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Find in the text and translate into Russian the passage dealing with manifestations of the disease.
Pain in peptic ulceration is generally of the visceral type, localized in epigastrium and confined to small area tenderness on deep pressure, extreme associated with muscular rigidity. In cancer of the stomach the pain is often more constant because of the partial penetration of the stomach wall and involvement of the peritoneum.
Vomiting occurs after digestion has been in process, when gastric pain is at its height. Vomiting may diminish or abolish pain. Vomiting occurs especially when the pylorus is obstructed. Abdominal pain is relieved by vomiting. Vomiting of gastric pain is generally preceded by nausea. Nausea is a sensation of sickness. It is frequently accompanied by salivation, sweating and a feeling of faintness. Disturbance of appetite - loss of appetite or anorexia is particular common in local diseases of the stomach such as gastritis and carcinoma. Heartburn is a scalding or burning sensation experienced behind the sternum. Examination should follow the routine described under the respiratory and cardiovascular systems - inspection, palpation, percussion and auscultation - though inspection and palpation are by far the most important methods of approach. Inspection shows the condition of the abdominal wall, the size of the abdomen and any irregularity in its color caused by enlargement of viscera or the presence of abnormal swelling in the abdominal cavity.
It is known that there is a liability for first - degree relatives of proposity to develop the same type of ulcer. Both gastritis and duodenal ulcers are characterized by periodic attacks of epigastric pain, often in the spring and autumn month, separated by symptom - free intervals. The pain usually occurs in a steady fashion from 30 minutes to 3 hours after meals and is relieved by antacids and by certain food, milk especially “hunger pains”, which are generally relieved by food. Tenderness in the epigastrium during exacerbations is the only constant physical sign. Peptic ulcer may be complicated by hemorrhage, pyloric stenosis or perforation.
Ex. 9. Read the text “Indigestion”. Find the synonyms to: indigestion, bloated feeling, belching, upset stomach, antacids. Make up your own sentences with these words. Render the content of the text.
Essentially a set of symptoms that together define a nonspecific condition called indigestion o r ”upset stomach”.
Symptoms: Bloated or full feeling, heartburn, nausea or vomiting; belching or regurgitation; gas or upset stomach, abdominal and intestinal cramping, constipation or diarrhea; and lack of appetite.
Cause: Many possible causes; spicy or rich food, overeating, eating too fast, excessive stomach acid; inadequate digestive functions; stress, anxiety and tension, excessive use of alcoholic beverages. (However, it may be a warning signal for another underlying problem or for developing peptic ulcer) or often liquids (such as coffee, soft drinks, etc.), insufficient bile secretion to aid in digestion, underlying digestive disease.
Treatment: Sometimes antacids are recommended. Also important to reduce stress, change diet to less spicy food; reduce or stop consumption of alcohol and other acidic liquids; and eat smaller amounts of food. If condition persists or becomes problematic, a physician should be consulted to determine if any underlying problem (liver disease, bile production) is to blame and can be treated.
Ex.10. Read the text and ask as many questions as you can. Write them down.
A self-limiting disorder, gastroenteritis is characterized by diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and acute or chronic abdominal cramping. Also called intestinal flu, traveler's diarrhea, viral enteritis, or food poisoning, it occurs in persons of all ages and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in underdeveloped nations. In the United States, gastroenteritis ranks second to the common old as a leading cause of lost work time and fifth as the leading cause of death among young children. It also can be life-threatening in elderly or debilitated people. Gastroenteritis has many possible causes: Bacteria (responsible for acute food poisoning), Amebae, Parasites, Viruses (may be responsible for traveler's diarrhea), Ingestion of toxins, Drug reactions, Food allergens. The bowel reacts to any of these entero-toxins with hypermotility, producing severe diarrhea and secondary depletion of intracellular fluid. Chronic gastroenteritis is usually the result of another GI disorder, such as ulcerative colitis.
Clinical manifestations vary depending on the pathologic organism and on the level of GI tract involved. However, gastroenteritis in adults is usually an acute, self-limiting, nonfatal disease producing diarrhea, abdominal discomfort (ranging from cramping to pain), nausea, and vomiting. Other possible signs and symptoms include fever, malaise. In children, the elderly, and the debilitated, gastroenteritis produces the same symptoms, but these patients' intolerance to electrolyte and fluid losses leads to a higher mortality.
Ex.11. Read the text “Gastric carcinoma”. Answer the questions.
1. What is gastric carcinoma?
2. Who suffers gastric carcinoma more often?
3. What are the causes of the disease?
4. What factors are considered to be predisposing?
5. How do dietary factors influence the disease?
6. What organs and systems does gastric carcinoma spread to?
7. How is the rate of gastric carcinoma decrease in the USA?
8. What are the early signs of this pathology?
9. Is gastric carcinoma a curable disease?
Gastric carcinoma is common throughout the world. Incidence is higher in males over 40. The prognosis depends on the stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis; however, the overall 5-year survival rate is approximately 19%.
The cause of gastric carcinoma is unknown. It is commonly associated with gastritis, with gastric atrophy. Predisposing factors include environmental influences, such as smoking and high alcohol intake. Genetic factors have also been implicated because this disease occurs more commonly among people with type A blood than among those with type O; similarly it is more common in people with a family history of such carcinoma. Dietary factors also seem related, including types of food preparation, physical properties of some foods, and certain methods of food preservation (especially smoking, pickling, or salting). There is a strong correlation between infection with Helicobacter pylori and distal gastric cancer.
Gastric carcinoma infiltrates rapidly to regional lymph nodes, omentum, liver, and lungs by the following routes: walls of the stomach, duodenum, and esophagus; lymphatic system; adjacent organs; bloodstream; and peritoneal cavity.
The decrease in gastric carcinoma in the United States has been attributed, without proof, to the balanced American diet and to refrigeration, which reduces nitrate-producing bacteria in food.
Early clues to gastric carcinoma are chronic dyspepsia and epigastric discomfort, followed in later stages by weight loss, anorexia, feeling of fullness after eating, anemia, and fatigue. If the carcinoma is in the cardiac part, the first sign or symptom may be dysphagia and, later, vomiting (commonly coffee-ground vomitus). Affected patients may also have blood in their stools.
Which statements are true? Render the text using the true statements.
1. Incidence of gastric carcinoma is higher in young men.
2. The prognosis depends on the stage of the disease.
3. This disease occurs more commonly among people with type B blood.
4. Physical properties of some foods and their preparation are also associated with gastric carcinoma.
5. The other organs of the digestive tract are not involved into pathologic process.
6. The early signs of gastric carcinoma are chronic dyspepsia and epigastric discomfort.
Ex.12. Read the text “Carcinoma of the stomach”. Complete the sentences using the information of it.
1. Carcinoma of the stomach occupies …
2. Its highest sickness rate is …
3. It affects … more often than …
4…. people suffer more frequently than …
5. Pathogenesis of carcinoma is connected with …
6. … food has the properties of carcinogens.
Carcinoma of the Stomach
Carcinoma of the stomach is attributed to the most spread localizations of malignant tumors, occupied a second place after pulmonary carcinoma by rate. The highest sickness rate is registered in Japan. In the USA sickness rate is low. The men are ill more often than women. Maximum number of patients is registered at the age from 40 to 60 years.
Pathogenesis of carcinoma of the stomach is connected with influence of many factors. Influence of food is undoubtful. Deficiency of vitamins A and C, surplus of carbohydrates, overroasted fat promote development of carcinoma of the stomach. High sickness rate in Japan is, probably, stipulated by peculiarities of national nourishment including great quantity of smoked, dried and salted fish, which contains the nitrates and nitrites. They have the properties of carcinogens. Apparently, the genetic factors are important too, as the Japanese migrated to the USA keep higher sickness rate in third and forth generations of emigrants than Europeans.
Ex.13. Translate the text ”Cancer Esophagus” into Russian in a written form using a dictionary.
Cancer of the tube that connects the throat to the stomach.
Symptoms: Unfortunately, there are no reliable early warning signs. Pain, difficulty in swallowing, often a choking feeling, when drinking liquids and gradual (but severe) weight loss are all later signs.
Cause: Heavy alcohol use and heavy tobacco use are associated with esophageal cancer. For those who use both alcohol and tobacco excessively, the risk for the cancer is even greater.
Severity of problem: Very poor survival rate. Only 4% survive after treatment. Many people live only six months, on the average, after symptoms appear.
Discussion: Besides, those who use alcohol and tobacco excessively, those at greater risk for esophageal cancer include people with cancer of the throat and those who suffer from inflammation and/or scarring of the esophagus
Ex.14. Scan the information. Give the instructions for MAALOX usage.
Instructions for Use (for Patients). MAALOX suspension is creamy fluid resembling milk in appearance, of sweet taste and peppermint odour. Available in pouches of 15 ml. and bottles of 250 ml.
Pharmacological properties. MAALOX is a well-balanced combination of magnesium hydroxide and aluminium hydroxide, which ensures its high neutralizing activity and protective effect. The drug is highly efficacious and palatable. MAALOX does not cause constipation. It is used as an adsorbent, coating remedy and antacid for patients with gastric juice hyperacidity. MAALOX relieves pain in the upper digestive tract for several hours.
Indication. Acute and chronic gastritis; hiatal hernia; gastric and duodenal ulcer; abdominal discomfort following diet errors, drug intake or alcohol, coffee or nicotine abuse.
Contraindications. Severe renal insufficiency. Posology MAALOX is usually taken 1 or 1.5 hours after meals or when pain occur. MAALOX suspension should be taken in a dose of 15 ml (1 spoonful or 1 pouch). Suspension should be homogenized by shaking the bottle or by thoroughlty malaxating the pouch between the fingers. Pouch contents should be squeezed out into a spoon or into the mouth. Children four months to one year old: teaspoonful at a time. Children older than one year: 1 teaspoonful at a time. When necessary, an additional dose of the drag may be taken two hours after the previous intake; however, the drug should not be taken more than six times a day.
Interaction with other drugs. When taken simultaneously, MAALOX may reduce absorption of other medicines. Therefore, as a precaution, it is recommended to take other drugs either two hours before or two hours after MAALOX intake. Inform your doctor of all the cases when MAALOX is taken simultaneously with other drugs.
Side effects. When taken in recommended dose, MAALOX may cause only slight side effects. When taken for longer periods in high doses, MAALOX may cause exhaustion of phosphorus reserves in the body because of the presence of aluminium hydroxide.
Presentation form.Suspension in bottles 250 ml. Suspension in pouches 15 ml, packages of 30 pouches.
Storage. Store in a dry place at a temperature not higher than 25 C. Keep out of the reach of children.
Shelf life. 3 years.
Other presentation forms.MAALOX chewing tablets, packages of 20 or 40 pieces. Terms and conditions of distribution through pharmacies. To be distributed without doctor's prescription.
Produced by Rhone-Poulenc Rorer, France.
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