ТОП 10:

Read the terms and their definitions. Translate them.



bacterial endocarditis – inflammation of the inner lining of the heart, especially heart valves;

angina pectoris – chest pain;

arteriosclerosis – a process which causes stiffening or hardening of the walls of the arteries;

atherosclerosis – a form of hardening of arteries in which lipids (fats) collect in the walls of blood vessels causing blockage or occlusions (closures);

hypertension – high blood pressure in the arteries;

infarction – area of tissue which dies due to lack of blood supply (ischemia);

ischemia – insufficient blood flow to a tissue;

congenital heart disease – abnormalities in the heart at birth;

septal defects – small holes in the septa between the atria or ventricles;

tetralogy of Fallot – a combination of four congenital heart defects resulting in failure of enough blood reaching the lungs, ‘blue baby’;

mitral stenosis – narrowing of the mitral valve;

rheumatic heart disease – streptococcal infection which indirectly leads to pancarditis;

coronary artery disease – blockage of the two major arteries which circle the heart and supply blood to the myocardium;

angiocardiography – process of recording (x-ray) the heart and major vessels;

arrhythmias – abnormal heart rhythms;

atrioventricular node (A – V node) – specialized tissue between the upper and lower chambers of the heart which conducts an electrical impulse through the heart to cause it to beat;

bundle of His – specialized conductive tissue in the wall between the ventricles which stimulates them to contract and force blood out of the heart;

cardial catheterization – introducing a catheter (tube) into the heart and blood vessels for diagnostic purposes;

emboli (embolus, sing) – floating clots or other material carried in the bloodstream;

fibrillation – random, irregular contractions of heart muscle;

flutter – rapid but regular contractions of the heart muscle;

murmur – abnormal heart sound;

pacemaker – sensitive tissue in the right atrium which begins the heartbeat, also called the sinoatrial node (S-A node);

patent – open;

bradycardia – slow heartbeat;

cardiomegaly – enlargement of the heart;

tachycardia – rapid heartbeat;

palpitation – the condition when the patient is conscious of his heart-beat.

 

Descriptive words for the pain:

causativefactorscharacterlocation timing

pain: dull in the chest long lasting

on exertion sharp deep (deep-seated) constant

on moving shooting superficial off and on

on walking severe radiating: every hour/day

at rest throbbing down to the left arm once a month

after meals burning to the left shoulder intermittent

after emotions boring to the sternum sporadical

after overstrain squeezing to the jaw at night

cramping steady

band-like sudden

constricting

crushing

tingling

stabbing

 

Find the English equivalents to the following:

Боль – спазматическая, тупая, жгущая, сверлящая, сдавливающая, покалывающая, опоясывающая, сжимающая, кинжальная, острая, сильная, простреливающая, пульсирующая.

 

Descriptive words for the heart murmurs:

TimingIntensityQuality

diastolic inaudible coarse

early just audible crescendo

mid faint harsh

late quiet high-pitched

systolic loud low-pitched

continuous soft

machinery

 

Find the English equivalents to the following:

Шум – едва прослушивающийся, громкий, слабый, не выслушивающийся, тихий, нарастающий, резкий/жесткий, механический, высокого тона, мягкий, низкого тона.

Descriptive words for the arterial pulse:

rate: fast, rapid, quick, galloping, slow, sluggish;

rhythm: regular, irregular, regular with dropped beats, regular with extra beats;

character: collapsing, small volume pulse, large volume pulse, absent, present, weak, strong, palpable, impalpable, detectable, undetectable, feeble, faint, thready, bounding.

 

Find the English equivalents to the following:

Пульс а) учащенный, быстрый, редкий, замедленный, частый,

скачкообразный;

b) ритмичный с выпадениями, неритмичный, ритмичный с экстросистолами

c) слабый, скачущий, неотчетливый, скорый.

 

Descriptive words for the heart sounds:

Heart sounds: clear, clicking, dull, muffled/muted, sharp, split, thumping

(ясные, щелкающие, тупые, приглушенные, резкие, расщепленные, глухие тяжелые)

Ex. 1. Give the antonyms to the following words:

weak slow

sharp absent

at rest strong

constant permanent

loud detectable

present dull

rapid on exertion

palpable quiet

Ex. 2. Make up word-combinations and translate them:

defect random

sound irregular heart contraction

rate slow

heart murmur rapid

block noctural

beat paroxysmal

contraction dyspnoea on effort

dyspnea on exertion

of cardiac origin

at rest

Ex. 3. Match the following English word combinations with the Russian ones:

instable angina тетрада Фалло

preinfarction syndrome «барабанные палочки»

abnormal heart rhythm нестабильная стенокардия

insufficient blood flow прединфарктный синдром

narrowing of the mitral valve закупорка артерий

tetralogy of Fallot сердечная недостаточность

hardening of the arteries недостаточность кровообращения

rheumatic fever аритмия

clubbing of the fingers искусственный клапан

heart failure ревматизм

artificial heart valve стеноз митрального клапана

Ex. 4. Mind the prepositions. Make up sentences with these word-combinations:

clotting irregular diet

result in erosion result from overstrain

cardiac insufficiency smoking

infarction heart defect

Ex. 5. Complete the sentences:

emanate (исходить) …

radiate …

pain may spread …

shift (перемещаться)…

be referred from …

Ex. 6. Mind the prefexes:

pre/доprecordial, preclinical, prediastolic, precancer, preconscious, predispose, preoperative, prenatal, premedical, preclampsia;

dis=bad=notdisability, disorder, dislocation, disorientation, disorganization, disinfection, disintegration, discomfort, distress;

hyper=over/сверхhyperacidity, hyperactivity, hypercardia, hypernutrition, hypersecretion, hypertension, hypersensibility;

hypo=under/нижеhypometabolism, hypotrophy, hyposecretion, hypoglycemia, hypoplastic.

Ex. 7. Match the proper meaning of the words and their definitions:

angina pectoris floating clots

hypertension small holes in the septa

ischemia area of dead tissue

mitral stenosis irregular heart contractions

tetralogy of Fallot chest pain

infarction abnormal heart sound

septal defects combination of 4 congenital heart defects

emboli high blood pressure

fibrillation narrowing of the mitral valve

murmur insufficient blood flow to a tissue

 

Ex. 8. Read and translate into Russian:

1. Endocarditis, an inflammatory alteration of the valvular or mural endocardium, was established by Bonilland in 1835.

2. Endocarditis may be due to an infectious agent or a noninfective inflammatory process.

3. Noninfective endocarditis may be one element of pancarditis in which the myocardium and pericardium are simultaneously involved.

4. If the pain lasts more than 20 minutes after rest or nitroglycerin, infarction must be seriously considered.

5. Pericarditis may be difficult to differentiate from acute infection.

6. Typically, pericardial pain is made worse by lying down and helped by sitting and leaning forward.

7. Patients with angina pectoris can be categorized into stable and unstable groups.

8. We consider the patient to suffer with unstable angina, when ischemic cardiac pain occurs at rest without obvious provoking factors.

9. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea is an important symptom of left ventricular failure.

10. Dysfunction of either myocardium or the valves leads to circulatory failure and the development of symptoms.

 

Ex. 9. Complete the sentences:

1. The major risk factors for coronary disease are (курение, гипертония, повышенный уровень холестерина).

2. The clinical assessment of the cardiovascular system is derived from (опроса, врачебного обследования, электрокардиограммы, лабораторных анализов).

3. Cyanosis is the bluish discoloration of the skin, the mucous membranes and nail beds resulting from (повышенного содержания гемоглобина исключительно в крови и тканях).

4. The past history is often important in determining whether the heart murmur represents (врожденный или приобретенный порок сердца).

5. (Одышка и боль в сердце) may indicate major abnormalities of cardiovascular function.

6. The character of the discomfort in angina pectoris is often characterized as (кинжальная, острая, жгучая).

7. Common causes of pericarditis include (вирусную или бактериальную инфекции, туберкулез, повреждение соединительных тканей).

8. The most important symptoms associated with diseases of the heart are (одышка, цианоз, отеки, боль, трепетание, быстрая утомляемость).

 

Grammar

Complex Object.

Сложное дополнение.

a) I know that this surgeon operates successfully.

b) I know this surgeon (him) to operate successfully.

Я знаю, что этот хирург (он) успешно оперирует.

Сравните эти предложения:

1. Какое из них является сложноподчиненным, какое простым.

2. Найдите главные и второстепенные члены в каждом предложении.

3. Чем выражено дополнение в предложении b).

4. Как переводится C.O. на русский язык.







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