How to prevent tuberculosis?

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How to prevent tuberculosis?

Ex.14. Scan the medical annotation and give recommendations to «Foradil» use.


Foradil ®
Form of packing: 12 mcg capsule containing inhalation powder
Availability: Prescription only


Properties: Foradil is a long-acting bronchodilator. It keeps the airways open, makes the breathing easier and may reduce asthma symptoms (shortness of breath, wheezing, chest tightness, and cough).

Indication: Foradil Aerolizer is used in adults and children 5 years of age and older in case of asthma and chronic pulmonary diseases, which include chronic bronchitis, emphysema, and other lung diseases.


· pregnancy;

· breastfeeding a baby;

· allergic to formoterol or any other inhaled bronchodilator.

Special Indications with Foradil:

· Do not swallow the capsules. Powder in the capsules is inhaled.

· Use the Foradil Aerolizer regularly. Do not stop treatment even if you are feeling good.

Interaction with other drugs.

· Use other inhaled medicines only as directed by your physician.

Side effects:

· paradoxical bronchospasm;

· tremor;

· fast and irregular heart beat;

· headache;

· muscle cramps and pain;

· dizziness;

· nervousness;

· sleeplessness;

· dryness of the mouth or throat.

Ways of keeping:keep drug in a cool place, in a dark place, out of reach of children.

Foradil must not be used after the expiry date, started on the pack.



1. What disorders of the respiratory system do you know?

2. How are the respiratory diseases classified?

3. What are the most common causes of these disorders?

4. What are the clinical manifestations of the respiratory diseases?

5. What methods of examination are used for detecting the respiratory pathology?

6. What data are revealed by each investigation?

7. What is the role of smoking in the development of the respiratory diseases?



Skim the text and speak on the location, structure and functions of organs of the digestive system.

Reviewing anatomy and physiology of gastrointestinal tract

The GI tract, also known as the alimentary canal, is a long, hollow, musculomembranous tube consisting of glands and accessory organs (salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas).

The GI tract includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach (fundus, body), small intestine (duodenum, jejunum and ileum), and large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, and anal canal).

Digestion begins in the mouth through chewing and through the action of an enzyme secreted in saliva — ptyalin (amylase) — which breaks down starch. Digestion continues in the stomach, where lining secretes gastric juice that contains hydrochloric acid and the enzymes pepsin.

Through a chewing motion, the stomach breaks food into tiny particles, mixes them with gastric juice, and pushes the mass toward the pylorus. The liquid portion (chyme) enters the duodenum in amounts; any solid material remains in the stomach until it liquefies( usually from 1 to 6 hours). The stomach also produces an intrinsic factor necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12. Although limited amounts of water, alcohol, and some drugs are absorbed in the stomach, chyme passes unabsorbed into the duodenum.

Most digestion and absorption occur in the small intestine, where the surface area is increased by millions of villi in the mucous membrane lining. For digestion, the small intestine relies on a vast array of enzymes produced by the pancreas or by the intestinal lining itself. Pancreatic enzymes include trypsin, which digests protein to amino acids; lipase, which digests fat to fatty acids and glycerol; and amylase, which digests starches to sugars. Intestinal enzymes include erepsin, which digests protein to amino acids; lactase, maltase, and sucrase, which digest complex sugars like glucose, fructose, and galactose; and enterokinase, which activates trypsin.

In addition, bile, secreted by the liver and stored in the gallbladder, helps neutralize stomach acid and aids the small intestine to emulsify and absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins.

By the time ingested material reaches the ileocecal valve (where the small intestine joins the large intestine), all its nutritional value has been absorbed through the villi of the small intestine, into the bloodstream.

The large intestine, so named because it's larger in diameter than the small intestine, absorbs water from the digestive material before passing it on for elimination. Rectal distention by feces stimulates the defecation reflex, which, when assisted by voluntary sphincter relaxation, permits defecation.

Throughout the GI tract, peristalsis (a coordinated, rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle) propels ingested material along; sphincters prevent its reflux.


List of words to be learned .

1.anorexia [ֽænə'reksiə] – n, анорексия;

2. belching ['belt∫iŋ] – n, отрыжка;

3. benign [bi'nain] – adj, доброкачественный;

4. bulimia [bu'limiə] – n, булимия;

5. constipation [ֽkonsti'pei∫(ə)n] – n, запор;

6. diarrhea [ֽdai ə 'ri:ə] – n, диарея;

7. dysphagia [dis'feidʒiə] – n, дисфагия, затруднение при глотании;

8. eructation [ֽi:r٨k'tei∫ən] – n, отрыжка;

9. exacerbation [ig'zæsəbei∫n] – n, обострение;

10. faeces ['fi:si:z] – n, кал, фекалии;

11. heartburn ['ha:tbз:n] – n, изжога;

12. hernia ['hз:niə] – n, грыжа;

13. indigestion [ֽindi'dʒest∫ən] – n, несварение, дисперсия;

14. malignant [mə'lignənt] – adj, злокачественный;

15. nausea ['no:siə] – n, тошнота;

16. neoplasm ['ni:ouplæzm] – n, новообразование;

17. regurgitation [riֽgз:dʒi'tei∫n] – n, срыгивание;

18. tumour ['tju:mə] – n, опухоль;

19. vomiting ['vomitiŋ] – n, рвота.


Mind the pronunciation:

proctitis [prok`taitis]

gastritis [gæ'straitis]

peptic ulcers [ֽpeptik '٨lsə(r)]

enterocolitis [`entərəu`kolaitis]

intestinal obstruction [in'testinəl əb'str٨k∫n]

hiatal hernia [hai'eitəl 'hз:niə]

inguinal hernia [`ingwinəl 'hз:niə]

appendicitis [əֽpendi'saitis]

peritonitis [ֽperitə'naitis]

Ex.1. Find the synonyms:

belching stool

nausea neoplasm

anorexia sickness

faeces eructation

growth swelling

tumour dyspepsia

indigestion loss of appetite


Ex.2. Find the antonyms:

bulimia reduced (failing)

diarrhea weight loss

excessive malignant

weigh gain constipation

benign anorexia


Ex.3. Match the terms with their descriptions.

Anorexia, appetite, belching, bulimia, constipation, faeces, diarrhea, heartburn,

nausea, neoplasm, dysphagia.

1. a feeling that you want to vomit;

2. loss of appetite;

3. difficulty in swallowing;

4. a physiological condition in which a person eats too much and incapable of controlling his eating;

5. the feeling of wanting food;

6. waste matter passed from the bowels through the anus;

7. indigestion which causes a burning feeling in the stomach and esophagus;

8. the action of allowing air in the stomach to come up through the mouth;

9. a condition in which someone fragrantly passes liquid faeces;

10. difficulty in passing faeces [`fi:si:z];

11. any new and morbid formation of tissue.


Ex.4. Read and translate the words and their derivatives:

malignancy - malignant

neoplasia [¸ni:oupleiziə] – neoplasm – neoplastic

digest – digestion – digestive – indigestion

nausea – nauseate – nauseating – nauseous

morbid ['mo:bid] – morbidity – morbidly

tolerate – tolerant – tolerance – intolerance


Ex.5. Make up word-combinations and translate them:


pain spasmodic
intermittent erosive/ulcerative




prolonged blood
habitual vomiting ( of ) bile
recurrent food

hypoacidic gastritis


asymptomatic (немая)
bleeding/ active
complicated ulcer


Ex.6. Give Russian equivalents:

Feeling of fullness and distention, abdominal rigidity, intolerance for spicy or fatty food, bowel movements, a chronic course with remissions and exacerbations, intestinal motility, abdominal distention, small-bowel obstruction, to induce vomiting, coated tongue.

Ex.7. GiveEnglishequivalents.

Pезкое повышение аппетита, чувство полноты в желудке, отрыжка воздухом, чувство жжения в надчревной области, полное отсутствие аппетита, "голодные" боли, учащенный стул, хронический запор, обложенный язык, вызывать рвоту.


Ex. 8. Make up sentences.

is accompanied by
is focused
The pain begins
is worse
is relieved by
is localized


Ex.9. Complete the sentences and translate them.

1. (Изжога и диспепсия) usually signal the beginning of a gastric ulcer attack.

2. About 80% of all peptic ulcers are duodenal ulcers and occur most commonly (у мужчин в возрасте от 20 до 50 лет).

3. Duodenal ulcers usually follow a chronic course (с ремиссиями и обострениями).

4. Other typical effects of gastric ulcers include (потеря веса и повторяющиеся случаи кровотечения).

5. Gastric ulcers, (которые поражают слизистую желудка) are most common in middle-age and elderly men, especially in chronic users of alcohol or tobacco.

6. Duodenal ulcers produce heartburn, well-localized midepigastric pain relieved by food), weight gain (больной ест, чтобы уменьшить боль).

7. In gastric ulcers (приступы боли возникают после еды) or after consumption of orange juice, coffee, aspirin or alcohol.

8. (Возможными осложнениями язв желудка являются) perforation, hemorrhage and pyloric obstruction.

9. (Психическая травма, стресс, старение) are additional predisposing conditions.

10. Researchers recognize (основные причины возникновения язвы желудка): infection with Helicobacter pylori and pathologic hypersecretory disorders.


Ex. 10. TranslateintoEnglish.

1. Изжога - это чувство неприятного жжения, которое возникает в желудке и поднимается вверх по пищеводу.

2. Существуют продукты, которые могут вызвать это недомогание у 90% всех пациентов.

3. Не рекомендуется злоупотреблять белым вином, жирной выпечкой и шоколадом.

4. Если человек имеет стул реже двух раз в день, то, возможно, он склонен к запорам.

5. Многие люди принимают слабительное (laxatives), чтобы справиться с этой проблемой.

6. Причинами запора могут стать переедание, малоподвижный образ жизни, пища, богатая протеином.

7. Тем, кто страдает спастическими жалобами, синдромом раздраженного желудка, рекомендуется освоить методику расслабления - йогу.


Complex Subject.

Сложное подлежащее.

Сложное подлежащее представляет собой сочетание именной части, выраженной существительным или местоимением в именительном падеже и глагольной части, выраженной инфинитивом. Сказуемое в таких предложениях, как правило, представлено глаголом в страдательном залоге и

располагается между частями сложного подлежащего.

Глаголы-сказуемые, употребляемые:

I. В страдательном залоге: to know, to believe, to consider, to expect, to suppose, to understand, to see, to hear, to announce, to report, to say, to tell, to state etc.

II. В действительном залоге: to seem, to happen, to prove, to appear.

III. Фразы:to be + likely, unlikely, sure, certain.

На русский язык предложения со сложным подлежащим переводятся сложно-подчиненными предложениями с придаточным дополнения. Перевод таких предложений следует начинать со сказуемого, которое переводится неопределенно-личным предложением. Части сложного подлежащего переводятся как главные члены придаточного предложения: именная часть - как подлежащее, а глагольная - как сказуемое. Время сказуемого зависит от формы инфинитива. Простой инфинитив переводим сказуемым настоящего времени, а сложный /перфектный/-сказуемым прошедшего времени. Если сказуемое выражено to be likely,to be unlikely, to be certain, to be sure- инфинитив будет переводиться сказуемым в будущем времени.



The patient is thought to suffer from pneumonia. - Думают, что больной страдает пневмонией.

Leucocytosis is likely to develop in inflammation. -Вероятно, что лейкоцитоз разовьется при воспалении.


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