By accident = unexpectedly, by chance – случайно

In accordance with = according to – согласно чему либо

Take into account = consider, take into consideration – принимать во внимание

In addition to = as well as, besides – в дополнение

In advance = beforehand – заранее

For ages, its ages = for a long time – в течение долгого времени

Put on airs=behave as if one were better than others – важничать

All in all = on the whole – в общем

All of a sudden = suddenly – неожиданно

As soon as = immediately, not later than – как только

At last= finally – наконец

At least = in the least degree – по меньшей мере

Beat around (or about) the bush – ходить вокруг да около

Because of =on account of – из-за

To begin with = in the first place, firstly – во первых

A (little) bit=a little – немного

Burst into crying (or laughing)=begin to cry (or laugh) suddenly – расплакаться (рассмеяться)

Call in=ask to come, summon (a specialist, a doctor) – попросить, вызвать

Call (something) off = cancel – обменять

Call on= visit – заходить

Come across = meet or find unexpectedly – случайно

Up-to-date = modern, new – современный

Day by day = gradually – постепенно

Do a favor= do someone a kindness – оказать любезность

Be all ears = be very attentive – быть очень внимательным

Every now and then = from time to time – иногда

Keep an eye on = watch, guard carefully – следить

From the first= from the start – с самого начала

For ever = for always, for good– навсегда

Get accustomed to = get used to – привыкнуть

Have a good time = enjoy oneself – проводить хорошо время

Be in a hurry=be in a great haste – спешить

Instead of = in place of – вместо

Lose one’s temper = lose one’s self-control – терять самообладание

Be at a loss = be puzzled and perplexed – быть в растерянности

Make friends=become friendly with – подружиться

By all means=certainly, in every possible way – обязательно

Out-of-doors = in the fresh air – на свежем воздухе

Take part in=participate – принимать участие

Point of view = standpoint – точка зрения

On purpose=intentionally – с целью

Be sick of= be tired of – уставать

Be in high (of good) spirits = be cheerful – быть в хорошем настроении

In spite of = notwithstanding – несмотря на

Take measures = take necessary steps – принимать меры

Time and again = repeatedly – повторно

Be (or look) upset = be (or look) worried, disturbed – быть расстроенным

On the whole = in general – в целом


Написание русских имён собственных английскими буквами

  ж – zh – Zhenya ц – ts – Tsereteli щ – shch – Shchukin х – kh – Chekhov ч – ch – Chekhov ш – sh – Shishkin ф – ph– Philip у – u– Ulyana ё – yo – Seryozha ы – y – Krylov э – e– Ella ю – yu– Yulia я – ya– Yana   в середине слов:   - ье – ye– Vasilyevich - кс – x– Alexei - ьи – yi– Ilyich   в окончаниях:   - ия – ia – Maria - ай – ai – Nicolai - ая – aya – Tolstaya - ий – y (i)– Dmitriy - ей – ei– Andrei - ой – oy (oi) – Tolstoy - ый – y – Baty




The U.K of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch, Queen Elizabeth II as head of state.

The legislature, Parliament, is the supreme authority. It comprises 2 chambers – the House of Lords and House of Commons – together with the Queen in her constitutional role.

The executive consists of the central Government – that is the Prime-Minister and Cabinet and other ministers who are responsible for initiating and directing the national policy, government departments, local authorities, and public corporations. The judiciary determines common law and interpret status and is independent of both the legislature and executive.

The Government derives its authority from the elected House of Commons. A general election for all seats in the House of Commons must be held every 5 years. The Government is normally formed by the political party which is supported by the majority in the House of Commons. The Party's leader is appointed Prime-Minister by the Queen. He chooses a team of ministers of whom 20 or so are in the Cabinet. The second largest party becomes the official opposition with its own leader and Shadow Cabinet. The House of Commons comprises members from the constituencies in England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland who represent people whose history and traditions differ.

The House of Lords is a hereditary Chamber.

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