XII. Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопрос: «Сколько языков высокого уровня программирования представлены в тексте?» 





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XII. Прочтите текст и ответьте на вопрос: «Сколько языков высокого уровня программирования представлены в тексте?»



Unfortunately for us, computers can't understand spoken English or any other natural language. The only language they can understand directly is machine code,which consists of 1s and 0s (binary code).

Machine code is too difficult to write. For this reason, we use symbolic languages to communicate instructions to the computer. For example, assembly languagesuse abbreviations such as ADD, SUB, MPY to represent instructions. The program is then translated into machine code by a piece of software called an assembler.Machine code and assembly languages are called low-level languagesbecause they are closer to the hardware. They are quite complex and restricted to particular machines. To make the programs easier to write, and to overcome the problem of intercommunication between different types of computer, software developers designed high-level languages,which are closer to the English language. Here are some examples:

FORTRANwas developed by IBM in 1954 and is still used for scientific and engineering applications.

COBOL(Common Business OrientedLanguage) was developed in 1959 and is mainly used for business applications.

BASICwas developed in the 1960s and was widely used in microcomputer programming because it was easy to earn. Visual BASICis a modern version of the old BASIC language, used to build graphical elements such as buttons and windows in Windows programs.

PASCALwas created in 1971. It is used in universities to teach the fundamentals of programming.

C was developed in the 1980s at AT&T. It is used to write system software, graphics and commercial applications. C++ is a version of C which incorporates object-oriented programming the programmer concentrates on particular things (a piece of text, a graphic or a table, etc.) and gives each object functions which can be altered without changing the entire

program. For example, to add a new graphics format, the programmer needs to rework just the graphics object. This makes programs easier to modify.

Javawas designed by Sun in 1995 to run on the Web. Java applets provide animation and interactive features a web pages.

Programs written in high-level languages must be translated into machine code by a compileror an interpreter.A compiler translates the source code into object code -that is, it converts the entire program into machine code in one go. On the other hand, an interpreter translates the source code line by line as the program is running.

It is important not to confuse programming languageswith markup languages,used to create web documents. Markup languages use instructions, known as markup tags,to format and link text files. Some examples include:

HTML,which allows us to describe how information will be displayed on web pages.

XML,which stands for EXtensible Markup Language. While HTML uses pre-defined tags, XML enables us to define our own tags; it is not limited by a fixed set of tags.

VoiceXML,which makes Web content accessible via voice and phone. VoiceXML is used to create voice applications that run on the phone, whereas HTML is used to create visual applications (for example, web pages).

<xml>

< name> Andrea Finch </name>

< homework> Write a paragraph describing the C language </homework>

</xml>

In this XML example we have created two new tags: <name> and <homework >.

XIII. Прочитайте текст еще раз и ответьте на вопросы:

1. Do computers understand human languages? Why?/ Why not?

2. What is the function of an assembler?

3. Why did software developers design high-level languages?

4. Which language is used to teach programming techniques?

5. What is the difference between a compiler and an interpreter?

6. Why are HTML and VoiceXML called markup languages?

XIV. Заполните пропуски в предложениях:

1. ________ allows us to create our owntags to describe our data better. We aren't constrainer by a pre-defined set of tags the way we are with HTML.

2. IBM developed _____ in the l 950s. It was the first high-level language in data processing.

3. ________ applets are small programs that run automatically on web pages and let you watch animated characters, play games, etc.

4. ________ is the HTML of the voice web. Instead of using a web browser and a keyboard, interact with a voice browser by listening to pre-recorded audio output and sending, audio input through a telephone.

5. This language is widely used in the business community. For example, the statement ADDVAT NET-PRICE could be used in a _______ program.

 

XV. Перескажите текст.

 

XVI. Прочитайте информацию о шагах программирования.

Steps in writing a program

To write a program, software developers usually follow these steps.

· First they try to understand the problem and define the purpose of the program.

· They design a flowchart, a diagram which shows the successive logical steps of the program.

· Next they write the instructions in a high-level language (Pascal, C, etc.). This is called coding.The program is then compiled.

· When the program is written, they test it: they run the program to see if it works and use special tools to detect bugs, or errors. Any errors are corrected until it runs smoothly. This is called debugging, or bug fixing.

· Finally, software companies write a detailed description of how the program works, called program documentation. Theyalso have a maintenance program. They get reports from users about anyerrors found in the program. After it has been improved, it is publishedas an updated version.

 

XVII. Пользуясь информацией задания XVI распределите шаги программирования в правильном порядке:

Document and maintain the program

Test the program and detect bugs

Make flowchart

Write code and compile

Analyze the problem

Debug and correct it if necessary

 

XVIII. Прочитайте информацию о том, как написать программу и составьте диалог между разработчиком программного обеспечения и студентами группы подготовительных курсов по работе с компьютером пользуясь данной информацией:

I’d like to begin the course by giving you a very basic overview of the programming process. We'll then move to the details. So, to write a program, we normally follow these steps:

A program usually provides a solution to a given problem - for example, how to calculate wages and income tax in a big company. First of all, you have to understand exactly what the problem is and define it clearly. This means you have to decide, in a general way, how to solve the problem. The next step is to design a step-by-­step plan of instructions. This usually takes the form of a flowchart, a diagram that uses special symbols to show how the computer works through the program - where it makes decisions, where it starts and ends, where data is input, things like that.

Next, you write the instructions in a programming language, like BASIC, Pascal or C. These computer instructions are called source code. Then you have to use a compiler, a special program that converts the source code into machine code - the only language understood by the processor, which consists of 1 s and Os.

Once you've written the program, you have to test it with sample data to see if there are any bugs or errors. The process of correcting these errors is called debugging. Computer programmers have to find the origin of each error, write the correct instruction, compile the program again, and test it until it works correctly.

Finally, you have to write program documentation, a detailed description of how to use the program. A great program is not much good unless people know how to use it.

 

Unit 2

Software Engineering

I. Прочтите и запомните новые термины и терминосочетания:

 

program code – код программы

to design a solution – спроектировать решение

to clarify the problem – выявить проблему

to test the problem – испытать(проверить) задачу

to document and maintain the problem – задокументировать и обеспечить техническую поддержку программы

form of output – форма вывода

object-oriented programming – объектно-ориентированное программирование;

multimedia data types – типы мультимедийных данных

rectangle – прямоугольник

reusability code – код, который можно использовать вновь

executable modules – исполнительные(рабочие) модули

diverse data types – разнообразные типы(виды) данных

Triangles icon – изображение треугольника

a menu – меню

to synchronize – синхронизировать

Squares – квадраты

Rectangles – прямоугольники

debugging – настройка

user-interface – пользователь интерфейса

polymorphism – полиморфизм

graphical user interface – графический пользователь интерфейс

desktop – фоновый экран, представляющий картинки и файлы

files, folders – файлы

Unix – программное обеспечение Unix

Linux – программное обеспечение Linux

user-friendly – удобный, легкий в использовании

PALM OS – handheld operating system – переносная операционная система

RIM – research in motion

The Symbian OS – операционная система Симбиан, используемая изготовителями телефонов Nokia и Siemens

to launch a program – запустить программу

menu bar – ряд слов меню

scroll bar – горизонтальная или вертикальная полоса

server platform – платформа сервера

dock – набор картинок внизу на экране

applicant software – прикладная программа

operating system – операционная система

system software – системное программное обеспечение

 





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