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ENGLISH CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS



Every country and every nation has own traditions and customs. England is a land of traditions. First of all it concerns United Kingdom political system. In Great Britain there is no written constitution, only customs, traditions and precedents. After the English Revolution Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy headed by King (now Queen, Elisabeth the second). Traditionally the queen acts only on the advice of her Ministers. She reigns but she does not rule.

Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life. For example, London, the capital of England, is traditionally divided into three parts: the West End, the East End and the City. The City is a historical, financial and business centre of London. The East End is the district inhabited by the workers, and the West End is a fashionable shopping and entertaining centre. English people like to spend their free time in numerous pubs where they can have a glass of beer and talk about different things with their friends.

The English are traditional about their meals. They eat eggs and bacon with toasts for breakfast, pudding or apple pie for dessert. Every English family has five o'clock tea. A typical feature of an English house is a fireplace, even when there is central heating in the house.

English people like domestic animals. Every family has a pet: a dog, a cat or a bird.

Politeness is a characteristic feature of Englishmen. They often say "Thank you", "Sorry", "Beg your pardon".

Englishmen have many traditional holidays, such as Christmas, St.Valentine's Day, Mother's day, Easter and others.

 

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

own – собственный

concern – забота

written constitution – письменная (написанная) конституция

precedent – прецедент

advice – совет

to reign – править

inhabited – населенный

fashionable – модный, стильный

entertaining – развлекательный

pub – паб, пивнушка

dessert – десерт

fireplace – камин

central heating – центральное отопление

politeness – вежливость

feature – черта характера

Easter – Пасха

Ex. 1. Answer the questions:

1. Is England a land of traditions?

2. What is there in Great Britain instead of written constitution?

3. When did Great Britain become a constitutional monarchy?

4. Englishmen have traditions not only in political, but in social life, haven’t they?

5. Is London traditionally divided into two or three parts?

6. Is the City a historical, financial and business centre of London?

7. Where can Englishmen have a glass of beer and talk about different things with their friends?

8. The English are traditional about their meals, aren’t they?

9. What do they usually eat?

10. What is a typical feature of an English house?

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES

Great Britain, USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are English speaking countries. They are situated in different parts of the world and differ in many ways.

The nature of these countries, their weather and climate and way of life of their people differ. Each country has it's own history customs, traditions, its own national holidays. But they all have a common language – English, the language of the people who left England to make their names in new countries.

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and North Ireland consist of 4 parts: England, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland. The British Isles are group of islands lying off the north-west coast of the continent of Europe. There are no high mountains, no very long rivers, no great forests in the U.K. The population of the U.K. is almost fifty-six million. Great Britain is a capitalists country.

The USA is situated in the central part of the North American continent. The population of the USA is more than 236 million people. The USA is a highly developed industrial country. In the USA there are two main political parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party.

Canada has area of nearly 10 million square kilometres. Its western coast is washed by the Pacific Ocean and its eastern coast by the Atlantic Ocean. The population of Canada is over 26 million people. Canada is a capitalist federal state and a member of the Commonwealth.

The Commonwealth of Australia’s territories are the continent of Australia, the island of Tasmania and number of smaller islands. Australia has an area of nearly eight million square kilometers. Its population is over sixteen million people. The Commonwealth of Australia is a capitalist self-governing federal state.

New Zealand is situated south-east of Australia. The country consists of the large islands called North Island, South Island and Stewart Island and also many small islands. The population of New Zealand is over three million people. New Zealand is a capitalist self-governing state and a member of the Commonwealth.

TESTS

Test 1. Variant I

1. Write plural form of nouns:

Atom, group, name, play, leaf, mouse, student, party, glass, time, way.

2. Give the right form of the verb in в Present Simple:

1. We … newspapers every day.

a) read b) are reading c) am reading d) were reading

2. He always … his homework carefully.

a) prepare b) is preparing c) prepares d) prepared

3. She … several foreign languages.

a) speaks b) speak c) is speaking d) spoke

4. The children … in the park every afternoon.

a) play b) are playing c) plays d) were playing

5. Helen … lunch in the cafeteria every day.

a) is eating b) eat c) eats d) ate

6. They … in Europe now.

a) am b) is c) were d) are

7. John … absent from class today.

a) am b) is c) are d) was

8. The weather … good today.

a) am b) is c) are d) were

9. I … a good tennis player.

a) am b) is c) are d) be

10. Where does he … to spend his vacations ?

a) like b) likes c) liked d) will like

3. Put 5 questions to the sentences:

1. We use our books in class. 2. She makes mistakes in reading. 3. The plane leaves at ten o’clock. 4. She is a clever girl. 5. They are members of the country club.

NOTE. Please, take into account that several variants are possible in Special and Alternative questions.

Test 1. Variant II

1. Write plural form of nouns:

Set, work, trade, year, life, energy, problem, class, doctor, goose, design.

2. Give the right form of the verb in в Present Simple:

1. He … us English.

a) teach b) teaches c) is teaching d) taught

2. We always … football on Saturdays.

a) play b) plays c) are playing d) were playing

3. They … their English lessons.

a) enjoy b) enjoys c) are enjoying d) enjoyed

4. The exercises in the English lessons … difficult.

a) am b) is c) are d) were

5. Ann and John … a lot of trips together.

a) take b) takes c) are taking d) took

6. She always … to class late.

a) come b) comes c) is coming d) came

7. We always … by car.

a) travel b) travels c) are travelling d) traveled

8. John … angry with us.

a) am b) is c) are d) were

9. I … his best friend.

a) am b) is c) are d) was

10. When does he … home from school?

a) come b) comes c) is coming d) came

3. Put 5 questions to the sentences:

1. He knows French perfectly. 2. I understand everything he says. 3. We are tired after our long walk. 4. She is in the same class as Nick. 5. The train starts in five minutes.

NOTE. Please, take into account that several variants are possible in Special and Alternative questions.

Test 2. Variant I

1. Choose the correct tense form:

1. I think a storm ………….. .

a) comes; b) is coming

2. I …………... high school life really enjoyable.

a) find; b) am finding

3. Henry ………….. soon after your call.

a) was leaving; b) left

4. He ………….. the Channel between six and seven p.m.

a) is crossing; b) will be crossing

5. The moment the sun rises, we …………..

a) will get up; are getting up

6. Outside the apartment house a young man ………….. with the engine of a black Opel when Bond passed by him, went up to the door and pressed the bell.

a) worked; b) working.

2. Complete the verb form:

1. Looking out of the window, we saw that a large number of policemen ………….. standing around.

a) are; b) have; c) were

2. I’m at my wits’ end. ………….. we tell Mother.

a) shall; b) do; c) –

3. ………….. you coming to dinner this evening?

a) were; b) are; c) do

4. They are not coming to the cinema tonight because they ………….. doing their homework at that time.

a) are; b) were; c) will be

5) What time ………….. he come tomorrow?

a) does; b) will, c) did

6) What time ………….. you usually leave home to go to work?

a) did; b) will; c) do

Test 2. Variant II

1. Choose the correct tense form:

1. The Plane to Manchester ………….. at 4.30.

a) takes off; b) will take off; c) is taking off; d) will be taking off.

2. They ………….. tomorrow at 8.

a) leave; b) will leave; c) will be leaving; d) are leaving.

3. He ………….. you to the airport, I’m sure.

a) will be driving; b) will drive; c) is driving; d) drives.

4. Will Mike come with you? No, he ………….. with his friends at present.

a) will be staying; b) stays; c) is staying; d) will stay.

5. When did you write this story? – I ………….. in Warsaw at the time.

a) lived; b) was going to live; c) would live; d) was living

6. She made a habit of it. She ………….. here and play the piano in those days.

a) came; b) was coming; c) used to come; d) was going to come.

2. Fill in the spaces with the correct “time” words:

1. I expect that I will hear from him ………….. .

a) in a day or two; b) always; c) simultaneously.

2. It was raining hard ………….. .

a) not often; b) always; c) for ever.

3. He ………….. distrusts his own judgment.

a) not often; b) always; c) for ever.

4. How are you feeling…………..?

a) usually; b) lately; c) at the moment

5. He spoke English ………….. .

a) recently; b) in his childhood; c) for two hours.

6. We are leaving for Italy ………….. .

a) at once; b) every spring; c) next Tuesday

CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS

To be on duty – быть дежурным

To be absent – отсутствовать

To be present – присутствовать

To be ill – болеть

May I go out? – Можно выйти?

May I come in? – Можно войти,

I’m sorry, I’m late – Извините меня, я опоздал.

Excuse my being late – Извините за опоздание.

Go to the blackboard – Идите к доске.

Clean the blackboard – Сотрите с доски.

Go on reading (translating, retelling) the text – Продолжайте читать (переводить, пересказывать) текст.

Start reading (translating, retelling) the text – Начинайте читать (переводить, пересказывать) текст.

Compose the dialogue – Составьте диалог

make up sentences (questions) to the text – Составьте предложения (вопросы) к тексту

Finish up – Заканчивайте.

Hand in the papers – Сдайте работы.

Write down – Запишите.

Speak louder – Говорите громче. Keep quiet – Тишина!

Silence, please – Потише, пожалуйста.

Will you repeat, please? – Повторите, пожалуйста.

I haven’t caught you – Я вас не понял

Just a moment (a second) – Подождите, пожалуйста.

That’s enough – Достаточно.

Your mark is … – Ваша оценка -

excellent – “5”; good – “4”; satisfactory – “3”; poor (bad) – “2”

to notice mistakes – замечать ошибки

to correct mistakes – исправлять ошибки

Your hometask is… – Ваше домашнее задание …

The lesson is over – Урок окончен.

Who will remind me your hometask? – Кто напомнит мне домашнее задание?

No prompting! – Не подсказывайте!





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