only seems so. The US supplied a computer, exported the merchandise and got

back a checking account deposit in a London bank, importing claim on British

goods and services.

Ann Could you have dollars instead?

Nick Sure, but in this case we would have reduced the existing British claim on American goods and services.

Ann So what?

Nick If some nations pile up continuing capital surpluses and other continuing deficits the problem can arise in international economics.

Ann I see that I must study the subject thoroughly before we can continue.

NickYes, may be.

Active Vocabulary

expertise спеціальні знання, компетентність

to advance просуватися, йти вперед

to sell abroad продавати за кордон

net income чистий прибуток; (амер.) прибуток, що підлягає оподаткуванню

transmission пересилання

engine двигун

axle вісь, вал

bill of lading квитанція, яка реєструє відвантажений

receipt квитанція

claim вимога

draft чек, видаток

party юридична сторона

extension of credit продовження кредиту

face value чиста вартість

branch філіал, відділення

to pile up накопичувати, збільшувати

capital surpluses надлишковий капітал

Vocabulary Practice



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