ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Translate sentences into English using words and word combinations from the Vocabulary Notes.



1) Ви можете використовувати бази даних, бібліотечні каталоги та багато іншого в режимі онлайн, якщо підключитесь до мережі Інтернет. 2) Інтернет адреса може складатись як із слів, так і з цифр. 3) Бібліотечні каталоги – це найзагальніші інтернет-ресурси, доступні через програму Телнет. 4) Мільйони користувачів обмінюються інформацією через глобальну електронну дошку оголошень, яка називається Usenet News. 5) Повідомлення на Usenet зберігаються на центральних комп’ютерах, до яких потрібно під’єднатись, щоб прочитати ці повідомлення. 6) За допомогою чатів користувачі спілкуються між собою, друкуючи повідомлення в режимі реального часу.

6.Make up sentences from the following words and word-groups:

Model: steps, manufacturing, development, several, had, in, automated, its. - Automated manufacturing had several steps in its development.

1) To, its, a, must, Telnet, address, to, you, computer, know. 2) Web, available, the, Wide, Telnet, World, is, on. 3) Transfer, FTP, Protocol, for, File, stands. 4) electronic, a, News,board, is, bulletin, Usenet, system, global. 5) in, of, newsgroups, are, existence, Usenet, there, thousands. 6) a, rooms, Online, for, is, sponsoring, number, topical, America, well-known, of, chat.

Grammar in Use

Direct and Indirect Speech

Transform indirect commands changing direct speech into indirect one.

1) The teacher said to me: “Enter the Internet, please”. 2) “Explain to me how to solve this problem,” said my friend to me. “Don’t forget to turn the computer off,” said the teacher to students. 3) “Promise to come and repair my computer,” said Pete to his friend. 4) “Don’t be afraid of using new software” he said to me. 5) Jane said to us: “Please tell me all about programming languages.”

2. Transform sentences changing direct speech into indirect one.

1) The teacher said to us: “When we write in a symbolic language programs require the translation into the machine language. “ 2) He answered: ”Analog computers simulate physical systems.” 3) They asked: “What represents other physical quantities in analog computers?” 4) He asked: “Do digital computers count rather than measure?” 5) She asked: “Who designs computers for many different applications?” 6) We asked the teacher: “What functions do all computer systems perform?” 7) Oleg said to me: “ Will you surf the net tomorrow?” 8) I said to Mike: “ Have you bought the new hardware today?”

Additional Text

(for individual work)

Read and translate the text.

World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated as the Web or WWW) is a system of Internet servers that support hypertext to access several Internet protocols on a single interface. Almost every protocol type available on the Internet is accessible on the Web. This includes e-mail, FTP, Telnet, and Usenet News. In addition to these, the World Wide Web has its own protocol: Hyper Text Transfer Protocol, or HTTP. The World Wide Web provides a single interface for accessing all these protocols. This creates a convenient and user-friendly environment. The Web gathers together all protocols into a single system. Because of this feature, and because of the Web’s ability to work with multimedia and advanced programming languages, the World Wide Web is the fastest- growing component of the Internet. The operation of the Web relies primarily on hypertext as its means of information retrieval. Hyper Text is a document containing words that connect to other documents. These words are called links and are selectable by the user. A single hypertext document can contain links to many documents. In the context of the Web, words o graphics may serve as links to other documents, images, video, and sounds. Producing hypertext for the web is accomplished by creating documents with a language called Hyper Text Markup Language, or HTLM. The World Wide Web consists of files, called pages or home pages, containing links to documents and resources throughout the Internet.

The Web provides a vast array of experiences including multimedia presentations, real-time collaboration, interactive pages, radio and television broadcasts, and the automatic “push” of information to a client computer. Programming languages such as Java, JavaScript and Visual Basic are extending the capabilities of the Web. An increasing amount of information on the Web is served dynamically from content stored in databases. The Web is therefore not a fixed entity, but one that is in a constant state of flux.

Divide the text into the logical parts and give a title to each one.

Put questions to the text.

Discuss it with your groupmates.

Unit 4

Text Study. Online Services

Additional Text. Microsoft Internet Explorer.

Grammar: Impersonal Sentences.

Text Study

I. Pre-reading Exercises

1. Repeat the words in chorus:

Particular, entirely, subjective, judgments, to judge, advantages, elsewhere, to be interlinked, circuit, multiplexor, incompatible.

2. While reading the text you will come across a number of international words. Try to guess what Ukrainian words they remind of you:

Files, absolute, individual, product, electrical, signal, code, telephone, microphone, modem, channel, control, protocols.

3. Pay attention to some grammatical points:

1) Still users tend to be loyal to their ‘home’ online service - which is usually the first online service they ever used. 2) Keep an open mind when checking outan online service. 3) It takes a couple of sessionsto shake preconceived notions of what an online service ‘should’ be.

II. Reading

Read the text and be ready to find in the text the answers to the following questions:

  • What is the best online service?
  • What online services do you know?

Online Services

Many people ask which online is ‘best’, but the answer is there is no best. Rating of a particular service over another is entirely subjective. Price is important to some people, while the number of files available for download is important to others. Because of these and so many other different judgments, there can be no absolute. It all comes down to individual needs and preferences.

Still users tend to be loyal to their ‘home’ online service - which is usually the first online service they ever used. They tend to judge all other online services based on this first service - often preventing themselves from seeing the advantages of a specific service. There are many online services. Each offers one or more products or features that either do not exist elsewhere or are superior to the same features on other services.

So the real answer to the question is simple: the best online service is the service that has what you want and is easy for you to use. Keep an open mind when checking out an online service. Judge is based on what it offers and how it meets your needs - not in comparison to what you are used to using. It takes a couple of sessions to shake preconceived notions of what an online service ‘should’ be. Eventually, we are all going to be interlinked, no matter which service we use. Until then, most of us have to go to more than one service to find everything we need.

Data Transmission

An acoustic coupler converts the electrical signals from the computer into a coded sound signal which is picked up by the telephone microphone. It then works as a modem.

A modem can covert a digital bit stream into an analog signal over an analog communication channel (telephone circuit). It then converts incoming analog signals back into digital signals.

A cluster controller may control several terminals in one location, connecting each of them to a modem. This connection is made on a shared line basis.

A multiplexorreceives multiple signals from various terminals and combines them in dataframes for transmission on a single high-speed line to the computer. In the computer the dataframes are then separated again.

A gateway interconnects two or more networks, enabling data transfers to be made. It may act as a translator between incompatible networks, protocols, or software.

Vocabulary Notes

rating['reItIN]—оцінка

subjective[sqb'GekIv]— суб’єктивний

judgment['GAGmqnt]— судження

to come down— зводити(сь), доходити до

preferences['prqfqrqnsIz]— вподобання

to tend to — схилятися, мати тенденцію

loyal['lOIql]— вірний, відданий

to prevent[prI'vent] — запобігати

elsewhere['els'wFq] — (десь) в іншому місті

superior to[sjH'pIqrIq] — перевершувати (щось)

in comparison to[kqm'pxrIsn] — порівняно з

preconceived['prJkqn'sJvd] — складений заздалегідь

eventually[I'venCqlI] — в результаті, в кінцевому рахунку, зрештою

acoustic coupler [q'kHstIk 'kAplq] — акустичний з’єднувач

modem— модем

telephone circuit['sWkIt] — телефонна мережа

cluster controller ['klAstq 'kqn'trqulq] — контролер кластера

multiplexor ['mAltI"plFksq] — мультиплексор (multiplexor, multiplexer, MUX) - прилад, який об’єднує кілька вузькосмугових (низькошвидкісних) комунікаційних каналів у широкосмуговий або високошвидкісний канал.

dataframe— широкосмуговий канал

gateway['geItweI] —міжмережевий шлюз (програмно-апаратний засіб, який реалізує трансляцію одного мережного протоколу в інший, що дозволяє об'єднати мережі з різними протоколами, і завдяки чому між ними стає можливий обмін даними).

incompatible["Inkqm'pxtqbl] — несумісний

Comprehension





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