ТОП 10:

Texts for listening comprehension

Listen to the texts twice and be able to answer the questions:

1. What is cyanosis?

2. What are the possible reasons for it?

3. What parts of the body becomes blue due to hypoxia?

Blue Color (cyanosis)

A blue color of the skin means lack of oxygen in the tissues. Lack of oxygen (called hypoxia) can occur for a variety of reasons, including lung problems, heart problems or circulation problems. When hypoxia is moderately severe, blue color can be limited to the lips, the fingers and toes. Severe hypoxia causes a blue or gray color to appear over the entire body. Cyanosis should always lean to an evaluation by a doctor and often means an emergency situation.

1. What can dizziness mean to people?

2. What is the cause of giddiness?

3. Where does vertigo originate in?

Mind the meaning of new words:

Spinning, vertigo, fuzzy, reeling.


Dizziness can mean several things to people. Some refer to a light-headed or “fuzzy” feeling as dizziness, while others mean a feeling of spinning or reeling (which is more properly called vertigo). Light-headedness or giddiness often results from a decrease of blood flow to the brain. Vertigo, on the other hand, originates in the inner ear, which controls balance.


1. When is it a symptom or a normal reaction of the body?

Give the synonyms to the word “fatigue”.



Excessive tiring and a feeling of weakness or sleepiness can be a symptom of many disorders, or it can be a normal reaction to exercise and exertion. As a symptom of illness, it accompanies nearly all illnesses.


1. What is palpitation?

2. Is it possible for a healthy person to have changes in the heart rate and rhythm?


Heart Rate Changes

The sensation of changing or irregular heartbeat is very bothersome for people, especially if they have or think they have heart disease. Palpitations are the sensations of the heart skipping a beat, beating irregularly or pounding in the chest.

Most people have changes in the heart rate and rhythm as part of a normal day and palpitations may signal no disease at all. Others have this as a sign of heart disease. When palpitations are pronounced, or frequent, or if they are associated with symptoms of light-headedness or difficulty in breathing – seek medical care.


Test yourself

1. What diseases of the cardiovascular system do you know?

2. How are the cardiovascular disorders classified?

3. What are the most common causes of these diseases?

4. What are the general manifestations of the cardiovascular disorders?

5. What is the character of pain in a) angina pectoris b) infarction c) pericarditis?

6. What methods of the cardiac patients' examination are used?

7. What data are revealed by each investigation?

8. What can you say about age, sex, habits of the cardiac patients?

9. Speak on the importance of the prevention of the cardiovascular diseases.




Skim the text and speak on the structure and functions of the organs of respiratory system.

Reviewing anatomy and physiology of the respiratory tract

The respiratory system distributes air to the alveoli, where gas exchange — the addition of oxygen (02) and the removal of carbon dioxide (C02) from pulmonary capillary blood — takes place. Certain specialized structures within this system play a vital role in preparing air for use by the body. The nose, for example, contains vestibular hair that filter the air and an extensive vascular-network that warms it. The nose also contains a layer of goblet cells and a moist mucosal surface; water vapor enters the airstream from this mucosal surface to fully saturate inspired air as it's warmed in the upper airways. Ciliated mucosa in the posterior portion of the nose and nasopharynx, as well as major portions of the tracheobronchial tree, propels particles deposited by impaction or gravity to the oropharynx, where the particles are swallowed.

External respiration.

The external component of respiration - ventilation or breathing - delivers inspired gas to the lower respiratory tract and alveoli. Contraction and relaxation of the respiratory muscles move air into and out of the lungs. Ventilation begins with the contraction of the inspiratory muscles: the diaphragm (the major muscle of respiration) descends, while external intercostal muscles move the rib cage upward and outward. Air then enters the lungs in response to the pressure gradient between the atmosphere and the lungs. The lungs adhere to the chest wall and diaphragm because of the vacuum created within the pleural space. As the thorax expands, negative pressure is created in the intrapleural space, causing the lungs also to expand and draw in the warm, humidified air. The accessory muscles of inspiration, which include the scalene and sternocleidomastoid muscles, raise the clavicles, upper ribs, and sternum. The accessory muscles are not used in normal inspiration but are used in certain disease states, when diaphragm function is impaired.

Normal expiration is passive; the inspiratory muscles cease to contract, and the elastic recoil of the lungs causes the lungs to contract. These actions raise the pressure within the lungs above atmospheric pressure, moving air from the lungs to the atmosphere. Active expiration causes the pleural pressure to become less negative.

An adult lung contains an estimated 300 million alveoli; each alveolus is supplied by many capillaries. To reach the capillary lumen, 02 must cross the alveolocapillary membrane, which consists of an alveolar epithelial cell, a thin interstitial space, the capillary basement membrane, and the capillary endothelial cell membrane. The 02 tension of air entering the respiratory tract is approximately 160 mm Hg. In the alveoli, inspired air mixes with C02 and water vapor, lowering the oxygen pressure to approximately 100 mm Hg. Because alveolar partial pressure of 02 is higher than that present in mixed venous blood entering the pulmonary capillaries (approximately 40 mm Hg), O2 diffuses across the alveolocapillary membrane into the blood.

And CO 2 transport and internal respiration.

Circulating blood delivers 02 to the cells of the body for metabolism and transports metabolic wastes and C0 2 from the tissues back to the lungs. When oxygenated arterial blood reaches tissue capillaries, 0 2 diffuses from the blood into the cells again because of an oxygen tension gradient. The amount of 02 available is determined by the concentration of hemoglobin (the principal carrier of 02), the percent 02 saturation of the hemoglobin, regional blood flow, arterial oxygen content, and cardiac output.

Internal (cellular) respiration occurs as a part of cellular metabolism, which can take place with 02 (aerobic) or without O2 (anaerobic). The most efficient method for providing fuel (high-energy compounds such as adenosine triphosphate [ATP]) for cellular reactions is aerobic metabolism, which produces C02 and water in addition to ATP. Anaerobic metabolism is less efficient because a cell produces only a limited amount of ATP and yields lactic acid as well as C02 as a metabolic by-product.

Because circulation is continuous, CO2 does not normally accumulate in tissues. CO2 produced during cellular respiration diffuses from tissues to regional capillaries and is transported by systemic venous circulation. When C02 reaches the alveolar capillaries, it diffuses into the alveoli, where the partial pressure of C02 is lower; C02 is removed from the alveoli during exhalation.


List of words to be learned


chill [t∫il] – n, озноб;

congestion [kәn'dʒest∫ən] – n, закупорка, застой;

coryza [kɔ`raizә] – n, ринит, острый насморк;

cough [ko:f] – n, кашель;

crackle ['krækl] – n, потрескивание, хруст;

crepitation [,krepi'tei∫әn] – n, хрипы;

dyspnea [dis'pni:ə] – n, одышка;

effusion [i'fju:ʒn] – n, кровоизлияние, потеря крови;

emphysema [,emfi'si:mә] – n, эмфизема;

fever ['fi:və] – n, лихорадка;

hacking ['hækiŋ] – n, покашливание;

haemoptysis [hi:`mә'ptəsis] – n, кровохаркание;

hoarse [hɔ:s] - adj, хриплый, охрипший;

moist [moist] – adj, влажный;

râle [ra:l] – n, хрип;

sneeze [sni:z] – v, чихать;

tachypnea ['tækipniә] – n, тахипноэ, частое дыхание;

wheezing ['wi:ziŋ] – n, одышка;

Mind the pronunciation.

asthma ['æsmə:]

bronchitis [brɔŋ'kaitis]

laryngitis [ֽlærin'dʒaitis]

pharyngitis [ֽfærin'dʒaitis]

pleurisy ['pluərəsi]

pneumonia [nju: 'mouniə]

tonsillitis [ֽtɔnsi'laitis]

tuberculosis [tju:,bә:kju'lousis]

Ex.1. Make up word-combinations and translate them:


shallow (поверхностное)


coarse (harsh) жесткое

respiration slow

(breathing) hard (затрудненное)


normal (adequate)




moist/ wet/ productive


barking ( лающий)

troublesome (мучительный) pus ( гной)

constant cough of

dry/ nonproductive mucus

hacking (покашливание)




dry râles

coarse (жесткие)

crackling (крепитирующие,трескучие)





thin analysis

viscous sputum

bloody culture



foul smelling (отвратительный)


Ex.2. Give the synonyms:

moist to evaluate

chill respiration

normal persistent

crackle cold

inspire wet

breath perspiration

sweating shivering

coryza inhale

constant adequate

to assess crepitation


Ex.3. Give the antonyms:

moist exhale

thick irregular

watery shallow

inhale natural

productive dry

inspire thin

deep viscous

artificial expire

regular nonproductive

Ex.4. Match the following English word-combinations with the Russian ones:


depth of breathing сильный озноб

breath-holding ночное потоотделение

apnea испытывать нехватку воздуха

disturbance of respiration частота дыхания

respiratory arrest глубина дыхания

respiratory rate задержка дыхания

to be short of breath угнетенное дыхание

night sweating остановка дыхания

shaking chill расстройство дыхания


Ex.5. Give English equivalents to:

Покашливание, влажные хрипы, охрипший голос, жесткое дыхание, вдыхать пыль, цианоз лица, глотать с трудом, прочистить горло, поверхностное дыхание, лающий кашель, гнойная мокрота


Ex.6. Read and translate the words and their derivatives:

Breath [breθ] – breathe [bri:ð] – breathing – breathless;

inhale – inhaler – inhalation – inhalant;

accumulate – accumulation – accumulative – accumulator;

inspire – inspiration – inspirator – inspiratory;

hoarse – hoarseness – hoarsen – hoarsely;

expire – expiring – expiry – expiration;


Ex.7. Read and translate the terms and their definitions:

dyspnea [dis'pni:ə] - n, difficulty or pain in breathing

coryza [kɔ`raizә] - n, an illness with inflammation of the nasal passages, in which someone sneezes and coughs and has blocked and running nose =cold, common cold;

chill [t∫il] - n, a short illness causing a feeling of being cold and shivering, usually the sign of the beginning of a fever, of flu or a cold;

cough [ko:f] - n, a reflex action, caused by irritation in the throat, when the glottis is opened and air is sent out of the lungs suddenly;

râle [ra:l] - n = сrepitation, an unusual soft crackling sound heard in the lungs through a stethoscope;

sneezing ['sni:ziŋ] - n, a reflex action to blow air suddenly out of the nose and mouth because of irritation in the nasal passages;

cyanosis [,saiә'nousis] - n, condition characterized by a blue color of the peripheral skin and mucous membranes, a symptom of lack of oxygen in the blood;

congestion [kәn'dʒest∫ən] - n, accumulation of blood in the organ: nasal congestion (застой);

emphysema [,emfi'si:mә] - n, a condition in which the walls of alveoli of lungs break down, reducing the surface available for gas exchange;

effusion [i'fju:ʒn] - n, discharge of blood, fluid or pus into or out of an internal cavity;

haemoptysis [,hi:mә'ptəsis] - n, a condition in which someone coughs blood from the lungs, caused by a serious illness such as anaemia, pneumonia, tuberculosis or cancer;

wheezing [`wi:ziŋ] - n, whistling noises in the bronchi when breathing.


Ex.8. Match the diseases with their descriptions:

Bronchitis, lung abscess, pneumonia, laryngitis, bronchial asthma, pleurisy.

1. Change in the voice that makes it more harsh or coarse.

2. Inflammation of the lining surrounding and covering the lungs.

3. Acute inflammation of the trachiobronchial tube (air passage).

4. Lung infection caused by any of a variety of bacteria.

5. A type of asthma mainly caused by an allergen or by exertion.

6. Lung infection accompanied by pus accumulation and tissue destruction.


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