Влияние общества на человека
Приготовление дезинфицирующих растворов различной концентрации
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Сольфеджио. Все правила по сольфеджио
Балочные системы. Определение реакций опор и моментов защемления
Ex.8. Read the text. State the main ideas of it in a written form. Retell the text according to this plan.
Bronchial asthma usually starts in childhood but may not appear until middle age (“late-onset asthma”). It is characterized by attacks of wheezing dyspnoea due to narrowing of bronchial tube by spasm, mucosal edema or mucous secretions. These attacks are brought on by a variety of factors, including allergy to certain inhaled dusts (e.g. house dust, pollens), respiratory infections, emotional upsets or physical exertion (“exercise – induced asthma”). A history of other “allergic” manifestations such as hay fever or a family history of this condition, is common in those with an early onset of the disease. The patient may be quite free of symptoms and abnormal signs between the attacks but the illness can become continuous. Cough usually occurs only during the attacks when it may be associated with the expectoration of vicid mucoid sputum; noctural cough is a characteristic presenting symptom of asthma in childhood.
Physical examination reveals labored breathing associated with a prolonged expiratory wheeze, activity of accessory muscles of respiration, signs of overinflation of the lung due to trapping of air during expiration and, in a severe attack, cyanosis may also be seen. In children, there may be permanent deformity of the chest wall.
Bronchial asthma must be differentiated from the paroxysmal dyspnoea of left heart failure and from localized wheezing due to partial bronchial obstruction by neoplasm.
Ex.9. Read the text, write down the key sentences of it using the following models:
1. This text is concerned with …
2. Particular attention is paid to …
3. It is a well-known fact that …
4. The next point deals with …
5. It has been suggested that …
Inflammation of the lining surrounding and covering the lungs.
Symptoms: Sudden, intense stabbing pain in the side or shoulder, aggravated by deep breathing, coughing, sneezing or moving. Breathing is usually rapid and not very deep.
Cause: May result from injury or irritation of the underlying lung; entry the irritating substance into the pleural space; entry of infection either from the lung or through the bloodstream; or leakage of tumor cells into the pleural space.
Treatment: depends on treating underlying cause. Heat applied to chest and pain relieves help with symptoms. Antibiotics are used if infection suspected or proved.
Discussion: Inflammation of the pleura, the membranes lining the chest and covering the lungs, causes pain when the lung moves back and forth over the inflamed area. Sometimes infection is irritating enough that fluid gathers in the chest between the ribs and lung (called pleural effusion). This kind of fluid collection, if present can be drained by needle or tube and the fluid studied for infection and abnormal (cancer) cells. Depending on cause, pleurisy can occur one time only or be a recurrent problem.
a) Look through the text and fill in the table.
b) What diagnostic tests are the most valuable for detecting pneumonia?
c) What is revealed by each of them?
Lung infection caused by any of a variety of bacteria.
Symptoms: With many bacterial forms ofPneumonia, there is a sudden onset of high fever, chill and cough followed by varying degrees of difficulty breathing. There is often chest pain located over the inflamed area of the lung. This may follow mild respiratory symptoms (stuffy nose, mild cough) by several days. Sometimes infection is generalized in the blood, which makes the person appear very ill.
Cause: Infection of the lung with any of the variety of bacteria. Most common in these people who are otherwise healthy is pneumococcus infection. In those who are chronically ill, malnourished, alcoholic, very young or very old, or have underlying lung disease, the Pneumonia may be caused by very unusual bacteria which can be difficult to treat. The bacteria may enter the lung from the respiratory tract (by inhaling them) or, rarely, by spread from another part of the body through the blood.
Severity of problem: Depends on the bacteria involved and the general state of health of the person. Pneumococcal Pneumonia in a healthy person is easily treated with only a few side effects. Pneumonia caused by more unusual bacteria in people with poor resistance is often associated with severe problems, even death.
Contagious: Not as such, for the most part. Bacteria responsible for Pneumonia are elsewhere in the environment and cause disease only in people who are particularly susceptible or as an unexplained event.
Treatment: The mainstay of treatment is antibiotic, with the specific drug used depending on the type of Pneumonia present. Often this ??? hospitalization for intravenous therapy but occasionally treatment can be done at home with mild disease. Rest, fever and cough control (when needed), as well as high liquid intake are all important, some people require support of breathing (with a respirator) or other treatment.
Prevention: Only as far as can be done to control any underlying disease that makes a person susceptible to Pneumonia. Asthma and chronic lung disease of other kinds need to be under as good control as possible.
Discussion: Pneumonia caused by bacteria tend to be labor Pneumonia – localized areas of intense infection, sometimes with formation of pleural effusion or pus. These were Pneumonias most often associated with death in the past and are still serious problems.
Ex.11. Read the text. Make up your own questions on the content of the text. Render the text.
Cancer of the Lungs, the organs that process oxygen for the body and release CO2 from the blood, accounts for 25% of all cancer deaths in the USA.
Symptoms: Chronic cough in early stages. Shortness of breath, pneumonia and bloody sputum are possible signs of moderately advanced lung cancer. In the last stages there is chest pain, weight loss, severe shortness of breath, hoarseness, swallowing difficulty and accumulation of fluid in the chest cavity.
Cause: There appears to be an absolute cause-and effect relationship between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. Estimates indicate that 85% of Lung Cancer deaths are the result of cigarette smoking. At least 111,000 people will die each year as a result of Lung Cancer. Those who smoke more than two packs of cigarettes a day run a risk of dying from Lung Cancer 30 times higher than that of non-smokers. Other causes of Lung Cancer include asbestos, coal tar fumes, petroleum oil mist, arsenic, chromium, nickel, iron, isopropyl oil, radioactive substances and air pollution.
Severity of problem: The survival rate for Lung Cancer is very poor. Less than 10% survive five years after treatment. In 15 years the survival rate has not markedly changed, making it one of the most devastating cancers.
Discussion: Lung Cancer is most often found in adults between the ages of 40 and 70. Each year the number of cases of Lung Cancer increases. One important note: the incidence of Lung Cancer is rising rapidly in women .This reflects the increasing number of women smoking today.
Ex.12. Read the text.
This disease is a chronic, destructive inflammation, and is one of the most widespread of all diseases. It isparticularly prevalent among people who live under crowded conditions.
It is seen frequently in all ages, sexes, and all economic groups. The lesions may be small self-limited and the presence of the infection may only be demonstrable by means of laboratory tests.
Tuberculosis used to head the list of killing diseases, but now the disease is steadily becoming less common as well as less dangerous. The reduction in the tuberculosis rate is due to the following factors: (1) improved social living conditions with better nutrition, fresh air, and sunlight; (2) education in hygiene; (3) segregation of the sick in sanatoriums and destruction of tuberculous sputum; (4) earlier seeking of medical advice; (5) improved methods of treatment; (6) vaccination of high risk population.
In the case of tuberculosis, infection may occur in a number of ways.
1. By inhalation. The most likely source of infection from man is the sputum of the patient with active tuberculosis of the lungs. The bacilli may be inhaled from the sputum that has dried.
2. By swallowing, children may readily acquire tuberculosis by drinking infected cow's milk.
3. Through the skin. The infection may spread in 3 ways: (1) Through the tissues, (2) by the lymph, (3) by the blood stream.
Tuberculosis is a chronic inflammation. Any organ of the body may be involved, by tuberculosis. It is exceptional, however, for more than one or two organs to be attacked at the same time, except in military tuberculosis.
The lungs and pleura are most frequently attacked, and pulmonary disease accounts for 85% to 90% of all deaths from tuberculosis. Lymph nodes come next, most often those in the hilum of the lung, less frequently the abdominal nodes. Tuberculosis of the larynx is a serious form, secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis.
Which statements are true?
1. Tuberculosis is a chronic destructive inflammation and is one of the most widespread of all diseases.
2. It occurs rarely among people who live under crowded conditions.
3. Tuberculosis is more common in young men than in women.
4. The disease is characteristic for the developed countries.
5. The infection enters the body through the skin by inhalation, by swallowing.
6. Not all organs are affected by tuberculosis.
7. The lungs and pleura are the most frequently attacked.
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