Exercise 1. Change the sentences according to the model 

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Exercise 1. Change the sentences according to the model

Model: The tape recorder is inexpensive. Your store sells the tape recorder.

The tape recorder that your store sells is inexpensive.

1. The dresses are fashionable. The store introduced the new dresses last week.

2. The store has many refrigerators. Dick owns the store.

3. The stereo is high-priced. My daughter wants the stereo.

4. The price determines the number of sales. A retailer sets the price.

5. Very often the people don't want extra services. Many supermarkets offer extra services.

6. Your shop should have loss-leader item. Loss-leader item will attract the customers.

7. Price de-emphasis works with high quality expensive items. Price-de-emphasis means that you don't call attention to the price at all.

Exercise 2. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: We won't introduce a new line of merchandise unless you suggest it.

We will introduce a new line of merchandise if you don't suggest it.

1. Tape recorders are popular unless the price is too high.

2. The consumers will continue to buy unless they don't like the item.

3. The buyer can get installation services unless he wants to pay for it.

4. The salesman will help you unless he is too busy.

5. People won't try a new product unless there is advertising.

6. Customers won't buy the new brand, unless the price is low.

7. They won't raise the price unless it is necessary.

Exercise 3. Answer the questions.

1. In what way were the prices charged in this country?

2. What is your idea of the term market price?

3. What type of pricing policy works with the majority of consumer goods? (price-emphasis, price de-emphasis)

4. What is more preferable for you in pricing: low prices with no extra services or high prices with home delivery, repair and other services?

5. Why is it so important to have loss leader item in a shop?

6. What is off-even pricing made for?

7. How can your pricing policy help to compete with well known products?

Exercise 4. Translate into English.

1. Цей магазин надає покупцю вигідні кредитні умови.

2. Товар має низьку ціну. Вона покриє витрати.

3. Ця фірма веде недоцільну ціноутворюючу політику.

4. Перш, ніж випускати товар, необхідно ретельно вивчити попит і пропозицію.

5. Держава встановлює ціни на ряд продуктів.

6. Магазин має чудове місце розташування.

7. Супермаркет надає покупцю багато додаткових послуг: доставку товарів додому, кредит, встановлення и т.п.

8. Нова марка безперечно зацікавить покупців.

9. Починайте з низької ціни.

10. Продаж за рахунок низької ціни діє при продажі товарів народного вжитку.

Exercise 5. Set your imagination free.

You are a journalist and you are to interview the minister of finance about the pricing policy in this country. What questions would you ask him?

Grammar Exercises

Exercise 1. Make sentences interrogative and negative.

Model: They can change your credit terms at once.

Can they change your credit terms at once?

They can't change your credit terms.

1. They must research supply and demand before they start to produce the new item.

2. The company has to cover the costs by all means.

3. The middlemen may set the new price.

4. They can persue unsound price policies.

5. They must choose another location for their shop.

Exercise 2. Choose the necessary modal verb and put it in the sentence.

1. Off-even pricing ... undoubtedly produce favorable psychological effect on a consumer.

2. I spoke with the chief. Now you... change the credit terms.

3. They are very talented specialists. I think they... design the new line very quickly.

4. The situation has changed, so we ... start with specially low prices.

5. We... choose price emphasis policy for this item.





The computer industry is one of the largest in western countries and especially in the USA, It includes companies that manufacture, sell and lease computers, as well as companies that supply products and services for people working with computers.

A computer cannot think. A human operator puts data into the computer and gives instructions. The operator writes instructions which determine the mathematical operations on information. A computer solves mathematical problems very rapidly. Traditionally, the computer in business is used to process data. This involves different administrative functions such as preparation of payrolls, inventory control in manufacturing, warehousing and distribution operations, customer accounting, billing by banks, insurance companies, public utilities and mass circulation magazines. Now the computer takes on new kinds of jobs. It has become more involved in business operations as an essential tool in making decisions at the highest administrative level.

Active Vocabulary

to give instructions давати інструкції

to put data вводити данні

to solve mathematical problems вирішувати математичні задачі

to process data обробляти дані

preparation of payrolls підготовка відомостей

inventory control інвентаризаційний контроль

warehousing розподіл товару по складах

distribution operations розподільні операції

customer accounting розрахунок з клієнтом

Comprehension Questions

1. What does the computer industry include?

2. In what way does a computer operate?

3. How was the computer traditionally used in business?

4. What new kinds of jobs is the computer taking?

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Choose the necessary word and put it in the sentence.

1. Distribution operations, preparation of payroll 1. process data

are... functions that the computer performs for business.

2. Computer is programmed to...fast and accurately. 2. lease

3. If a small company cannot afford to buy a computer,

they can... the services of computer. 3. inventory control.

4. A programmer feeds the... into the computer. 4. processing 5. Many companies use the computers for their... 5. administrative 6. A computer solves problems by...information. 6. data and instructions


( Simona and Berg work in a large supermarket. Berg is the Manager and Simona is the Head Buyer.)

Berg I'm so glad you had this business trip. I also would have liked to go but it's a

problem for me to get away. Tell me everything about your business trip.

Simona It was really great, Berg. It was worth looking over the operations of the store.

It's very well organized and I believe we should consider adopting some of the


Berg Is it really so?

Simona Absolutely. Berg, their computer system is remarkable.

Berg Can you tell me more about it?

Simona Oh, sure. First, they've replaced their cash registers with special terminals.

Berg What for?

Simona They record on tape the department number, classification of items, amount of

sale and name of salesclerk for each sale.

Berg Do you think we really need all that information on tape?

Simona We put on the same information on our sales checks.

Berg Yes, but in cases of exchanges we need to know all that.

Simona And for other things too.

Berg Well?

Simona For inventory control, for example. During the night, the tapes containing the

information are fed into the computer.

Berg And then what?

Simona Every morning the computer prepares reports on the sales of the day before,

classified by department and buyer.

Berg So, it is possible to have almost instant records.

Simona You are right. The inventory is kept up to date automatically. Imagine, how

efficient we could be.

Berg It is great. But I think with the help of a computer we could offer more

personal services to our customers.

Simona What do you mean?

Berg Having such up-to-date records and complete inventory we could keep records

of birthdays and anniversaries and have gift suggestions based on customer

records, and a million of other things.

Simona Don't hurry. Let's get going on first things first.

Active Vocabulary

Head Buyer керівник відділу постачання в магазині

to adopt methods впроваджувати методи

terminal термінал, висновок, кінець, кордон

to feed the information in the computer закладати інформацію у комп’ютер

to date обчислювати, підраховувати

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Change the sentences according to the model.

Model: I was worth looking over the operations of the supermarket.

I was worth looking them over.

1. They picked out the new merchandise.

2. They talked over the new software.

3. The manager tried out new sales checks.

4. She filled out the payroll form.

5. They took down the statistical data.

6. She put off her work.

7. He had to look over the new program.

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