ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Ex. 3. Fill each gap with a suitable word to complete Tom’s letter to his pen-friend.



СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ
UNIT 1. ABOUT MYSELF
UNIT 2. MY WORKING DAY
UNIT 3. OUR UNIVERSITY
UNIT 4. ORENBURG
UNIT 5. RUSSIA
UNIT 6. GREAT BRITAIN
UNIT 7. LONDON
UNIT 8. HIGHER EDUCATION IN THE UNITED KINGDOM
UNIT 9. THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
UNIT 10. CUSTOMS AND TRADITIONS IN ENGLISH-SPEAKING COUNTRIES
TESTS
CLASSROOM EXPRESSIONS
COLLOQUIAL ENGLISH PHRASES AND IDIOMS
НАПИСАНИЕ РУССКИХ ИМЁН СОБСТВЕННЫХ АНГЛИЙСКИМИ БУКВАМИ
ADDITIONAL TEXTS FOR READING

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

Методическое пособие, составленное коллективом авторов, предназначено для студентов-бакалавров первого курса неязыковых специальностей. Пособие состоит из десяти разделов, каждый из которых включает тексты и лексико-грамматические упражнения.

Специфика пособия обусловила выбор тем – универсальных для любой специальности университета, содержащих общие сведения как страноведческого, так и общекультурного характера. Лексико-грамматические упражнения направлены не только на отработку употребления лексического и грамматического материала, но и на расширение кругозора студента-бакалавра, на его подготовку к общению в рамках межкультурной коммуникации.

Кроме того, в некоторых разделах предусмотрены дополнительные материалы страноведческого характера, позволяющие расширить познания студентов как в области культуры англо-говорящих стран, так и в сфере межкультурного общения.

В приложении особое внимание уделяется устоявшимся выражениям, применяемым на занятиях (Classroom Expressions), идиоматическим и разговорным выражениям английского языка (Colloquial English Phrases and Idioms). Также в приложении приводятся несколько тестов, направленных на проверку уровня владения изученным лексическим и грамматическим материалом, и тексты для самостоятельного чтения.

UNIT 1. ABOUT MYSELF

Read, translate and retell the text.

 

First of all let me introduce myself. My name is … .I’m seventeen years old. I am a first – year student of the Orenburg State Pedagogical University. There are two more kids in the family besides me – my elder brother Oleg and my younger sister Maria. Oleg is twenty-one, he attends a University, he will be a dentist. Maria is only twelve, she is a schoolgirl. I forgot to mention one more member of our family. It’s our favorite poodle Tim.

My parents are not old at all. My Mum is forty, she works for newspaper. My Dad is forty-four, he is an engineer in computers. My parents love their jobs very much.

I’m doing quite well at the University. My parents are proud of my marks. I go in for sports. I am good at different sport games but I prefer playing basket-ball. I take part in different basket-ball competitions. In summer time I like swimming and boating. In 4 years I will graduate from the University and I will work as a teacher.

My grandparents are already retired. They like gardening and spend all their time growing tomatoes, potatoes, onions, strawberries, raspberries.

 

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

to introduce – представлять

let me introduce myself – разрешите представиться

to attend a university – ходить в университет

course – курс

favorite – любимец, любимый

poodle – пудель

to forget – забывать

job – работа

proud – гордый

to be proud of smth. – гордиться чем-либо

to go in for sports – увлекаться спортом

occupation – занятие, род занятий, профессия

to be retired – быть на пенсии

Ex. 1. Answer the questions:

1. Do you go to school or Institute?

2. What course are you at?

3. How old are your parents?

4. Are you the only child in the family?

5. Do you have a pet?

6. Are your grandparents still alive?

7. Do you go in for sports?

8. Do you like reading?

9. Do you take part in any competitions?

10. You are a good student, aren’t you?

Ex.2. Fill in the blanks with the required forms of the verb to be in the Present Tense:

1. I ... twenty.

2. You ... thirty.

3. They ... doctors.

4. She ... a swimmer.

5. He ... a very good friend.

6. We ... very busy in summer.

7. One of my friends ... fond of reading.

8. Football ... the most popular kind of sport.

9. My father … proud of my marks.

10. My friends … good at different sport games.

Ex. 3. Translate the sentences using the verb to be:

1. Мне 17 лет. 2. Его брат – студент. 3. Она из Оренбурга. 4. Её мама – инженер. 5. Её брата зовут Борис. 6. Сейчас я – студент первого курса. 7. Наш корпус очень большой и красивый. 8. Мы – студенты педагогического университета. 9. Я счастлив. 10. Он устал. 11. Она очень рада.

Ex. 4. Read a letter from an English friend and fill in the table:

Good day,

How are you? I am writing to you hoping that we can become friends.

My name is Jenny Blake. I am 20 years old. I am from Great Britain.

I am looking for pen pals with similar interests and from any country. I live in a small village near Birmingham in England. There are 9 of us in my family: my parents, my grandma, my two brothers, my sister-in-law, my nephew, my sister and me.

My parents Jim and Kate are 49 and 48 years old. They have a small business.

My granny Emma was a nurse at the local hospital but now she is retired. She is 75. She takes care of the family and cooks meals.

My elder brother Thomas is 30. His wife is 28 years old. Her name is Betty. They have a little son Ronald. My parents and Granny adore him. My brother is a driver and Betty is a housewife.

My brother Andy is 27 years old and he doesn’t live with us. He is a designer and works for a big company in London. He comes home every year for Christmas.

My sister Mary is younger than me, she is 16. She goes to our local school. She is very clever. She is good at biology and chemistry. Her dream is to become a pharmacist.

As for me I help my parents with their work. But I am also a first year student at the University of Birmingham. I will be a Computer Engineer. I participate in an online distance learning program. That means I take classes online and communicate with my professors and other students through the Internet. My teachers and fellow students live in different places. But twice a year I come to Birmingham and take my exams.

I hope after graduating from the university I’ll work as a Software Designer.

In my free time I go in for sports. I enjoy swimming and tennis. My sister and I also like riding our bikes. I don’t read a lot. I prefer going to the cinema. I often listen to the music from my iPod. It is mostly rock but sometimes classical music.

Now I’m very interested in various cultures and would like to meet people from other countries.

What is your name? Where are you from? How many people are there in your family? How old are they? What do they do? What are they like? What do they look like? What do you like doing in your free time? What are your plans for the future?

Hope to hear from you soon,

Jenny.

Name Family status Age Job
Jenny      
Jim      
Kate      
Emma      
Thomas      
Betty      
Andy      
Mary      

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

Read, translate and retell the text:

MY FAMILY

There is a saying that if you want something to be done well, do it yourself. So, I am following this wise saying and would like to introduce myself.

My first name is Katya, my family name is Smirnova.

But in the beginning, I would like to represent my family and parents. Actually my family isn’t large. My family consists of three persons: my father, mother and sister. Besides there is one more member in our family – our cat Boris.

My father's name is Andrew. He is 41 years, but he looks muсh younger. My dad is well-educated and well-read. His hobby is fishing. He is fond of it.

My mother’s name is Helen. She is 37. She is a good-looking, blond woman. I really adore her sense of humor. She is a housewife. It takes her much time and power to take care of our home. Her hobby is gardening. She can spend long hours in her spare time in our garden.

I enjoy spending time with my family very much. We often go for walks.

As for me I am a student. I am 17. I can say that I'm friendly, kind, generous and honest. I have my own likes and dislikes. I never let my friends down.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

to introduce – представить

first name – имя

family name – фамилия

to represent – представить

to consist of – состоять из

blond – блондинка

to be fond of – очень сильно что-либо любить, увлекаться

generous – великодушный

modest – скромный, сдержанный

to let (past let, p.p let) smb. down – подводить кого-либо

Ex. 1. Answer the questions:

1. What is my first name?

2. What is my second name?

3. What is my family name?

4. Is my family large?

5. What are my father's and my mother's names?

6. How old is my father?

7. How old is my mother?

8. What is my father by profession?

9. Do I enjoy spending time with my family?

10. What hobby do I have ?

11. How old am I?

12. What people don't I like?

Ex. 2. Translate the sentences using the verb to have:

1. У меня есть семья.

2. У нас есть кошка по имени Пушистик.

3. У моего друга есть сестра и брат.

4. Обычно я обедаю дома.

5. У моего брата есть своя семья.

6. У её папы отличная работа.

7. Как правило, я каждый день встречаюсь с друзьями.

8. У нас в семье есть определенные традиции.

9. Вечерами мы обсуждаем всё, что произошло за день.

10. Каждое лето мы ездим отдыхать на море.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

 

Ex. 1. Give the plural form of the following nouns:

year, wife, teacher, family, man, photo, school, mouse, boy, kind, child, city, exam, goose, foot, student, woman, faculty, shelf, potato.

Ex. 2. Complete these sentences withme, you, her, him, it, us orthem:

1. I can’t open this door. Could you open ………. for me, please?

2. Those shoes are really nice. I’d like to buy ………. .

3. “Did you see Jonathon last night?” No, I phoned ………. but he wasn’t there.”

4. I can’t do this homework. Can you help ……….?

5. I asked ………. a question but you didn’t answer ………. .

6. We’re not ready. Please give ………. some more time.

7. I’m sorry about your birthday. I’m afraid I forgot about ………. .

8. She speaks very quickly. I can’t understand ………. .

9. Jill’s a very nice woman. Do you know ……….?

10. My parents are coming this weekend. Would you like to meet ……….?

11. They are not married now. She left ………. a year ago.

12. “Where is your passport?” “I don’t know. I can’t find ………. .”

13. My mother writes to me every week but I don’t write to ………. very often.

14. Were you at the meeting last night? I didn’t see ………. there.

15. We want to help you. Please tell ………. about your problems.

Ex. 3. Translate the word combinations using possessive pronouns:

Его брат, его сестра, наш университет, их учеба, моя книга, твоя мама, ваши учебники, твой факультет, наши знания, мой выходной день.

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using a, an or the:

1. I bought ……… sandwich and ……… piece of cake. ……… sandwich was all right but cake was horrible.

2. ……… woman and two men were here a few minutes ago. I think ……… woman wanted to see you.

3. They’ve got ……… dog and ……… cat, ……… rabbit and some goldfish but the children like ……… dog best.

4. He sent me two letters and ……… postcard two days ago. ……… postcard didn’t say much but ……… letters were very interesting.

5. You can have ……… apple or ……… orange. ……… apples are nice and sweet.

6. There’s ……… plum tree and ……… peach tree in our garden. ……… peach tree doesn’t’ produce many peaches but ……… plum tree produces lots of plums every year.

7. There’s ……… theatre and two cinemas in town but one of ……… cinemas is closing down.

8. There’s ……… train at 2.00 and one at 3.30. ……… 2.00 train takes two hours and ……… 3.30 train takes ……… hour and ……… half.

Ex. 5. Complete the sentences using a, an, some or any:

1. Have you got ……… juice in the fridge?

2. There are ……… letters on the floor.

3. I had ……… cup of tea but I didn’t have ……… toast.

4. You need ……… flour and ……… egg.

5. I’d like ……… rice but I don’t want ……… potatoes.

6. Would you like ……… bowl of soup?

7. He gave me ……… tea but he didn’t put ……… sugar in it.

8. There are ……… nice trees in the garden but there aren’t ……… flowers.

9. Can I have ……… glass of orange juice?

10. There are knives and forks on the table but there isn’t ………salt or pepper.

UNIT 2. MY WORKING DAY

Read, translate and retell the text:

On week days I usually get up at 6 o'clock. I do not like to get up early, but I have to, because I have a lot of work to do during the day. I do my morning exercises, make my bed, wash, dress and go to the kitchen to have breakfast. At 7 o'clock I leave home and go to the University. As a rule I come there at a quarter to 8. The classes begin at 8 o’clock. Today we have two lectures, a seminar and an English lesson. At our English lessons we read texts, ask and answer questions and do all sorts of exercises. We speak English at the lessons. We speak English a little now, but we want to speak English well. At about 12 o'clock I generally have lunch at the canteen. I come home at about 4 o'clock. Sometimes I stay at the University till 5 or even 6 o'clock in the evening. I go to the library to get ready for my practical classes or to write areport. As a rule I have no free time on week-days. So by the end of the week I get verytired.

On returning home I usually start doing my homework. Then I have supper. After supper I wash dishes, drink coffee or tea and watch TV. I prefer old comedies and films about travelling. Sometimes I go for a walk in the park or visit my friends.

I like to read something before going to bed, listen to some music or chat on-line with my friends. At half past eleven I go to bed.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

have to – быть вынужденным сделать что-либо

a lot of – много

leave home – уходить из дома

as a rule – как правило

generally – обычно

canteen – столовая

get verytired – очень уставать

get ready for smth – готовиться к ч-л.

have supper – ужинать

write areport – писать доклад

chat on-line – общаться по Интернету

 

Ex.1. Answer the questions:

1. When do you get up?

2. Where do you go after breakfast?

3. How do you get to the University?

4. How much does it take you to get there?

5. What do you do at the University?

6. How many classes do you have every day?

7. Who usually prepares dinner for you?

8. What do you do in the evening?

9. At what time do you go to bed?

Ex. 2. Tell about your typical day. The following questions will help you:

1. Do you get up early?

2. Is it easy for you to get up early?

3. Do you wake up yourself or does your alarm-clock wake you up?

4. Do you do your morning exercises?

5. What do you prefer: a hot or a cold shower in the morning?

6. How long does it take you to get dressed?

7. What do you usually have for breakfast?

8. Some people look through newspapers or listen to the latest news on the radio while having breakfast. What about you?

9. When do you usually leave your house?

10. Do you work? If yes, where?

11. How long does it take you to get to your University?

12. Do you go there by bus/trolley-bus or walk?

13. Where do you usually have lunch (dinner)?

14. What time do you come home?

15. How long does it take you to do your homework?

16. How do you usually spend your evenings?

17. Do you have a lot of free time?

18. Do you play any musical instrument?

19. Are you fond of listening to music?

20. What kind of music do you prefer?

21. Do you collect anything (stamps, records, post­cards, coins, matchboxes, etc.)?

22. What time do you usually go to bed?

Ex. 3. Ask questions to the underlined words:

1. He wakes up at 7.

2. After breakfast he goes to his University

3. He gets there by bus.

4. He puts on his coat.

5. I greet my friends.

6. She reads English books.

7. He rests after dinner.

Ex. 4. Ask questions to the Subjects:

1. The teacher asks questions. 2. Ann cleans the rooms after breakfast. 3. We watch TV after dinner. 4. Nick goes to the library after classes.

Ex. 5. Translate from Russian into English:

a) на столе, в столе, со стола, из стола, в стол, за столом

b) в портфеле, в портфель, из портфеля

c) на урок, на уроке, после урока

d) до обеда, после обеда, во время обеда

e) до занятий, на занятиях, после занятий.

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

Read, translate and retell the text:

MY DAY OFF

I will not go to my University tomorrow. I’ll have a day off. I hope I’ll have a good time. I’ll wake up later than usual and do morning exercises. Then I’ll have breakfast. If the weather is good, I’ll go for a walk after breakfast. If the weather is bad, I’ll stay at home. I’ll read some books, newspapers and magazines. If the program is good, I’ll watch TV. In the evening some friends will come to see me. I’ll be very glad.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Write sentences with comparative adjectives using words from each part of the table:

English heavy her twelve year old son
Karen old buses
My suitcase long the Mediterranean
My father short planes
Boats easy the Statue of Liberty
The Mississippi fast Japanese
The Atlantic cold cotton
Wool warm the Nile
Trains tall your suitcase
The Empire State building slow my mother

 

1. English is easier than Japanese.

2. Karen…………………………………… .

3. My suitcase…………………………………… .

4. My father…………………………………… .

5. Boats…………………………………… .

6. The Mississippi…………………………………… .

7. The Atlantic…………………………………… .

8. Wool…………………………………… .

9. Trains…………………………………… .

10. The Empire State building…………………………………… .

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using a comparative and than:

1. She’s much ……… her husband. (young)

2. It’s a ……… day ……… yesterday. (warm)

3. The vegetables in this shop are ……… the ones in the supermarket. (fresh)

4. The train is ……… the bus. (expensive)

5. This new TV show is much ……… the old one. (funny)

6. My office is ……… Helen’s. (near)

7. The traffic is ……… it was last year. (noisy)

8. You have a ……… life ……… I have. (busy)

9. Drivers in this country are ……… drivers in my country. (careless)

10. The exam today was ……… last year’s exam. (difficult)

11. She’s much ……… her sister. (kind)

12. The North is ……… the South. (rich)

13. The students ask ……… questions ……… they did before. (intelligent)

14. Her second book is ……… her first. (interesting)

Ex. 3. Write sentences comparing the Grand Hotel and the Sea View Hotel. Use the adjectives in the box:

peaceful big small lovely central comfortable beautiful cold cheap expensive clean friendly warm noisy

 

Grand Hotel The Grand Hotel is a beautiful hotel in the centre of the town. It is a big hotel with 120 rooms. The rooms are all very clean, comfortable and warm but they are quite noisy because the hotel is on a main road. I found the hotel staff polite but not very friendly. This is not the hotel for a cheap holiday. The rooms are quite expensive at around £100 per person per night for bed and breakfast. Sea View Hotel The Sea View Hotel is a 30-room hotel about three kilometers from the centre of town. The building is not very beautiful but the rooms have lovely views of the sea and the hotel is nice and peaceful. The rooms are not always very clean and sometimes they are a bit cold at night. But the hotel staff is always very friendly and the hotel is very cheap. It only costs £ 30 per person per night for bed and breakfast.

Ex.4. Complete the sentences using there’s, there are, is there or are there:

1. There’s a beach down here.

2. ………….. four girls and two boys in her family.

3. ………….. a train to Manchester?

4. ………….. a new disco near the college.

5. ………….. a good restaurant in this street?

6. ………….. two hospitals in town.

7. ………….. a lot of children in the pool.

8. ………….. three families in that house.

9. ………….. a television in the flat?

10. ………….. a big grey cloud over there.

 

UNIT 3. OUR UNIVERSITY

Read, translate and retell the text:

In 1919 People's National Institute of Education was founded in Orenburg. There were only two faculties in it: of Natural Sciences and of Mathematics. In 1980 our Institute was decorated with Award Honour Sign. 1996 was the year when Pedagogical Institute became the Teachers’ State University including 6 faculties and 2 Institutes.

At present it occupies 8 buildings. They are placed in different parts of Orenburg. There are many chairs and departments in it. Highly qualified lecturers prepare here the teachers of different subjects: biology and geography, physics and mathematics, history, primary education, philology, foreign languages, physical culture. There are many tables, pictures and portraits on the walls of the study-rooms. Our lecture-halls are large and light.

Our University is equipped with the scientific library where students can look through necessary books and papers.

There are nearly all facilities for doing sport – a swimming pool, a skating-rink, football fields, sport grounds and a tennis-court.

We are proud of our new sports complex where we can train in various kinds of sport.

Students live in three hostels, the latter one is modern and very comfortable.

There are full time students at our University and we also have students who study by correspondence. Graduates from our University work in different parts of our large region and even abroad.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

to found – основать

qualified – квалифицированный

equip – оборудовать , оснащать

portrait – портрет

physical culture – физкультура

a canteen – столовая самообслуживания

facility – оборудование, приспособление

Ex.1. Answer the questions:

1. When was our University founded?

2. How many faculties are there in our University?

3. What subjects are taught here?

4. Where do our graduates work?

5. What are the facilities for doing sport at our Institute?

6. What can you say about hostels?

7. Where can students prepare for their tests and exams?

Ex. 2. Find English equivalents for:

быть основанным, только два факультета, включать в себя, располагаться, кафедры и факультеты, высококвалифицированные преподаватели, быть оборудованным, библиотека, просматривать, возможности для ч-л, спортивный комплекс, общежитие, аудитории, студенты-заочники.

Ex. 3. Fill in the blanks:

1. There were only two faculties in Orenburg People's National Institute of Education: ……… .

2. At present Orenburg Teachers’ State University occupies ……… buildings.

3. Our building is placed ……… .

4. Highly qualified lecturers prepare here the teachers of different subjects: ……… .

5. Our University is equipped with ……… .

6. There are a lot of facilities for doing sport ……… .

7. We can train in various kinds of sport in ……… .

8. Students live in ……… .

9. I’m a ……… time student. My friend study by ……… .

10. Graduates from our University work in ……… .

Ex. 4. Ask 5 questions to the following sentences:

1. At present it occupies 8 buildings.

2. Students live in three hostels.

3. There are full time students at our University.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Complete the sentences using much, many or a lot of. Use a lot of in the positive sentences only:

1. Have you got ………. work to do?

2. We buy………. fruit but no vegetables.

3. There isn’t ………. information in this book.

4. How ………. children have they got?

5. He’s got ………. problems at the moment.

6. We see ………. beautiful birds on the walk.

7. I don’t know ………. people here. Do you?

8. We can’t go out because I don’t have ………. money with me.

9. There aren’t ………. tourists here this year.

10. I don’t have breakfast before work but I drink ………. tea.

11. Do you smoke ………. cigarettes?

12. How ………. money do you spend?

13. Are there going to be ………. people at the party?

14. She’s ill and she’s not eating ………. food.

Ex. 2. Add do or does to make questions and do, don’t, does or doesn’t to make short answers:

1. Does she live with her parents? Yes, she does.

2. ….. you like your job? No, I ….. .

3. ….. I speak Italian well? Yes, you ….. .

4. ….. you drive to work? No, I ….. .

5. ….. they work hard at university? Yes, they ….. .

6. ….. Alan smoke? No, he ….. .

7. ….. your sister visit you very often? Yes, she ….. .

8. ….. we usually give her a birthday present? No, we ….. .

9. ….. you write to your parents very often? No, I ….. .

10. ….. he help you very much? Yes, he ….. .

Ex. 3. A and B meet on the street. Write the conversation, putting the verbs into the correct form and adding all the other words you need:

- Hello! / What / you / do / here in Bristol?

- I / stay / my parents.

- Oh, that’s nice! And how / be / Cardiff? You / like / it there?

- Oh, yes, I. It / be / very nice town / but / I / sometimes miss / see / my friends in Bristol.

- And what about the job?

- Oh, that / be / very good. It be / a lot / more / interesting / my last job.

- Good.

- Yes. So I definitely / want / stay / Cardiff. / Oh, and I / learn / drive / now too. But there / be / one problem. / I not got / car.

- You / buy / one?

- Well, I can’t. / I not got / money / because I / spend / it all on driving lessons at the moment.

- Oh, well. Never mind.

Ex. 4. Answer the questions using last or ago and the words in bracket:

1. When did you speak to Peter? (week)

2. When did they buy that car? (two years)

3. When did we clean the windows? (six months)

4. When did the film start? (five minutes)

5. When did you see your cousin? (three years)

6. When did she stop smoking? (month)

7. When did it stop raining? (two hours)

8. When did they go to Africa? (year)

9. When did Max phone? (night)

10. When did you find your dictionary? (half an hour)

Ex. 5. Complete the sentences using did, was or were:

1. ………. you working when I rang? No, I ………. not.

2. ………. you see me on television? Yes, I ………. .

3. What ………. you doing when they arrived? I ………. reading the paper.

4. ………. they working hard? No, they ………. not.

5. ………. she crying when you saw her? Yes, she ………. .

6. ………. They speak to you when you met? No, they ………. not.

7. Peter ………. still lying in bed so he ………. hear the doorbell.

8. ………. the police find the man? No, they ………. not. He ………. hiding in an empty building.

9. We ………. shouting to you. ………. not you hear us?

10. I ………. looking for some photos when you rang but I ………. not find them.

Ex. 6. Mach the sentences together and write ten sentences in the first conditional:

She won’t get a place at university you cook the dinner
I’ll do the washing up I write it in my diary
I’m sure he’ll understand you go to bed early
I won’t have any money it rains
I won’t forget the date I see Sylvia
We’ll eat in the garden you tell him the problem
You’ll feel better in the morning the weather’s nice
We’ll stay at home she fails her exam
I’ll give her your message you come by train
I’ll meet you at the station I lose my job

UNIT 4. ORENBURG

Read, translate and retell the text:

Orenburg is my native town. It is situated on the river Ural which is the borderline between Europe and Asia. Orenburg was founded in 1743 by Nepluev as an outpost of Russia. Orenburg has a rich historical past connected with the names of Pushkin, Dal, Shevchenko, Fadeev, Chkalov, etc. Pushkin traveled throughout Orenburg region to collect some material about Pugachev’s revolt. Shevchenko was here in exile.

Today Orenburg is a rapidly growing industrial town. The recent growth of the town is due to the development of gas and oil fields of Orenburg region. Here one can find many gas and oil derricks and not far from the town is a big gas plant. Agriculture is highly developed in our region too. We grow wheat, rye, oats, all kind of vegetables and some fruits.

Orenburg is a political centre of the region where Municipal and Regional Dumas and governments sit.

Being a cultural centre Orenburg has a Museum of Natural History, a Museum of Fine Arts, a Historical and some other museums, many palaces of culture, concert halls, art galleries. Besides we can visit a Drama Theatre, a Theatre of Musical Comedy, two Puppet Theatres or a great number of cinemas.

Orenburg is an educational centre. There are three Universities, two Academies, many Institutes, technical, vocational and secondary schools.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

native town – родной город

borderline – граница

outpost – крепость, форпост

connected with – связано с …

revolt – восстание

exile – ссылка

rapidly growing – быстро растущий

recent – недавний

due to – благодаря

oil derricks – нефтяные вышки

gas plant – завод по переработке газа

wheat – пшеница

rye – рожь

oats – овес

government – правительство

Museum of Natural History – краеведческий музей

Museum of Fine Arts – музей изобразительных искусств

vocational school – профессиональное училище

secondary school – средняя школа

Ex. 1. Answer the questions:

1. Where is Orenburg situated?

2. When and who was it founded by?

3. What can you say about famous people who visited Orenburg?

4. The recent growth of the town is due to the development of gas and oil fields of Orenburg region, isn’t it?

5. Is agriculture highly developed in our region?

6. What do we grow?

7. What has Orenburg being a political centre of the region?

8. Will you name places of culture we can visit in Orenburg?

9. What educational institutions are there in our town?

10. Orenburg is a political centre of the region, isn’t it? Why?

Ex. 2 Translate from Russian into English using words and word combinations of the text:

1. В моем родном городе много красивых площадей и зеленых парков.

2. Граница между Европой и Азией проходит по Уральским горам.

3. В музее изобразительных искусств часто проходят выставки оренбургских художников.

4. Рожь, пшеница и овес – основные сельскохозяйственные культуры нашей области.

5. Твой брат уже окончил среднюю школу? – Да, теперь он учится в профессиональном училище.

6. Вчера моя сестра была на экскурсии в краеведческом музее. – Ей понравилось? – Да, экскурсия была посвящена восстанию Пугачева.

Ex.3. Finish the sentences:

1. Orenburg is situated on the river Ural which is the borderline …

2. Orenburg was founded in …

3. Orenburg has a rich historical past connected with the names of …

4. Today Orenburg is a rapidly …

5. In Orenburg region one can find many …

6. Orenburg is a political centre of the region where …

7. Being a cultural centre Orenburg has …

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Complete these sentences withat, on, in:

1. Do you live ….. Manchester?

2. He was ….. the bus stop for half an hour.

3. Are the plates ….. the cupboard?

4. Look at the example ….. the blackboard.

5. I met my girlfriend ….. a party.

6. Kathy’s not here – she’s ….. work at the moment.

7. Are my books ….. that shelf?

8. My toothbrush isn’t ….. the bathroom. Where is it?

9. I usually go swimming ….. Tuesdays.

10. There are too many cars ….. the road.

11. We usually take our holiday ….. September.

12. They don’t go out very often ….. the evenings.

13. The children get too many presents ….. Christmas.

14. I got up ….. 7 o’clock this morning.

15. She was born ….. London ….. 1992.

Ex. 2. Complete the sentences using to, at, from, onto, on, off, into, in, or out off:

1. I got out ………. the bath when the phone rang.

2. I forgot to send a birthday card ………. Helen yesterday.

3. He was very tired when he got back ………. Australia.

4. We’re going to stay ………. a holiday apartment in Spain.

5. We stopped ………. the traffic lights and the car broke down.

6. He took all the toys ………. the box and left them ………. the floor.

7. Our friends met us ………. the airport when we arrived ………. Berlin.

8. He felt very hot and so he jumped ………. the beautiful clear water.

9. We took our lunch ………. the garden and ate it ………. the grass.

10. When I arrived, I carried my heavy bag all the way ………. the station ………. the hotel.

Ex. 3. Rewrite these sentences in the correct order:

Model: to the mountains / never / we / go – We never go to the mountains.

1. often / she / write to me / doesn’t

2. play football / the boys / always / on Sunday afternoons

3. late / usually / arrives / the bus

4. go / I / often / bed / to / before 11

5. never / coffee / in / drinks / she / the evening

6. it / in the summer / rain / often / doesn’t

7. slowly / I / always / books / read

8. by / my / usually / father / to / bus / goes / work

9. always / at / go / we / to / the beach / the weekend

Ex. 4. Complete the conversation, putting the verbs into the present continuous and completing the short answers witham, is, are (not):

- So what ………. (happen)? ………. (they/have) a party?

- Yes, they ……….

- And what ………. (they/do)?

- Well, a few of them ………. (dance).

- ………. (Mum and Dad/dance)?

- Yes, Mum ………. . But Dad ………. . He ………. (talk) to uncle Jack and they ………. (laugh) a lot.

- Is Aunty Linda there?

- Yes, she ………. . She ………. (dance) with Brian from next door.

- Oh, and Dad ………. (give) everyone a drink now.

- What ………. (they/drink)?

- Coffee, I think. And some of them ………. (drink) juice. Mum ………. (not/drink) anything.

- What ………. (they/eat)?

- Only crisps and nuts and some cheese.

- And we ………. (not/eat) anything. It’s not fair!

- But they think we ………. (sleep) upstairs.

- Oh, no, they don’t. They ………. (look) this way.

- I think Dad ………. (come) over here.

UNIT 5. RUSSIA

Read, translate and retell the text:

The Russian Federation is the largest country in the world. Its total area is about 17 million square kilometers. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. Russia is bordered by Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Litva, Belarus, the Ukraine, Azerbaijan and China. Our land is washed by 12 seas, most of which are the seas of three oceans: the Arctic, the Atlantic and the Pacific.

There is hardly a country in the world where such a great variety of flora and fauna can be found as in our land. Our country hasnumerous forests, plains and steppes, taiga and tundra, highlands and deserts. Russian Federation is located on two plains, the Great Russian Plain and the West Siberian Lowland. The longest mountain chains are the Urals, the Caucasus and the Altai. Russia's most important rivers are the Volga, the main Siberian rivers and the Amur. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million. The world's deepest lake – Lake Baikal, with the depth of 1600 meters, is situated in Russia, too. The climate in Russia varies from the arctic in the north to subtropical in the south. Russia is a highly-developed industrial and agricultural country. Its vast mineral resources include oil, natural gas, coal, iron, zinc, aluminum, gold and other non-ferrous metals.

The capital of the Russian Federation is Moscow, with the population of about 10 million people. The Russian Federation is a multinationalstate. It comprises many national districts, several autonomous republics and regions. The current population of Russia is about 150 million people.

Russia is a constitutional republic with president as Head of State. The legislative power is vested in the Federal Assembly, consisting of the Council of Federation and the State Duma.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

to be bordered by – граничить с

to be located on – находиться, располагаться

Great Russian Plain – Великорусская равнина

West Siberian Lowland – Западносибирская низменность

depth – глубина

to vary – изменять, меняться

mineral resources – полезные ископаемые

non-ferrous metals – цветные металлы

legislative power – законодательная власть

to be vested in – передаваться

to consist – состоять

Ex. 1. Answer the questions:

1. What is the total area of the Russian Federation?

2. How many countries is Russia bordered by?

3. What oceans wash the borders of the Russian Federation?

4. Is the Russian Federation located on two plains?

5. What are the longest mountain chains?

6. The total number of rivers in Russia is over two million, isn’t it?

7. Are Russian flora and fauna various?

8. What is the climate inRussia like?

9. What is the current population of Russia?

10. What does the Federal Assembly consist of?

Ex. 2. Finish the sentences below using words from the text:

1. The Russian Federation is …

2. It occupies most of Eastern Europe and …

3. The longest mountain chains are …

4. The total number of rivers in Russia is …

5. The climate in Russia varies from the arctic …

6. Russia is a highly-developed industrial and …

7. The capital of the Russian Federation is …

8. Russia is a constitutional republic with …

Ex. 3. Translate from Russian into English

1. Российская Федерация занимает большую часть восточной Европы и северной Азии.

2. Россия граничит с восемью государствами, включая Финляндию, Латвию, Белоруссию, Китай и некоторые другие.

3. В Российской Федерации более двух миллионов рек. Самые крупные из них – Волга, Амур и реки Сибири.

4. Климат Российской Федерации меняется от арктического на севере до субтропического на юге.

5. Россия – высокоразвитая промышленная и сельскохозяйственная страна.

Ex. 4. Your English friend is planning a visit to Russia. Help him to choose where to go and what to see in our country. Work in pairs:

Ex. 5. How well do you know your Homeland? What is (are):

• the biggest Russian lake?

• the longest Russian river (in European and Asian parts of the Russian Federation)?

• a city with subtropical climate?

• cities with arctic climate?

• agricultural regions?

• old historical cities?

• places of recreation and tourism?

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

MOSCOW

Moscow is the capital of Russia. It was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky in 1147. There is a monument to him in the very center of Moscow.

During the whole history of Russia Moscow has occupied the leading place in its cultural and political life. Now Moscow is a big industrial, cultural and political centre of the country. Moscow is the large educational and scientific center. Moscow University was founded by M. Lomonosov in the 18th century. It is the highest building in Moscow.

Moscow is beautiful. We admire its fine buildings, magnificent palaces, architectural monuments, beautiful green parks and squares. The centre of Moscow is the Red Square. One can see there St Basil's Cathedral, famous for its unique architecture and coloured domes.

The Moscow Kremlin is one of the world’s largest collections of historical and art treasures. Situated on the north bank of the Moskva River, it is the dominant landmark of Moscow. A stone wall up to 21 m in height surrounds this triangular complex of former palaces, cathedrals, and other monuments. The Great Kremlin Palace is the most imposing structure within the Kremlin. Other notable Kremlin palaces are the Granovitaya Palace (1491) and the Terem (1636).

The cultural life of the capital is very rich. There are plenty of cinemas, theatres, museums and art exhibitions here. We can see world famous pictures by Russian and foreign artists in the Tretyakov Gallery and in the Pushkin Art Museum. The Moscow underground is no doubt the best in the world. It is famous for its marble-walled stations.

Moscow is also called golden-domed because of a great number of churches and cathedrals with gilded domes, for example the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour, the Archangel Cathedral and the Cathedral of the Annunciation.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

to found – основать

prince – князь

in the very centre – в самом центре

to occupy – занимать

leading – ведущий

educational – образовательный

century – столетие, век

to admire – восхищаться

magnificent – великолепный

art – искусство, художественный

treasure – сокровище

plenty of – много, множество

exhibition – выставка

underground – метрополитен

no doubt – без сомнения, несомненно

golden-domed – златоглавая

cathedral – собор

Ex.1. Answer the questions:

1. What is the capital of Russia?

2. Who was its founder?

3. Is Moscow an educational centre? Give some examples to prove it.

4. What places of interest do you know in Moscow?

5. Why can we say that its cultural life is very rich?

6. Can you name the main art galleries in Moscow?

7. What is the quickest means of transport in Moscow?

Ex.2. Translate the words and make up sentences with them:

a) art, artistic, artist, artificial, artful, artless;

b) to lead, leader, leading, leadership;

c) science, scientific, scientist.

Ex.3. Agree or Disagree. Read in pairs. Use the phrases:

You are right. I agree with you. You are not right. You are mistaken.

1. Moscow was founded in 1743.

2. It was founded by Prince Yury Dolgoruky.

3. Now Moscow is a big sea resort.

4. Moscow University was founded by Peter 1.

5. Moscow University was founded in the 18th century.

6. The centre of Moscow is the tall Ostankino Tower.

7. The cultural life of the capital is very rich.

8. The Moscow underground is world-known.

9. We can see world famous pictures by Russian and foreign artists in the Great Kremlin Palace.

10. St Basil's Cathedral is a notable Kremlin cathedral.

GRAMMAR EXERCISES

Ex. 1. Write the following sentences in Past Continuous and Future Continuous adding necessary adverbs of time:

1. What’s his wife doing? 2. He is not packing his things. 3. Are you waiting for your friend? 4. Where are you hurrying to? 5. My friend is staying at a hotel. 6. She is talking to a friend of mine. 7. My daughter is having her French. 8. They are not smoking.

Ex. 2. Answer the following questions paying special attention to the Past Continuous and Future Continuous:

1. Were you doing your homework at 11 yesterday evening?

2. What will you be doing at 3 o’clock tomorrow?

3. Will you be hurrying home after classes?

4. Who were you talking to when I called you?

5. What were you talking about when I came in?

6. Do you know when you’ll be taking your exams this year?

7. Where will you be going for your holidays?

8. Where were you hurrying to when my friend met you?

Ex. 3. Complete the sentences, putting the verbs in the Past Simple or Past Continuous:

1. They ………. for me when I ………. at the station. (wait/arrive)

2. She ………. in the sea when I ………. her. (swim/see)

3. ………. they ………. tennis when it ………. raining. (play/start)

4. She ………. when she ………. the news. (cry/hear)

5. We ………. home from the theatre when the police ………. us. (drive/stop)

6. Everyone ………. quiet when the concert ………. . (go/begin)

7. When she ………. him, he ………. quite ill. (leave/become)

8. You ………. in a restaurant when I first ………. you. (work/meet)

9. I ………. very angry when I ………. the letter. (feel/read)

10. It ………. when I ………. . (rain/get up)

Ex. 4. Complete the sentences using the following prepositions:

down below up next to opposite past along across under between over above behind round in front of

1. Mario’s restaurant is ……… a travel agency.

2. There is a person ……… Mario’s restaurant.

3. There is a dog ……… the ladder.

4. A painter is climbing ……… a ladder.

5. Mario’s restaurant is ……… a hotel called The Red Lion.

6. Someone is running ……… the hotel.

7. There is a beautiful garden ……… the hotel.

8. There is a bus stop ……… the hotel.

9. Mario’s restaurant is ……… the hotel and the launderette.

10. There is a hairdresser’s ……… the launderette.

11. Someone is coming ……… the steps from the hairdresser’s.

12. There are a few people walking ……… the road.

13. Someone is pushing a pram ……… the road.

14. There is a car coming ……… the corner.

15. There is a plane flying ……… the town.

Ex. 5. Choose the correct words to complete the sentences:

1. We haven’t got some/any milk.

2. She arrived in/to Mexico at 2 o’clock.

3. It’s very cold tonight. I think it’s snowing/it’s going to snow soon.

4. Don’t walk/Not walk on the grass.

5. You play tennis very good/very well.

6. Thank you for telling me that. You’re honester/more honest than your brother is.

7. Alice and Mike stay/are staying in a hotel in Berlin this week.

8. I think I’m going to take that picture out off/off the wall.

Ex. 6. Write ten questions about a friend’s trip to London, using the table below. Then choose a short answer for each question:

Was Were the underground trains the weather the streets the people the parks the airports the museums the shops the hotel the food   warm? comfortable? beautiful? friendly? busy? clean? expensive? good? fast? interesting? Yes, it was. No, it wasn’t.   Yes, they were No, they weren’t

UNIT 6. GREAT BRITAIN

Read, translate and retell the text:

GREAT BRITAIN

Great Britain is situated on a group of islands lying off the north-west of Europe. The official title of the country is the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It includes the following parts: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. The British nation consists of the English, the Scots, the Welsh and the Irish. The United Kingdom is bordered to the south by the English Channel, which separates it from continental Europe, to the east by theNorth Sea, and to the west by the Irish Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. The only land border is between Northern Ireland and the Republic of Ireland. The total area of the United Kingdom is 242 km².

The climate of Great Britain is mild and damp. This is because of the west winds which often blow from the ocean. They keep the weather cool in summer and warm in winter. Rain and fog are rather common things in Great Britain, especially in autumn and in winter. In general the weather is rather changeable and every Englishman wishes it to be more stable.

Great Britain is one of the most highly developed industrial countries in the world. Great Britain is a constitutional monarchy – a kingdom. But the King’s or Queen’s power is limited by Parliament. Parliament consists of two Houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons.

There are two main parties in Great Britain: the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. London is the capital of Great Britain.

The population of United Kingdom is more than 56 mln people, but it is one of the world's leading commercial and industrialized nations.

ADD TO YOUR ACTIVE VOCABULARY:

island – остров

north-west – северо-запад

English Channel – пролив Ла-Манш

separate – отделять

border – граница

between – между

mild – мягкий, умеренный

because of – из-за, благодаря

fog – туман

changeable – изменчивый

kingdom – королевство

power – власть

limit – ограничивать

House – здание, палата

Labour Party– Лейбористская партия

Ex.1. Answer the questions:

1. Where is Great Britain situated?

2. What parts does it include?

3. How is it separated from the continent?

4. What is the total area of the United Kingdom?

5. What is the population of the United Kingdom?

6. How can you describe the climate and the weather in Great Britain?

7. What is the form of ruling in the country?

8. What is the King’s or Queen’s power limited by?

9. Will you name the main parties in Great Britain?

10. What is the capital in Great Britain?

Ex.2. Give antonyms to the following words:

North, west, mild, damp, warm, stable, highly, often.

Ex.3. Fill in the blanks. Use the suitable words from the text:

1. Our main building of the University is … in the very centre of our town.

2. The strong wind often … in our region in autumn.

3. Not all people like … life, they often look for adventures.

4. Her mood is very … . She is sad in the morning and is singing joyfully in the evening.

5. His freedom is now … because he often infringes … and orders.

6. Our work at the English text … reading, translation and retelling.

7. There are several kingdoms in Europe where a … or a … is at the head.

Ex.4. Read the following dialogue and invert your own:

-You see, I’m a bit confused. I thought Britain, Great Britain and the British Isles mean the same. Am I right?

- Well, in everyday speech Britain, Great Britain and the British Isles are used to mean the same country, but it is not quite correct.

- Can you explain why Britain is called Great Britain?

- In fact, it is only one of about 5500 British Isles. It is the biggest one. That is why it’s called Great, because of its size.

- I see. Does it also mean the United Kingdom, then?

- No, it consists only of the country’s three parts.





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