Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
Практические работы по географии для 6 класса
Организация работы процедурного кабинета
Обработка изделий медицинского назначения многократного применения
Изменения в неживой природе осенью
Уборка процедурного кабинета
Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Unit 25. Doing Business on the Internet
Corporate website корпоративна веб-сторінка
Publicity рекламування; пропагування
E-commerce/online trading електронна торгівля
Time-saving money method метод, що заощаджує
Companies can rise use their presence on the Web to access the growing number of websites of interest. There are different ways in which business can benefit from its functions:
§ Business use e-mail to deal with customers, to make and respond to enquiries quickly and to communicate with employees.
§ A corporate website may be used for publicity, for selling or for sharing information.
§ E-commerce or online trading has proved to be very successful for some companies. One of the advantages of this form of trading is that users can come to the website 24 hours a day.
§ Marketing on the Web can be achieved by setting up a website and making it attractive to visitors.
§ The Internet is a powerful tool for collecting data. Companies can use it to look up other companies and their products, access financial information, find market information, foreign exchange rates and so.
§ Using computer networks to transmit audio and video data between two or more people in different locations (video conference) is a time-saving method of communication.
§ Many companies place their recruitment needs on their own websites or on the websites of recruitment agencies.
§ Large corporations place their annual reports on their websites in order to provide a service to their shareholders.
Exercise 1. Give the English for:
робити запит, спілкуватися з працівниками, корпоративна веб-сторінка, ділитися інформацією, електронна торгівля, перевага, збирати дані, валютний курс, комп’ютерна мережа, відео-конференція, метод, що заощаджує час, річний звіт, надавати послуги, акціонери.
Exercise 2. Match words from list A with words from list B that have similar meaning:
access online trading
Exercise 3. Write the appropriate word into sentence:
online(2), PC, marketing, online trading, corporate website, publicity(2), e-commerce, multi-media.
1. Recently there has been considerable expansion of … business which
provide integrated media services through networks such as Internet.
2. … has become a major online service; it reduces company costs.
3. The product has sold well considering it was not given much advance … .
5. Our … is used for delivering stock and bond information.
6. The firm tried to avoid adverse … about its faulty products.
7. … on the Web can be achieved by setting up a website and making it
attractive to visitors.
8. A database of employees is maintained on your … .
9. He is owner of a new … service, specializing in providing a variety of
foodstuff which can be ordered on the Internet.
10. Cybercash could provide an important stimulus to … sales.
Exercise 4. Answer the following questions:
1. Which way do companies use their presence on the Web?
2. What do businesses use the e-mail for?
3. What may a corporate website be used for?
4. What is one of advantages of the E-commerce?
5. How can marketing be achieved ob the Web?
6. What companies use the Internet for?
7. What is a time saving method of communication?
8. How can companies use the Web for recruitment purposes?
9. Why do large corporations place their annual reports on the their websites?
Unit 26. Business letter
Structure of business letter
Business letters include all kinds of commercial letters,inquiries, replies to inquiries, Letters of Credit (L/C), invoices, Bills of Lading (B/L), Bills of Exchange or drafts, letters of insurance, explanatory letters, orders, letters of packing, letters of shipment, letters of delivery, offers, letters of complaint,replies to those of mentioned above, etc.
A business letter should be as short as possible, intelligible, polite, benevolent and its language must be simple.
Rules and traditions of correspondence vary in time but some basic principles of a commercial letter remain unchanged.
A private business letter, is written by hand, each paragraph begins with anindented line. But if a letter is sent by an organization it is typed on the form of this organization. In this case it is not necessary to use indented lines.
A letter is composed of the following elements:heading,date, address, salutationtext, subscription.
A letter can be typed on the organization's form. Any form has itsletter-head printed typographically. The letter-head bears the name of organization or firm, sending this letter, its address, address for telegrams, telephone, telex, fax. If you do not use the form, write your address (as a sender) on the upper right side of the letter. Do not indicate your name here, it will follow your signature. Ukrainian names of foreign trade organizations are not translated into foreign languages. They are written with Latin letters using English transcription. Your telephone number may be written below.
The date is written on the right side above (under your address if the letter is written on a form or under a typographical letter-head of the form).
In Great Britain the date may be indicated as follows: 7th April, 1998 or 23 March, 1998.
In the USA it is usually written like this: April 7, 1998.
As a rule, before the address ofthe recipient a referenceis indicated which thesenderasks to mention in the reply to the letter. A common reference represents the initials of the person who wrote the letter and those of the typist who typed it.
In the samples of letters given below the references are as follows:
§ Our Ref: MRE/JNK — (in the first letter);
§ Your Ref: BAT/SN — (in the second one after the reply has been received);
§ MRE are the initials of the author of the letter (M. R. Erickson);
§ The address of the recipient (inside address) is written on the left above, under the reference. Lower, the name of the firm is written under which the number of the house, street, city or town, state or country are indicated, the last element being the country.
The salutation is written on the left (not in the centre).
The salutation «Dear Sir» is appropriate, when you write to a real person if you do not know him. If you know this person, you should write «Dear Mr Jones», for example.
If the letter is addressed to a firm, the salutation should be «Dear Sirs». In modern business correspondence it is needless to use any other forms of politeness.
As was mentioned above, the text of the letter should be as short, simple and clear as possible.
In the subscription the expression « Yours faithfully» is usually used if you are not acquainted with the person(s) or « Yours sincerely» if you write to a man (woman) whom you know at least by correspondence. In American English the above expressions are rarely used. More common are the expressions Sincerely yours», «With best regards» or simply «Sincerely», and sometimes
« Very truly yours».
The signatureis affixedby hand above the typed name of the author. It is not obligatory to indicate your position.If near the signature there are two letters «p.p.» (per pro)it means that the letter is «by warrant».
The heading may be written above the main text of the letter. The heading indicates short contents of the letter or its subject.
If some material is added to the letter the words «Enclosure»are written in the left lower corner of the letter. You can also use the expression «We enclose...».
Exercise 1. Give the English for:
запит, страховка, акредитив, лист про доставку, скарга, накладна, бланк, заголовок, рахунок, звернення, отримувач, посилання, ставити підпис, посада, по довіреності, предмет обговорювання, вкладений, вкладати.
Exercise 2. Translate the sentences used in business letters:
1. We refer to your advertisement in «Daily News».
2. We learn from your letter that you are manufactures of the electronic equipment we need.
3. We are interested in the equipment your firm producers.
4. We shall be obliged if you send us latest catalogues, brochures or any other publications containing a description of your equipment.
5. Please, let us know if you can offer us your equipment as per specification enclosed in your letter.
6. Please send us samples of your manufactures stating your lowest prices and best terms of payment.
7. We look forward to receiving your answer.
8. We expect to hear from you in the nearest future.
9. We wish to maintain cooperation with you.
10. Your prompt execution of our order will be appreciated.
11. We thank you for your letter of 20th May 2008 but regret to inform you that at the present time we cannot make you an offer for goods required by you.
Exercise 3. Answer the following question:
1. What letters are included into business correspondence?
2. What are the major elements of a business letter?
3. When is the letter-head used?
4. What does the reference mean in a letter?
5. What information is given in the address?
6. What are the requirements established for the text of a business letter?
7. What expressions are used in the salutation of a business letter?
8. What should be indicated in the heading of a business letter?
9. What should be the subscription in a business letter?
10. What may be enclosed in a business letter?
Sample Inquiry Letter
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