Grammar: Conjunctions. Impersonal Sentences.




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Grammar: Conjunctions. Impersonal Sentences.



Text Study

I. Pre-reading Exercises

1. Repeat the words in chorus:

To engage, commonplace, a research, an insti­tute, widespread, quality, accounting, to withdrawal, current, guidance, environment, recognition, view, schedule, availability, sophisticated, a vehicle, to verify, an employee, society.

2. While reading the text you will come across a number of international words. Try to guess what Ukrainian words they remind of you:

Communicating, service, manufacture, financial, terminal, million, operation, terminal, navigation, medicine, image, technician, tomography, scanner, transition, status.

3. Pay attention to some grammatical points:

1) At present a great deal of the work force of most coun­tries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. 2) Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase the productivity of industry. 3) Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks. 4) Without the terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current sta­tus of customer accounts. 5) Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. 6) They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. 7) The computer has changed the production of copy in the newspaper industry.

II. Reading

Read the text and be ready to be ready to fill in the table:

branch application
medicine valuable medical diagnostic tools

Application of Computers

At present a great deal of the work force of most coun­tries is engaged in creating, processing, storing, communicating and just working with information. Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research insti­tutes, plants. The use of computers in business, industry and communi­cation services is widespread today.

Computer-controlled robots are able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase the productivity of industry. Computers can control the work of power stations, plants and docks.

They help in making different decisions and in management of economy. In business, computers are used for financial planning, accounting and specific calculations. The work of banks depends upon computer terminals for millions of daily operations. Without these terminals, records of deposits and withdrawals would be difficult to maintain, and it would be impossible to make inquiries about the current sta­tus of customer accounts.

Computers form a part of many military systems including communication and fire control. They are applied for automatic piloting and automatic navigation. Space exploration depends on computers for guidance, on-board environment and re­search.

For feather prediction macro computers are used to fully describe countless factors such as wind currents, solar effects and even planetary configuration must be calculated, correlated and simulated.

It is interesting to note that computers are widely used in medicine. They became valuable medical diagnostic tools. Computers are used for optical scanning and image processing, ranging from pattern recognition to image processing. Technicians can operate computer tomography scanners which combine x-rays with computer technology to give sectional views of the body of patients. The views then can be combined into a single image shown on the screen.

The computer has changed the production of copy in the newspaper industry. There are three steps involved in the process: input, correction, and output.

Railway companies use large computer systems to control ticket reservations and to give immediate information on the status of their trains. The computer system is connected by private telephone lines to terminals in major train stations, and ticket reservations for customers are made through these phone lines. Computers are used for a variety of other jobs including train schedules, planning, freight and cargo loading, meal planning, personnel availability, accounting and stock control.

More and more police departments are now using sophisticated devices to help control the increasing crime rate. Some of these devices are: firstly, a computer terminal inside a police vehicle to answer an officer’s questions, secondly, a computer-controlled display unit for displaying fingerprints, and thirdly, educational systems for police officers such as terminals, enabling them to verify changes in laws, rules, and regulations.

Almost every medium-sized or large company will use computers to help run the office. You will probably have to work with a computer in your day - to-day duties, so you will need to know something about computers and the way they are used. A computer really does make office life easier because it can so all sorts of different jobs. Computers are used to write letters and keep records of clients, suppliers and employees.

It should be noticed that learning on a computer can be fun. Students spend more time with computer-aided instruction per­forming the assigned task, as compared with conventional classroom.

At last air traffic control is impossible without computer application. It fully depends upon computer-generated informa­tion.

Many other uses of computers that we cannot imagine at present will become commonplace in the transition from an industrial to post industrial, or information society.

Vocabulary Notes

to engage in – бути залученим у щось

commonplace – банальний, звичайний, неоригінальний

widespread – розповсюджений, широко поширений

а research [rI'sq:tS]– дослідження

to improve – покращувати

to maintain records – вести облік

deposits[dI'pOzIts]and withdrawal [wiD'drL(q)l]– вклади та вилучення

an inquiry [In'kwaiqrI]– довідка, запит

guidance ['gaid(q)ns]– управління; керівництво

an environment [In'vaIqr(q)nmqnt]– середовище

freight[freIt]/ cargo ['kQ:gqu]– вантаж, вартість перевезення

sophisticated – мудрий

an employee ["emplOi'J]– робітник, службовець

to assign [q'saIn]– назначати, встановлювати

a society [sq'saiqtI]– суспільство

countless [kauntlIs] – багаточисленний, незчисленний

to verify ['verIfaI]– перевіряти, контролювати

Comprehension

Tell what sentences are true and what are false.

1) Computers have become commonplace in homes, offices, stores, schools, research insti­tutes, plants. 2) Computer-controlled robots are not able to improve the quality of manufactured products and to increase the productivity of industry. 3) Space exploration can not depend on computers for guidance, on-board environment and re­search.4) The computer has changed the production of copy in the newspaper industry. There are ten steps involved in the process. 5) Almost every medium-sized or large company will use computers to help run the office.

2. Choose the right answer:

1) The use of computers in business, industry and communi­cation services is … today.

a) seldom;

b) widespread;

c) interesting.

2) Computers … control the work of power stations, plants and docks.

a) can;

b) can not;

c) could.

3) In … , computers are used for financial planning, accounting and specific calculations.

a) home;

b) farm;

c) business.

4) … are used to fully describe countless factors.

a) macro computers;

b) minicomputers;

c) desk computers.

5) … use large computer systems to control ticket reservations

a) institutions;

b) universities;

c) rrailway companies.

6) ... is impossible without computer application.

a) air traffic control;

b) air control;

c) water control.

Complete the sentences.

1) At present a great deal of the work force of most coun­tries is engaged in … . 2) Computers have become commonplace in … .3) The work of banks depends upon … . 4) There are three steps involved in the process of copy in the newspaper industry: … . 5) People use computers in different branches: …. 6) Students spend more time with … .

4. Answer the questions:

1) Where have computers become commonplace? 2) How do computers help in business? 3) What does the work of banks depend upon? 4) Do computers form a part of many military systems? In what way? 5) How are computers used in medicine? 6) Why do Railway companies use a computer? 7) Can police departments work without using sophisticated devices? Why? 8) How do we use a computer in everyday life?

5. Find as quickly as possible and read out the sentences containing the following important information:

  • application of a computer in medicine
  • application of a computer in business
  • application of a computer in day-to-day duties

*6. Try to tell the gist of the text.

Word Study





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