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Change from direct into indirect speech.



1) The student said, “I studied high-level computer languages at school.” 2) The teacher said, “I saw some mistakes in your computer test.” 3) My groupmate said, “I have already read about the fifth computer generation.” 4) He said, “I did not recognize your handwriting.” 5) The teacher stressed “The initial purpose of the Web was to use networked hypertext to facilitate communication among its members.” 6) The scientist said, “In recent years, the use of the Web has now reached global proportions.” 7) The teacher said, “Microsoft has evolved much in the same way as Apple Computer.”8) The student stressed, “Microsoft has thus created its own standards in a market.”

Additional Text

(for individual work)

Read and translate the text

Information Explosion and Data Processing in Modern Society

An outstanding characteristic of modern society is the powerful flow of knowledge and information in different fields of human activities.

Information is often called the lifeblood of modern civilization. It plays an ever increasing part in everyday life, management of business, etc. .

The scientific activity, with all its technical and economic outcomes and consequences, is today passing through a period of particularly rapid development. For instance, over the past 150 years the range of human knowledge has been doubled every twelve to fifteen years.

The present-day information explosion must be properly dealt with. To handle the information flow properly and instantly, to help specialists find immediately of machines have been invented. They are now widely used for this purpose.

The computer, with its million fold increase in man’s capacity to handle information, undoubtedly, holds the first place. Without the computer, data and information processing would be impossible, say, in space programs. It is the phenomenal speed of computers that makes them practically well suited to pursuing activities that require instant solution to complex dynamic problems. They are extensively used in the control and monitoring of space vehicles. Computers are ideal for high-volume computing tasks such as the computation and analysis of statistical and mathematical data as well as scientific and engineering calculations.

For example, before production can be started in the factory, raw materials and parts have to be procured. This involves the data processing system in the preparation of purchase orders. When supplies are received they have to be recorded on appropriate stock or job-records, which again involve data processing.

When production is due to begin materials and parts have to be issued to the production centers and suitability recorded on issue notes which are subsequently recorded on stock and job records. The issues are often priced and extended. These arc also data processing operations.

In the industry, for instance, one of the new generations of press control combines a menu-driven press computer with a programmable press controller. The press control system monitors all vital functions of the stamping system. It provides an infinite for storing all your setup information.

Total system diagnostics are enhanced by the computer to provide on screen remedies for identifiable problems. Not only do you know why the press has stopped, but now you know where the problem is and how to remedy it.

On-line operating data are automatically recorded. You can now call up a report to tell all about the job while it is running and how long to completion. The computerized control system has the flexibility to meet new requirements for more information.

Thus information and data processing is a special activity performed by the administrative organization for the business as a whole. It is concerned with the systematic recording, arranging, filing, processing and dissemination of facts relating to the physical events occurring in business.

From the above said it can be concluded that data processing systems provide information and information provides the basis for managerial control of business operations to achieve corporate objectives as effectively as possible. This means making the most suitable decisions based on the information provided.

A management information system therefore embraces the data processing systems control systems (using information provided by the data processing system), and decision-making based on the facts indicated by the control systems.

A data processing system in its simplest form consists of three primary elements: input, processing and output. These elements apply whether the system is manual, mechanical or electronic.

A computer system consists of five elements: input, processing, output, storage and control.

It is absolutely necessary for every active member of modern society to be able to use the computer system in data (information) processing and management.

Unit 3

Text Study: Operating System.

Additional Text: UNIX Operating System.

Grammar: The Future Perfect Tense.

Text Study

I. Pre-reading Exercises

1. Repeat the words in chorus:

Keyboard, purchase, successfully, occur, initialized, simultaneously, request, designed, circumstances, through, frequently.

2. While reading the text you will come across a number of new words. Try to guess what Ukrainian words they remind of you:

Physically, package, series, chronological, termination, cables, initialization, resources, normally, functioning, concurrently, multiprogramming, potion.

3. Pay attention to some grammatical points:

1) You can think of these as the parts you are able to touch physically. 2) The operating system is the component that on one side manages and controls the hardware and on the other manages the applications. 3) Various pieces of hardware need to be initialized. 4)It is the operating system’s job to manage execution of the application. 5) Some operating systems are adopted as ’’industry standards’’ and these are the ones which should be evaluated because they normally have a good software base. 6) The cost of softwareis likely to be lower in such circumstances as the development costs are spread over a greater number of users, both actual and potential.

II. Reading

Read the text and be ready to answer the following questions:

  • What is an operating system?
  • How does it work?
  • What operating systems are there?

Operating System

An operating system is an important part of a computer system. A computer system is built from three general components: the hardware, the operating system, and the applications. The hardware includes pieces such as a central processing unit (CPU), a keyboard, a hard drive and a printer. You can think of these as the parts you are able to touch physically. Applications are why you use computers; they use the rest of the system to perform the desired task (for example, play a game, edit a memo, send electronic mail). The operating system is the component that on one side manages and controls the hardware and on the other manages the applications.

When you purchase a computer system, you must have at least hardware and an operating system. The hardware you purchase is able to use (or run) one or more different operating systems. You can purchase a computer package, which includes the hardware, the operating system, and possibly one or more applications. The operating system is necessary in order to manage the hardware and applications.

When you turn on your computer, the operating system performs a series of tasks, presented here in chronological order.

One of the first things you do, after successfully plugging together cables and components, is turn on your computer. The operating system takes care of all the starting functions that must occur to get your computer to a usable state. Various pieces of hardware need to be initialized. After the start-up procedure is complete, the operating system awaits further instructions. If you shut down the computer, the operating system also has a procedure that makes sure all the hardware is shut down correctly. Before turning your computer of again, you might want to do something useful, which means that one or more applications are executed.

After the operating system completes hardware initialization, you can execute an application. The executing application is called a process. It is the operating system’s job to manage execution of the application. When you execute a program, the operating system creates a new process. Many processes can exist simultaneously. This process is referred to as multitasking. When you exit your program (or it finishes executing) the process terminates, and the operating system manages the termination by reclaiming any resources that were being used. Most applications perform some tasks between the time the process is created and the time it terminates. To perform these tasks, the program makes requests to the operating system, and the operating system responds to the requests and allocates necessary resources to the program. When an executing process needs to use some hardware, the operating system provides access for the process.

To perform its task, a process may need to access hardware resources. The process may need to read or write a file, send data to a network card (to communicate with another computer), or send data to a printer. The operating system provides such services for the process. This is referred to as resource allocation. A piece of hardware is a resource, and the operating system allocates available resources to the different processes that are running.

All computers do not use the same operating systems. It is therefore important to assess the operating system used on a particular model before initial commitment because some software is only designed to run under the control of specific operating systems. Some operating systems are adopted as ’’industry standards’’ and these are the ones which should be evaluated because they normally have a good software base. The reason for this is that software houses are willing to expand resources on the development of application packages for machines functioning under the control of an operating system which is widely used. The cost of software is likely to be lower in such circumstances as the development costs are spread over a greater number of users, both actual and potential.

Mainframe computers usually process several application programs concurrently, switching from one to the other, for the purpose of increasing processing productivity. This is known as multiprogramming, which requires a powerful operating system. An operating system is stored on disk and has to be booted into the internal memory (RAM) where it must reside through processing so that commands are instantly available. The operating system commands may exceed the internal memory capacity of the computer in which case only that potion of the operating system which is frequently used is retained internally, other modules being read in from disk as required.

Vocabulary Notes

to edit– редагувати

memo– повідомлення, пам’ятка

to manage-керувати,управляти,організовувати процес (координувати)

to occur[q'kW]відбуватися, траплятися

to complete –завершувати, закінчувати

simultaneously["sIm(q)l'teInslI]одночасно

multitasking –виконання значної кількості завдань одночасно

to terminate -завершувати

termination –завершення

to reclaim –відновлення

a request[rI'kwqst]запит

to allocate –розміщувати

allocation -розміщення

to access['xkses] отримати (мати)доступ

to assess['xses] оцінювати

initial commitment –первинне встановлення

to adopt –приймати, переймати, засвоювати

to evaluate –оцінювати, обчислювати, визначати якість

to will –заставляти, примушувати

to expand –розширювати, розповсюджувати

concurrently[kqn'kAr(q)ntlI]одночасно

to boot –початкове завантаження системи, самозавантаження

instantly –негайно

to reside[rI'zaId]постійно зберігатися

to exceed [Ik'sJd]– переповнювати, перегружати

to retain –утримувати в пам’яті, акумулювати

Comprehension





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