ТОП 10:

Обратите внимание на форму инфинитива в следующих 3 предложениях и его перевод.



I know him to study well.

Я знаю, что он учится хорошо.

I know him to have studied well.

Я знаю, что он учился хорошо.

I want this text to be studied.

Я хочу, чтобы этот текст был изучен.

Обратите внимание на то, как еще может быть выражено сложное дополнение:

He felt the pain increase.

He saw her running.

The doctor made the patient lie down.

Какими глаголами выражено сказуемое в этих предложениях и что нового вы заметили в конструкции сложного дополнения?

 

Ex. 10. Read and translate the sentences paying attention to Complex Object

Constructions.

1. We know vitamin C to be important in cases of anaemia.

2. The local physician insisted the patient to have been hospitalized as soon as possible.

3. The x-ray examination revealed the heart to be slightly enlarged.

4. He felt his heart beat painfully.

5. The nurse heard somebody coughing at the next ward.

6. The doctor expects this medicine to be very effective.

7. The professor believed the initial diagnosis to be confirmed by laboratory findings.

8. We didn’t expect this patient to suffer from cardiac insufficiency.

9. The researches found smoking to be the risk factor causing the infarction.

10. Cardiologists have observed the children with congenital heart defects have no clinical manifestations of the disease until year after birth.

 

Ex. 11. Substitute the subordinate clauses for Complex Object:

1. The surgeon believes that an operation is necessary in this case.

2. Scientists consider that cancer will be conquered in this century.

3. The newspapers report that a vaccine against flu was used successfully.

4. My mother wanted that I should become a doctor.

5. Doctors found that interferon was effective against viral diseases.

6. I saw how the students were examining a patient under the instruction of their teacher.

7. The nurse on duty didn’t hear how the patient left the ward.

8. American physicians state that atherosclerosis is among the most common causes of death and disability in this country.

Ex.12. Translate using Complex Object:

1. Мой руководитель хочет, чтобы я сделал доклад о результатах эксперимента.

2. Студенты видели, как сестра делала внутримышечную инъекцию.

3. Врач считает, что химиотерапия будет в этом случае эффективнее.

4. Всем известно, что курение способствует развитию сердечно-сосудистой патологии.

5. Врачебное обследование выявило, что больной страдает врожденным пороком сердца.

6. Больной сообщил, что боль иррадиирует в левую руку.

7. Кардиологи полагают, что длительная сильная сжимающая боль в сердце является признаком инфаркта.

8. Врач определил, что в клапанах сердца имеются органические изменения.

 

Ex. 13. Look through the text. Find and translate the sentences with the Complex Object. Read the text and answer:

1. What is pericarditis?

2. What are the symptoms of pericarditis?

3. What are the causes of the disease?

 

Pericarditis

Inflamation of sac that surrounds the heart (peri=around; cardium=heart).

The patients complain of a severe chest pain. Sometimes it becomes worse with inspiration (breathing in) and is improved with position change. The patients admit the pain not to be associated with exercise, nausea, vomiting or sweating.

The doctors consider pericarditis to be caused by viral infection, bacterial infection or inflammation without infection. It can occur after heart attack or after heart surgery and end-stage of kidney disease.

Bacterial infection is very serious and must be carefully treated. Inflammatory pericarditis needs to be treated with medicine against inflammation until symptoms resolve (as long as accumulation of fluid does not occur). If so, it may require drainage.

Pericarditis can be confused with other sources of chest pain. It is therefore imperative the chest pain be evaluated immediately to determine its cause.

 

Ex. 14. Read the text. State the main ideas of it in a written form. Retell the text according to the plan.

Cardiovascular Diseases

Cardiovascular diseases are now the leading cause of death and disability among the adults over 40 in industrialized societies.

There are some risk factors that may lead to diseases of the heart – there are disorders in fat metabolism, emotional and mental stress, drinking and smoking, and physical inactivity.

There are ways of classifying heart diseases. The 3 layers of the heart wall form the basis for one grouping of heart pathology, as follows:

1. Endocarditis, which means inflammation of the “lining” of the heart cavities, but which most commonly affects the valves of the heart.

2. Myocarditis, or inflammation of the heart muscle.

3. Pericarditis, referring to the disease of the serous membrane of the heart surface.

Another more generally used classification of heart disease is based on causative and age factors. On this basis the more common kinds of heart disease are:

1. Congenital heart diseases, that are present at birth (such as septal defects of tetralogy of Fallot – a combination of four congenital defects).

2. Rheumatic heart disease which begins with an attack of rheumatic fever in childhood or in youth (such as endocarditis, myocarditis, pericarditis or pancarditis).

3. Coronary heart disease which involves the walls of the blood vessels that supply the muscles of the heart (angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, pericarditis or pancarditis).

4. Degenerative heart diseases, which are most common after the age of 45, and are due to deterioration of tissues such as muscles because of the prolonged effects of various disease conditions (such as hypertension or hypotension).

The most important symptoms associated with diseases of the heart are dyspnea, cyanosis, edema, pain, palpitation and early fatigue. Diseases of the heart in their early stage produce shortness of breath on exertion, increased pulse rate, palpitation, discomfort in the precordial region, fatigue, giddiness, loss of appetite. Advanced heart diseases produce breathlessness even at rest, irregularity of heart action, pain in the chest radiating to the neck, left arm or abdomen, cyanosis, edema, and clubbing of fingers.

 

Ex. 15. Read the text and give the answers to:

1. What are the clinical signs of endocarditis?

2. What are the causes of the diseases?

3. Are there any ways to prevent endocarditis?

 

Endocarditis

Inflammation and infection of the lining and usually the valves of the heart by bacteria. The inflection maybe very acute, “subacute” (developing steadily over time) or chronic.

Symptoms:For the acute variety, sudden onset of high fever, chills and signs and symptoms of heart failure. For subacute or chronic endocarditis, the symptoms are more subtle: low-grade fevers, generalized fatigue, aches and pains, weight loss, poor appetite, night sweating, often without any indication that the infection is in the heart.

Cause:Infection of the heart lining or valve(s) with bacteria that reach the heart through the bloodstream and attach themselves to the lining or valves. There is almost always an underlying problem with the heart lining or valves (roughened surface, narrowing, congenital heart defect, arteriosclerosis). The bacteria usually originate in another part of the body and are induced to the bloodstream through trauma: dental procedures and cleaning of teeth; introducing a catheter into an infected bladder; surgery on the bowel; procedures that involve inserting instruments into rectum, skin or soft tissue infection. People who have artificial heart valve are at special risk for this problem.

Severity of Problem:Always serious, often life–threatening if the infection is not promptly recognized and treated. Even with vigorous treatment further damage to the heart may occur.

Treatment:Recognizing the problem and identifying the infecting bacteria is one of the most important aspects of treatment, because it enables the correct antibiotic to be used. Antibiotic treatment is required for weeks (six or more and must be given intravenously). General support, treatment of heart failure and good nutrition are important. If there is an artificial heart valve in place, it may need to be removed or required to control for infection.

Prevention:People with known heart defects or valve problems should take antibiotics (usually penicillin) by month before, during and after dental work and other procedures that may lead to showering of bacteria into the blood. They need ongoing medical treatment and supervision.

 

Ex. 16. Read the text. Name the main symptoms of angina pectoris. How are they detected? What is the key method for making the diagnosis of angina pectoris? What are the possible complications of the disease?

Angina Pectoris

Pain in the chest. Refers to pain that originates in the heart.

Symptoms:Sudden pain in the chest, often with or after exercise, stress or eating. Frequently described as crushing located under the breastbone; may radiate down the arm or into the shoulder, most often – the left. Sometimes felt as “indigestion” or heartburn. There may be faintness, shortness of breath, paleness. Usually lasts less than five minutes.

Cause:Sudden lack of adequate blood supply to the heart muscle. Often brought on by exercise, eating or stress. A common cause is underlying arteriosclerosis or other form of cardiovascular disease, which results in narrowing of the arteries that supply the heart with its nourishment.

Severity of Problem:Potentially life-threatening. Increasing pain or frequent pain can signal worsening of the disease. Can lead to progressive loss of ability to function without pain or shortness of breath.

Treatment:Should be evaluated by a physician if angina is suspected. Avoid unusual or provocative stress if possible. Medication (either long-lasting or short-acting) is often used to help relieve the symptoms.

Prevention: Appropriate diet in early life, as well as ongoing attention to nutrition. Avoid stress where possible.

Ex. 17. Read the texts and speak on the methods of the cardiac patient examination. What data are revealed by each of them?

The examination of the heart should follow the usual routine of inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation.

Inspection enables the examiner to see the position and extent of the cardiac impulse and rhythm.

Palpation confirms the position of the apex beat and gives more information about the force, duration and character of the cardiac impulse.

Percussion has been described as a method of examining the heart. It may demonstrate the increased dullness due to pericardial effusion.

Auscultation is of great value in the detection of abnormalities of the valves which commonly produce both changes in the heart sounds and added sounds called murmurs.

The electrocardiogram (ECG) yields valuable data about electrical events occurring with cardiac muscle activity.

Echocardiography is a non-invasive method of investigation used particularly for the demonstration of congenital cardiac abnormalities, the diagnosis of pericardial effusion and certain types of valve disease and the assessment of cardiac chamber size and function.

 

The sample of the examination of the cardiac patient

On examination:The patient is distressed. Centrally cyanosed. Perspiring. Tachypnoeic. Overweight. No ankle oedema. Axillary temperature 36 degrees C.

C.V.S. Pulse 116/min regular. Small volume.

B.P. 150/90 mm Hg

Heart Apex beat – 5th intercostal space in mid-clavicular line.

Heart sounds. Harsh, saw-like murmur of aortic stenosis loudest at right 2nd intercostal space.

A.S.: Abdomen unremarkable.

R.S. Trachea central. Chest expansion poor R=L. Percussion note resonant. R=L. Breath sounds – fine inspiratory crepitations at both lung bases not shifted by coughing.

Plan: ECG monitor, chest x-ray, full blood count, urea and electrolytes, serial cardial enzymes, cerial ECGs, refer to physicians.

Ex. 18. Read the dialogue.

Find the English equivalents to:сдавливающая боль, отдает в челюсть, боль усиливается при вдохе, сердце бьется или выскакивает из груди, перехватывает дыхание, изжога, симптомы, напоминающие грипп.







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