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Module ІІI

Computer System

Unit 1

Text Study: Basic Elements of a Computer.

Additional Text: The Computer System.

Grammar: The Present Perfect Tense.

Text Study

I. Pre-reading Exercises

1. Repeat the words in chorus:

Acquainted, proce­dure, architectural, cause, particularly, certain, substituted.

2. While reading the text you will come across a number of new words. Try to guess what Ukrainian words they remind of you:

Electronic, mechanical, documentation, data, analysis, to assist, specialists, programmer, inventory.

3. Pay attention to some grammatical points:

1) Not visible, the information in the form of data and programs is the software — the set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system.2) They do not solve specific problems they are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks such as controlling all of the operations required.3) The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. 4) For example, in an instance where cost is more important than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to multiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeat­ed use of circuits already designed to perform addition.

II. Reading

Read the text and be ready to find in the text the answers to the following questions:

  • What is the hardware?
  • What is the software? What is the firmware?

Basic Elements of a Computer

As we know all computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting. Now we'll get acquainted with the computer system units that per­form these functions.

The electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system are called hardware. Thus, the input, storage, processing and control devices are hardware. Not visible, the information in the form of data and programs is the software — the set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system. Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software.

Systems software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. They do not solve specific problems they are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by performing tasks, such as controlling all of the operations required, to move data into and out of a computer all of the steps in executing an application program. The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. Systems programmers are highly trained specialists and important members of the architectural team.

Applications software are the programs written to solve spe­cific problems (applications), such as payroll, inventory control, and investment analysis. The word program usually refers to an application program, and the word programmer is usually a person who prepares applications software.

Often programs, particularly systems software, are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software. These protected programs are stored in an area of memory called read-only memory (ROM), which can be read from but not written on.

Firmwareis a term that is commonly used to describe certain programs that are stored in ROM. Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for hardware. For example, in an instance where cost is more important than performance, the computer system architect might decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to multiply two numbers, but instead write instructions (software) to cause the machine to accomplish the same function by repeat­ed use of circuits already designed to perform addition.

Vocabulary Notes

inputting – введення (даних)

storing – зберігання (даних)

processing – обробка(даних)

controlling – керування, управління

outputting – вивід

to get acquainted[q'kweInt]познайомитися

proce­dure[prq'sJdZq]процес, алгоритм

data[ 'deItq] дані, інформація

hardware –апаратне обладнання, «комп’ютерне залізо»

software –програмне забезпечення

systems software –системне програмне забезпечення

application software – прикладне програмне забезпечення

specific problems=application – специфічні (прикладні) задачі (завдання)

to execute['eksIkjHt]виконувати

an application program –прикладна програма

a systems programmer –системний програміст

architectural['RkItekCqrql]team – група розробників (проектувальників)

payroll– платіжна відомість

inventory control – переоблік

investment analysis – інвестиційний аналіз

read-only memory (ROM)– постійна пам'ять

firmware – вбудоване/мікропроцесорне програмне забезпечення, «зашиті програми» в ROM

computer system architect['R:kItekt]розробник архітектури комп’ютерної системи

Comprehension

Tell what sentences are true and what are false.

1) All computer systems perform the functions of inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting. 2) The electronic and mechanical parts that make up a computer system are called hardware.3) Visible, the information in the form of data and programs is the software.4) Software programs are of two types: systems software and applications software. 5) Applications software are the programs designed to control the operation of a computer system. 6) Systems software are the programs written to solve spe­cific problems (applications). 7) The person who prepares systems software is referred to as a systems programmer. 8) Systems software are stored in an area of memory called read-only memory (ROM). 9) Firmware often refers to a sequence of instructions (software) that is substituted for software.

2. Choose the right answer:

1) All computer systems perform the functions of … .

a) inputting, storing;

b) controlling and outputting;

c) inputting, storing, processing, controlling, and outputting.

2) …, the information in the form of data and programs is the software

a) not visible;

b) visible;

c) however.

3) System software do not solve specific problems they are written to assist people in the use of the computer system by … tasks.

a) outputting;

b) performing;

c) storing.

4) The person who prepares systems software is referred to as … .

a) a systems programmer;

b) architect;

c) designer.

5) Often programs, particularly … , are stored in an area of memory not used for applications software.

a) application;

b) systems software;

c) hardware.

6) Protected programs are stored in an area of memory called … which can be read from but not written on.

a) computer;

b) random access memory(RAM);

c) read-only memory (ROM).

7) … is a term that is commonly used to describe certain programs that are stored in ROM.

a) software;

b) hardware;

c) firmware.

Complete the sentences.

1) The input, storage, processing and control devices are … . 2) The set of computer programs, proce­dures, and associated documentation that make possible the effective operation of the computer system is called … . 3) Systems software are the programs designed … . 4) Applications software are the programs written … . 5) Firmware often refers to … .

4. Answer the questions:

1) What functions do all computer systems perform? 2) What devices are hardware? 3) How many types are software programs? What are they? 4) What is the system software? 5) What is the application software? 6) What does the word program refer to? 7) Where are systems software stored? 8) When might the computer system architect decide not to use special electronic circuits (hardware) to multiply two numbers?

5. Find as quickly as possible and read out the sentences containing the following important information:

  • basic elements of the hardware
  • basic elements of the software
  • about system software
  • about application software
  • about firmware

*6. Try to tell the gist of the text.

Word Study





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