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Put questions to the underlined words.



1) This system will have been easy to install by 2 p.m. tomorrow. 2) The system will have failed by the morning. 3) Jack will have been responsible for maintaining the system by the midday. 4) You will have finished typing before I see you. 5) I will have forgotten the extreme game by the next morning. 6) The students will have finishedtheir thesis by the end of April.

Additional Text

(for individual work)

Read the text in order to give the description of UNIX OS.

UNIX Operating System

Unix started to be developed around 1969, with the first published description appearing in 1973. It was developed at an ATT research lab and was made freely available to universities, encouraging its widespread adoption. Unlike earlier operating systems which had been written in assembly language, the code for Unix was largely in C. The use of a high level language made the code much easier for programmers to understand and maintain. Further, the Unix OS was designed! The programmers who developed Unix started with a clear idea of how their OS was to work and what services it was to provide. Unix was more limited in its aims than many other OSs of the time. It was intended solely to provide a good environment for timeshare style program development. Other OSs were attempting to do timesharing, and database transactions, and run large jobs, but such different uses of a computer tend to conflict resulting in poor performance in all areas. The design for Unix modelled the OS in terms of several layers (when describing the design, someone made an analogy with a nut or an onion and introduced terms like" kernel", "shell" etc - these names have stuck):

• the innermost layer (the "kernel") has the code for the i/o handling routines ("device drivers") etc;

• another layer contains the code for process management, file management, and memory management;

• further layers contain code for looking after wide area and local networks and

so forth;

• the next layer out comprised large numbers of useful utility programs – programs for copying files, comparing files to find differences etc

• the outermost layer (the "shell") was the job control language interpreter, but this JCL interpreter was much more flexible than any that had been proposed

previously.

Unix was originally written for a particular kind of computer (the "PDP11/20") manufactured by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC). But, the relatively clean design of the system, and the use of a high level language, made it possible for the system to be adapted to other computers (only the "device drivers" and other really low level code had to be redone). Unix was moved to related but more powerful computer architectures (DEC's VAX series of computers) and to totally different computer architectures. During the 1980s, Unix was adapted to run on computers as diverse as the modern Cray supercomputers down to personal computers with Intel-80386 CPU chips. The US Department of Defence's Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) sponsored development of Unix at the University of Berkeley. The Berkeley developers added features to support virtual memory and networking (both wide area and local networking). Late in the 1980s, many computer companies, ATT, Berkeley University, IEEE, etc got together and established standards for all Unix systems.

Unix thus has the advantage of being a system that is non-proprietary, is widely available, and is effective in its original role of supporting program development. Most students continuing with computing studies will eventually get to work with some Unix systems. Modern Unix systems have been expanded so as to handle tasks other than the "programmers' workbench" of the original design. These extensions (to handle large databases, some transaction processing and so forth) were demanded by customers. In some respects, these extensions detract from Unix which no longer has a quite the simplicity and elegance of its early forms.

UNIX. This as, designed by Bell Laboratories for minicomputers and workstations, has been widely adopted by many corporate instal­lations. From the very first, it was designed to be a multi-tasking sys­tem written in C language.

LINUX (Linus Torvalds). Protected under the GNU general pu­blic license Linux is the open source, cooperatively-developed POSIX­ based, multi-tasking operating system. Linux is used as a high-value, fully-functional UNIX workstation for applications ranging from In­ternet Servers to reliable workgroup computing. Linux is available for Intel platforms.

Unit 4

Text Study: Microsoft Operating Systems.

Additional Text: Macintosh OS.

Grammar: Revision of the Module III.

Text Study

I. Pre-reading Exercises

1. Repeat the words in chorus:

Unique, significantly, scientific, previous, numerous, enhancements, reliability, major, wireless, awareness, suspicious.

2. While reading the text you will come across a number of new words. Try to guess what Ukrainian words they remind of you:

Menu, dialog, calendar, calculator, card, graphics, strategic, mobile, computing, integrated, cafes, viruses, hackers, debut, music, video.

3. Pay attention to some grammatical points:

1) In 1990, Microsoft announces Windows 3.0, followed shortly by Windows 3.1 in 1992. 2) Windows software is installed with floppy discs bought in large boxes with heavy instruction manuals. 3) Upgrade versions are available for both floppy disk and CD-ROM formats. 4) Windows Me was the last Microsoft operating system to be based on the Windows 95 code base.


II. Reading

Read the text in order to fill in the table:

The name of OS Distinctive Features
   

Microsoft Operating Systems

MS-DOS. In 1980 Microsoft focuses on a new operating system—the software that manages, or runs, the computer hardware and also serves to bridge the gap between the computer hardware and programs, such as a word processor. It’s the foundation on which computer programs can run. They name their new operating system "MS‑DOS." MS‑DOS stands for Microsoft Disk Operating System.

In 1985 Windows ships Windows 1.0. It is unique software designed for the serious PC users. There are drop-down menus, scroll bars, icons, and dialog boxes that make programs easier to learn and use. Windows 1.0 ships with several programs, including MS‑DOS file management, Paint, Windows Writer, Notepad, Calculator, and a calendar, card file, and clock to help you manage day-to-day activities.

In 1987 Microsoft releases Windows 2.0 with desktop icons and expanded memory. With improved graphics support, you can now overlap windows, control the screen layout, and use keyboard shortcuts to speed up your work. Windows 2.0 is designed for the Intel 286 processor.

In 1990, Microsoft announces Windows 3.0, followed shortly by Windows 3.1 in 1992. Windows now has significantly better performance, advanced graphics with 16 colors, and improved icons. Program Manager, File Manager, and Print Manager arrive in Windows 3.0. Windows software is installed with floppy discs bought in large boxes with heavy instruction manuals. The popularity of Windows 3.0 grows with the release of a new Windows software development kit (SDK), which helps software developers to focus more on writing programs and less on writing device drivers.

Unlike Windows 3.1, however, Windows NT 3.1 is a 32-bit operating system, which makes it a strategic business platform that supports high-end programs.

In 1995 Microsoft releases Windows 95. This is the era of fax/modems, e‑mail, the new online world, and dazzling multimedia games and educational software. Windows 95 has built-in Internet support, dial-up networking, and new Plug and Play capabilities that make it easy to install hardware and software. The 32-bit operating system also offers enhanced multimedia capabilities, more powerful features for mobile computing, and integrated networking. Windows 95 is the upgrade to the previous Windows and MS‑DOS operating systems. Upgrade versions are available for both floppy disk and CD-ROM formats. In the summer of 1995, the first version of Internet Explorer is released. The browser joins those already vieing for space on the World Wide Web.

Released in 1998, Windows 98 is the first version of Windows designed specifically for consumers. PCs are common at work and home, and Internet cafes where you can get online are popping up. Other improvements include the ability to open and close programs more quickly, and support for reading DVD discs and universal serial bus (USB) devices. Windows 98 is the last version based on MS‑DOS.

Designed for home computer use, Windows Me offers numerous music, video, and home networking enhancements and reliability improvements compared to previous versions. Windows Me was the last Microsoft operating system to be based on the Windows 95 code base.

Windows 2000 Professional is designed to replace Windows 95, Windows 98, and Windows NT Workstation 4.0 on all business desktops and laptops. Built on top of the proven Windows NT Workstation 4.0 code base, Windows 2000 adds major improvements in reliability, ease of use, Internet compatibility, and support for mobile computing. Windows 2000 Professional simplifies hardware installation by adding support for a wide variety of new Plug and Play hardware, including advanced networking and wireless products, USB devices, IEEE 1394 devices, and infrared devices.

In 2001 Windows XP becomes one of the best-selling products in the coming years. It’s both fast and stable. Awareness of computer viruses and hackers increases, but fears are to a certain extent calmed by the online delivery of security updates. Consumers begin to understand warnings about suspicious attachments and viruses. There’s more emphasis on Help and Support. Windows XP Home Edition offers such enhancements as the Network Setup Wizard, Windows Media Player, Windows Movie Maker, and enhanced digital photo capabilities. With a fresh visual design, Windows XP Professional includes features for business and advanced home computing, including remote desktop support, an encrypting file system, and system restore and advanced networking features. Windows XP has several editions during these years: Windows XP 64-bit Edition (2001), Windows XP Media Center Edition, Windows XP Tablet PC Edition (2002).

Windows Vista is released in 2006 with the strongest security system yet. User Account Control helps to prevent potentially harmful software from making changes to your computer. Windows Vista also features enhancements to Windows Media Player. Here you can watch television, view and send photographs, and edit videos.

By the late 2000s, the wireless world has arrived. When Windows 7 is released in October 2009, laptops are outselling desktop PCs and it’s common to get online at public wireless hotspots like coffee shops. Wireless networks can be created at the office or at home. Windows Touch makes its debut, enabling you to use your fingers to browse the web, flip through photos, and open files and folders. You can stream music, videos, and photos from your PC to a stereo or TV. Many laptops no longer have a slot for DVDs and some have solid state drives rather than conventional hard disks. Most everything is streamed, saved on flash drives, or saved in the "Cloud"—an online space for sharing files and storage. Windows Live—free programs and services for photos, movies, instant messaging, e‑mail, and social networking—is seamlessly integrated with Windows so that you can keep in touch from your PC, phone, or the web, extending Windows to the Cloud.

Meanwhile, work is underway for the next version of Windows.

Vocabulary Notes

to focuse on['fqukqs]зосереджуватися на

to bridge the gap between –ліквідовувати розрив між

to ship –вводити, добавляти

to release –випускати у світ

to overlap –суміщати

significantly –багатозначно

software development kit (SDK) –набір інструментальних засобів для розробки програмного забезпечення (включає бібліотеки, заголовочні файли, файли допомоги, документацію)

built-in –вбудований

enhanced[In'hRnst]вдосконалений, розширений

enhancement –модернізація, вдосконалення, розширення

Plug and Play -стандарт фірм Microsoft, Intel та ін., що мають на меті спрощення підключення комп’ютера: бере на себе розпізнавання та налаштування периферійного обладнання без подальшого встановлення параметрів користувачем.

to vie [vaI]- конкурувати

the upgrade –оновлена версія

to pop up –висвітлитися на екрані

wireless - безпровідниковий

stable –стійкий, постійний

awareness[q'wFqnqs]компетентність, знання

an encrypting file system –закодована система файлів

to restore –відновлення

to feature –характеризуватися

to stream –відтворювати

seamlessly –прямо, безперервно

to keep in touch from -мати зв'язки, бути в контакті,не відриватися

meanwhile –тим часом

Comprehension





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