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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTERNET
⇐ ПредыдущаяСтр 14 из 14
The Internet has revolutionized the computer and communications world like nothing before. The invention of the telegraph, telephone, radio, and computer set the stage for this unprecedented integration of capability, a mechanism for information dissemination, and a medium for collaboration and interaction between individuals and their computers without regard for geographic location.
The Internet represents one of the most successful examples of the benefits of sustained investment and commitment to research and development of information infrastructure. Beginning with the early research in packet switching the government, industry and academia has been partners in evolving and deploying this exciting new technology. Today, terms like "leaner mcc.com" and "http://www.acm.org" trip lightly off the tongue of the random person on the street.
This is intended to be a brief, necessarily cursory and incom-plate history. Much material currently exists about the Internet, covering history, technology, and usage. A trip to almost any book store will find shelves of material written about the Internet.
In this paper, 3 several of us involved in the development and evolution of the Internet share our views of its origins and history. This history revolves around four distinct aspects. There is the technological evolution that began with early research on packet switching and the ARPANET (and related technologies), and where current research continues to expand the horizons of the infrastructure along several dimensions such as scale, performance, and higher level functionality. There if the operations and management aspect of a global and complex operational infrastructure. There is the social aspect, which resulted in a broad community of Internatus working together to create and evolve the technology. And there is the commercialization aspect, resulting in an extremely effective transition of research results into a broadly deployed and available information infrastructure.
The Internet today is a widespread information infrastructure, the initial prototype of what is often called the National (or Global or Galactic) Information Infrastructure. Its history is complex and involves many aspects technological, organizational, and community. And its influence reaches not only to the technical fields of computer communications but throughout society as we move toward increasing use of online tools to accomplish electronic commerce, information acquisition and community operations.
1. What is the Internet?
2. How has the Internet revolutionized?
3. What are the four distinct aspects in the history of Internet?
4. What is called the National (or Global, or Galactic) Information Infrastructure?
ORIGINS OF THE INTERNET
The first recorded description of the social interactions that could be enabled through networking was a series of memos written by J.C.R. Licklider of MIT in August 1962 discussing His "Galactic Network" concept. He envisioned a globally interconnected set of through which everyone could quickly access data and programs from any site. In spirit, the concept was very much like the Internet of today. Licklider was the first head of the computer research program at DARPA, 4, starting in October 1962. While at DARPA he convinced his successors at DARPA Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, and MIT researcher Lawrence G. Roberts, of the importance of this networking concept.
Leonard Kleinrock at MIT published the first paper on packet switching theory in July 1961 and the first book on the subject in 1964. Kleinrock convinced Roberts of the theoretical feasibility of communications using packets rather than circuits, which was a major step along the path toward computing networking. The other key step was to make the computers talk together. To explore this, in 1965 working with Thomas Merrill, Roberts connected the TX-2 computer in Mass. To the Q-32 in California with a low speed dial-up telephone line creating the first (however small) wide-area computer network ever built. The result of this experiment was the realization that the tine-shared computers could work well together, running programs and retrieving data as necessary on the remote machine, but that the circuit switched telephone system was totally inadequate for the Job. Kleinrock's conviction of the need for packet switching was confirmed.
In late 1966 Roberts went to DARPA to develop the computer network concept and quickly put together his plan for the "ARPANET"', publishing it in 1967. At the conference where he presented the paper, there was also a paper on a packet network concept from the UK by Donald Davies and Roger Scantlebury of NPL. Scantlebury told Roberts about the NPL work as well as that of Paul Baran and others at TAND. The RAND group had written a paper on packet switching networks for secure voice in the military in 1964. It happened that the work at MIT (1961-1967), at RAND (1962-1963), and at NPL, (1964-1967) had all proceeded in parallel without any of the researchers knowing about the other work. The world "packet" was adopted from the work at NPL and the proposed line speed to be used in the ARPANET design was upgraded from 2.4 kbps to 50 kbps.
In August 1968, after Roberts and the DARPA funded community had refined the overall structure and specifications for the ARPANET, an RFQ was released by DARPA for the development of one of the key components, the packet switches called Interface Message Processors (IMP's). The RFQ was won in December 1968 by a group headed by Frank Heart at bolt Beranek and Newman (BBN). As the BBN team worked on the imp's with Bob Kahn playing a major role in the overall ARPANET architectural design, the network topology and economics were designed and optimized by Roberts working with Howard Frank and his team at Network Analysis Corporation, and the Network measurement system was prepared by Kleinrock's team at UCLA.
Due to Kleinrock's early development of packet switching theory and his focus on analysis, design and measurement, his Network Measurement Center at UCLA was selected to by the first node on the ARHPANET. All this came together in September 1969 when SBN Installed the first IMP at UCLA and the first host computer was connected. Doug Engeloard’s project on "Augmentation of Human Intellect" (which induced NLS, an early hypertext system) at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) provided a second node, SRI supported the Network Information Center, led by Elizabeth (Jake) Feinler and Including function such as maintaining tables of hostname to address mapping as well as a directory of the RFC's. One month later, when SRI was connected to the ARPANET, the first host-to-host message was sent from Kleinrock's laboratory to SRI. Two more nodes were added at UC Santa Barbara and University of Utah. These last two nodes incorporated application visualization projects, with Glen and Culler and Burton Fried at UCSB investigating methods for display of mathematical functions using storage displays to deal with the problem of refresh over the net, and Robert Taylor and Ivan Sutherland at Utah investigating, methods of 3-D representations over the net. Thus, by the end of 1969, four host computers were connected together into the initial ARPANET, and the budding Internet was off the ground. Even at this early stage, it should be noted that the networking research incorporated both work on the underlying network and work on how to utilize the network. This tradition continues on this day.
Computers were added quickly to the ARPANET during the following years, and work proceeded on completing a functionally complete Host-to-Host protocol and other network software. In December 1970 the Network Working Group (NWG) working under S. Crocker finished the initial ARPANET Host-to-Host protocol, called the Network Control Protocol (NCP). As the ARPANET sites completed implementing NCP during the period 1971-1972, the network users finally could begin to develop applications.
In October 1972 Kahn organized a large, very successful demonstration of the ARPANET at the International Computer Communicational Conference (ICCC). This was the first public demonstration of this new network technology to the public. It was also in 1972 that the initial "hot" application, electronic mail, was introduced. In March Ray Tomlinson at BBN wrote the basic email message send and read software, motivated by the need of the ARPANET developers for an easy coordination mechanism. In July, Roberts expanded its utility by writing the first email utility program to list, selectively read, file, forward, and respond to messages, From there email took off as the largest network application for over a decade. This was a harbinger of the kind of activity we see on the World Wide Web today, namely, the enormous growth of all kinds of "people-to-people" traffic.
1. What famous scientists dealing with the Internet do you know?
2. What is the “ARPANET”?
3. What was selected to be the first node on the ARPANET?
4. What is the Network Control Protocol (NCP)?
HISTORY OF THE FUTURE
On October 24, 1996, the FNC unanimously passed a resolution defining the term Internet. This definition was developed in consultation with members of the internet and intellectual property rights communities. RESOLUTION: The Federal Networking Council (FNC) agrees that the following language reflects our definition of the term "Internet". "Internet" refers to the global information system that - (i) is logically linked together by a globally unique address space based on the Internet Protocol (IP) or its subsequent extensions/.follow-ons: (ii) is able to support communications using the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) suite or its subsequent extensions/follow-ons, and/or other IP-compatible protocols; and (iii) provides., uses or makes accessible, either publicly or privately, high level services layered on the communications and related infrastructure described herein.
The Internet has changed much in the two decades since it came into existence. It was conceived in the era of time-sharing, but has survived into the era of personal computers, client-server and peer-to-peer computing, and the network computer. It was, designed before LANs existed, but has accommodated that new network technology, as well as the more recent ATM arid frame switched services. It was envisioned as supporting a range of functions from file sharing and remote login to resource sharing and collaboration, and has spawned electronic mail and more recently the World Wide Web. But most important, it started as the creation of a small band of dedicated researchers, and has grown to be a commercial success with billions of dollars of annual investment.
One should not conclude that the Internet has now finished changing. The Internet, although a network in name and geography, is a creature of the computer, not the traditional network of the telephone or television industry. It will, Indeed it must, continue to change and evolve at the speed of the computer industry if it is to remain relevant. It is now changing to provide such new services as real time transport, in order to support, for example, audio and video streams. The availability of pervasive networking (i.e., the Internet) along with powerful affordable computing and communications in portable form (i.e., laptop computers, two-way pagers, PDAs, cellular phones), is making possible a now paradigm of nomadic computing and communications.
This evolution will tire us new applications - Internet Telephone and, slightly further out, Internet television. It is evolving to permit more sophisticated forms of pricing and coot recovery, a perhaps painful requirement in this commercial world. It is changing to accommodate yet another generation of underlying network technologies with different characteristics and requirements, from broadband residential access to satellites. New modes of access and new forms of service will spawn new applications, which in turn will drive further evolution of the net itself.
The most pressing question for the future of the Internet is not how the technology will change, but how the process of change and evolution itself will be managed. As this paper describes, the architecture of the Internet has always been driven by a core group of designers, but the form of that group has changed as the number of interested parties has grown. With the success of the Internet has come a proliferation of stakeholders - stakeholders now with an economic as well as an intellectual investment in the network. We now see, in the debates is over control of the domain name space and the form of the next generation IP addresses, a struggle to find the next social structure that will guide the Internet in the future. The form of that structure will be harder to find, given the large number of concerned stake-holders. At the sentinel the industry struggles to find the economic rationale for the large investment needed for the future growth, for example to upgrade residential access to a more suitable technology. If the Internet stumbles. It willnot be because we lack for technology, vision, or motivation. It will be because we cannot set a direction and march collectively into the future.
1. What does the term “Internet” mean?
2. How has the Internet changed in the two decades?
3. What does the Internet Telephone mean?
4. What is the future of the Internet?
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2. Аннотирование и реферирование английской научно-технической литературы: Учебное пособие /Л.К. Кондратюкова, Л.Б, Ткачева, Т.В. Акулинина. – Омск: 2001. – 182 с.
3. Santiago Remacha Esteras. InfoTech. English for computer users. Fourth Edition. Teacher’s book. Cambridge University Press, 2008. – 161 pp.
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5. Elena Marco Fabré, Santiago Remacha Esteras. Professional English in use ICT. Cambridge University Press, 2007. – 118 pp.
6. David Bonamy. Technical English. Publishing House: Pearson/Longman, 2009. – 120 pp.
7. Celia Bingham. Technical English I. Pearson Education Limited, 2008. – 141 pp.
8. Eric H. Glendinning, John McEwan. Oxford English for Information Technology. Oxford University Press, 2008. – 224 pp.
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