Прочтите и переведите текст 2 “Stratford – Upon – Avon” с помощью словаря



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Прочтите и переведите текст 2 “Stratford – Upon – Avon” с помощью словаря



Stratford – Upon – Avon lies at the very heart of England. This part of the country is notable for its quiet, rich scenery: beautiful woods, green fields, the winding Avon, riverside parks and orchards. There are some scenes of great beauty here.

Stratford – Upon – Avon is an old town. Its streets, its lovely half – timbered Houses, black and white with thatched roofs, breathe the spirit of the past.

But Stratford – Upon – Avon is known to thousands of people not for its beauty, but for the fact that it is believed that William Shakespeare, the great dramatic genius, was born and died here.

There is a lovely garden behind the house where all the flowers, trees and plants that are mentioned in Shakespeare’s plays, can be seen growing.

The Shakespeare Memorial Theatre stands majestically on the banks of the Avon. Shakespeare’s plays are performed for eight months each year and thousands of people from all parts of the word come to see them. In 1964 the people all over the world celebrate Shakespeare’s 400th birthday.

 

Прочтите текст 3 “Shakespeare”, найдите ответы на следующие вопросы

 

1 At what theatre were many of Shakespeare’s plays stages?

2 What are his well-known comedies and tragedies?

3 Where was Shakespeare buried?

4 Have you read Shakespeare’s comedies and tragedies? What tragedies (comedies) have you read?

 

The 23rd of April is William Shakespeare’s birthday. He was born in the heart of England in the country town of Stratford – Upon – Avon. (Stratford is the town and Avon is the river, which runs through the town).

In Stratford there is a big modern theatre, called the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre. There you can see the plays of Shakespeare every year from April to November. Lots of people from all over the world go to this theatre to see the plays.

William Shakespeare was born in 1564. We don’t know about his education, but his works show that he was familiar with Latin books taught at grammar school. At twenty-eight we find Shakespeare well known in London as an actor. A few years later he became well known as a dramatist. Many of his plays were staged at a London theatre called “The Globe”.

Shakespeare is known as a writer of comedies, historical dramas and tragedies. Among his comedies are: “A Midsummer Night’s Dream”, “Comedy of Errors”. His tragedies are: “Otello”, “Romeo and Juliet”, “Hamlet”, etc.

Shakespeare died in 1616. He was buried in Stratford Church.

 

Word list

 

he was familiar - он был знаком,

were staged - ставились на сцене,

was buried - был похоронен,

church - церковь.

 

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A Red, Red Rose

By Robert Burns

 

O my Luve’s1 like a red, red rose,

That ‘s newly sprung in June,

O my Luve’s like the melodie2,

That’s sweetly play’d3 in tune.

 

As fair art thou4, my bonnie lass5,

So deep in luve am I:

And I rill luve thee still6, my dear,

Till a’ the seas gang dry7;

 

Till a’ the seas gang dry, my dear,

And the rocks melt wi8 the sun;

And I will luve thee still, my dear,

While the sands O’ life shall run9.

 

And fare thee weel10, my only Luve

And fare thee weel a while11

And I will come again, my Luve,

Tho’12 it were ten thousand mile

 

1O my Luve’s – O my Love is

2 the melodie – the melody

3play’d – played

4As fair art thou - As fair thou art (art [ ] – уст. 2е л. ед. ч. настоящего времени;

to be; thou [ ] – уст. поэт, ты

5Bonnie – (bonny) lass – красивая девушка

6The still (thee – уст. поэт, тебя; still – до сих пор

7Till a (= all) the seas gang dry – пока не высохнут все моря

8Wi – with

9While the sands o’life (= of life) shall run – пока будет протекать жизнь

10Fare the weel (well) – до свидания

11A while – пока /на время/

12Tho’ – though

Прочтите стихотворение.Сравните английский текст с русским переводом

 

Ogden Nash

(1902-1971)

 

To keep your friendship brimming.

With love in the loving cup,

Whenever you’re wrong, admit it:

Whenever you’re right, shut up.

 

Чтобы тени и сомнения

Дружбу врозь не развели,

В чём ошибся – признавайся;

В чём ошиблись – не кори.

 

Прочтите стихотворение

No Enemies

By Charles Mackey

 

You have no enemies, you say?

Alas, my friend, the boast is poor.

He who has mingles in the fray

Of duty, that the brave endure

Must have made foes. If you have none,

Small is the work that you have done.

You’ve hit no traitor on the hip;

You’ve dashed no cup from perjured lip.

You’ve never turned the wrong to right,

You’ve been a coward in the fight.

 

Ниже дан построчный перевод стихотворения Чарльза Маккея. Попробуйте сделать литературный перевод этого стихотворения

 

Нет врагов

 

Говоришь, что у тебя нет врагов?

Увы, мой друг, хвальба бедна.

Тот, кто стоял за долг и честь,

Как и любой храбрец,

Должен нажить врагов. Если их нет,

Слишком мало тот сделал в жизни.

Ты ни разу не ударил предателя,

Не оттолкнул чашу от пьяных губ,

Не привёл заблудшего к правде,

Ты был трусом в борьбе.

 

Послушайте стихотворение и повторите за диктором

 

The Evening Bells

By Thomas Moore

 

Those evening bells! Those evening bells!

How many a tale their music tells,

Of youth and home and that sweet time

When last I heard their soothing chime1.

 

Those joyous hours are past away2;

And many a heart, that then was gay,

Within the tomb now darkly dwells3,

And hears no more those evening bells.

 

And so’t will be4 when I am gone5;

That tuneful peal6 will still ring on,

While other bards shall walk these dells7,

And sing you praise8, sweet evening bells?

 

1soothing chime – утешительный перезвон

2 joyous (=joyful) hours are past away – прошло счастливое время

3 Within the tomb now darkly dwells – в могиле ныне мрачно пребывает

4And so’t will be = And so it will be

5when I am gone – когда меня не будет

6tuneful peal – мелодичный звон колоколов

7bards shall walk these dells – певцы будут ходить по этим лесистым долинам

8sing you praise – восхвалять

 

Прочтите текст 4 “Windsor” с помощью словаря и передайте краткое содержание

Windsor

One of the most interesting places and sights in England is a title town of Windsor not far from London on the river Thames. It is not the town itself that is of interest but the castle – the famous Windsor Castle. The Castle consists of a number of buildings of different epochs with an ancient wall around it. The oldest building – the Round Tower, was built by William the Conqueror at about the same time as the well – known Tower of London and is mentioned in documents as far back as 1084.

For about nine hundred years Windsor Castle has been and still is royal residence. That is why wonderful specimens of architecture as well as collections of painting, sculpture, armour and porcelain are accumulated there. Today Windsor Castle has one of the most brilliant collections of pictures and sculptures in Western Europe (among these are paintings by Holbein, Rembrant, Durer, Troy and others). A whole room is dedicated to the works of Rubens, and another one to the works of Van Dyck – a famous Flemish artist of the 17th century who was invited by Charles I to come and settle in England. A gallery of portraits of English and West European leaders of mark in the struggle against Napoleon, drawn by a famous English artist – Thomas Lawrence, is in the Waterloo Chamber. In the Castle you can find original portraits of Mary Stuart, Queen Elisabeth and other historical personages self – portraits by Rubens and Van Dyck.

Though the Castle is still one of the royal residences, the batter part of it is open to public inspection.

It may be justly said Windsor Castle has one of the most brilliant collections of outstanding specimens of human skill and talent.

Прочтите тексты об известных английских художниках и подготовьте краткое сообщение на русском языке об одном из них

Text 5. John Constable

(1776 - 1837)

England gave the world a school of famous and interesting artists to which belong such great masters of brush as William Hogarth, Joshua Reynolds [ ], Thomas Lawrence [ ], Thomas Gainsborough [ ], and William Turner. But perhaps one of the greatest among English artists is John Constable [ ]. A miller’s son he finished elementary school and went to work in his father’s son he finished elementary school and went to work in his father’s mill. His strong wish to draw brought him to the attention of the local gentry1, one of whom showed the young man’s work to some famous artists of the day. In 1795, at nineteen, Constable went to London, spent two years studying, and returned to his father’s mill. He continued to draw in his spare moments. When he was 23, these drawings enabled him to enter one of the Royal Academy schools2. Within a few years his pictures were accepted for the Academy exhibitions. From this point onward John Constable developed his own style of painting, but fame was slow to come. It was not before 1816 that Constable could marry and settle down. In 1824, when he was about fifty, Constable exhibited a number of his landscapes at the Paris Salon3. Among them was his famous Hay Wain4 for which the painter was awarded the gold medal. But in his own country there were but few people who understood him. John Constable was elected to full membership of the Royal Academy only 1829, and he felt that this honour and come too late in the life to have much meaning. If you could have an attentive look at Hay Warn, you would see Constable’s deep love for the English country-side and its beauties, for the common people of England. The picture would impress you with the feeling it is so full of. This is one of reasons why Constable played an important role in the development not only of the English out also of the French schools of painting.

1 – привлекло к нему внимание местного дворянства.

2 – школа при Королевской академии искусств.

3 [ ] – Парижский салон (ежегодная выставка живописи и скульптуры)

4 Hay [ ] wain [ ] – “ телега для сена ”

Text 6. Thomas Gainsborough

(1727 – 1788)

 

 

Gainsborough turned to the Olds masters, especially to Van Dyck. To this study he brought an innate genius for drawing and a sensuous delight in colour and movement that seems at times to amount to almost an intoxication with them. No other painter has thus caught, at his best, the essence of sinks and lace in motion, nor the tremulous flicker of an eyelash. The particular discovery of Gainsborough was the creation of a form or art in which the sitters and the background merge into a single entity. The landscape is not kept in the background, but in most cases man and nature are fused in a single whole through the atmospheric harmony of mood. It is no accident that in the works of Gainsborough’s late maturity the figures blend with the background to such an extent that they become almost transparent this effect was possible only by situating the figures in the background, not in order to add an element to the portrait but with the sole purpose of achieving the greatest possible degree of spontaneity. It was this same striving for spontaneity which prevented Gainsborough from portraying his society people in historical costume of striking attitudes. This was a distinct innovation at a time when the whole tradition was to extol an ideal and historical concept of beauty to abandon nature and embrace artificiality. Each of Gainsborough’s portraits is distinct and individual even though taken as a whole, they depict an entire society in its significant manifestation.

Gainsborough’s truthful and subtle rendering of character is typical of his portrait painting. His special insight into the psychology of women make him essentially the woman’s painter the most fascinating works of this painter are “Two Daughters”, “Mrs Siddons”, “The Market Cart” and others.

 

Text 7. William Hogarth

(1697 – 1764)

 

William Hogarth [ ] was unquestionably one of the greatest English artists and a man of remarkably individual character and thought, It was his achievement to give a comprehensive view of social life within the framework of moralistic and dramatic narrative. He observed both high life and low with a keen and critical eye and his range of observation was accompanied by an exceptional capacity for dramatic composition, and in painting by a technical quality which adds beauty to pictures containing an element of satire or caricature. His art was a reflection, an interpretation, and a commentary on the social condition of his time. In portraiture Hogarth displays a great variety and originality. In his portraits he reveals him self as more concerned with character than with basic form Hogarth’s best works are “Gin Lane”, “The March to Finchley”, “The Election Entertainment”, “The Shrimp Girl”.

 

Do you know that?

The Royal Society of Arts was founded in 1754. Its principal of science has been to promote the progress of all department of science. It has a character at once scientific, artistic, technical, industrial and commercial. The Royal Society stands for international co-operation in science.

In 1948 the Republic of Ireland was proclaimed as a sovereign independent democratic state. Irish Gaelic is the first, English is the second official language.

Since 1922 Northern Ireland has been a part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

Robert Burns (1759 – 1796) is regarded by the whole Scottish people as their national poet. Every Year, on the 25th of January his birthday is celebrated in cities, towns and villages, and by all kings of clubs and associations.

Newton, one of the greatest scientists of all time, was born on the 25th of December 1642. His father was a farmer and had died before Newton was born. His mother was a clever woman for whom Newton retained a great love all his degree there in 1665.

Newton died when he was 84 and was buried in Westminster Abbey, where his monument is today.

Jerome Klapka Jerome was a well-known English writer. He was a dramatist, novelist and journalist. He became famous for his humorist story “Three Men in a Boat”. The three men are George, Harris and “I” (myself).

Dover is one of the most ancient ports – a Roman port 2000 years old. Right above the harbour, on a cliff, stands Dover Castle called “The Key of England”. The Key: it is the Pharos (лат. маяк), the first Roman lighthouse in Britain Which the Romans built to guide their ships across the sea.

 

Прочтите тексты о Канаде и ответьте на вопросы

 

1 What country is Canada?

2 Where is it situated?

3 What languages do Canadians speak?

4 What are the two largest provinces of Canada?

5 What can you say about the population of Canada?

6 What is the capital of Canada?

7 What can you say about Canadian State organization?

8 Say something on the education in the country and Canadian English.

 

Текст 8 (a). Canada

Canada is the largest self-governing country in the Commonwealth of Nations1. Its population is more than 26 million people. Its total area is 3.851.809-sq. mi. Canada comprises the northern half of the Continent of North America and its adjacent islands except Alaska, a state of the U. S. Canada is divided into ten self-governing provinces and two territories which are administered by the federal government.

Quebec is the largest province of Canada. It is much larger than the four Atlantic Provinces. In it lives more than a quarter of all people in Canada. Most of the people live near the great rivers of the province in villages and towns. There are crowded cities like Montreal2 and Quebec. In northern Quebec there are mining settlements and wandering bands of Indians 3. Still farther North, on the shore of Hudson Bay are Eskimos. The people here speak English or French. Growth of the population has been rapid in the post World War II period, but Canada is still a country of sparse settlement and vast area. Canada’s main area of settlement is a belt of 200 miles along the United States border and within that belt 90% of the Canadian people lives.

Ontario accounts for about one third of Canada’s population, and Quebec for more than one-quarter. Quebec is a French-Canadian province.

By the mid – 1950’s 70% of the people of the Province of Quebec lived in cities and town. Almost 45% of Canadians are of British origin. The French-speaking Canadians number about 28% of the Canadian total. Immigrants from Europe came in increasing numbers after 1900. They settled the prairie farmlands or became workers in the industrial cities of Ontario. As a result many Canadians have a European (non-British) national background. The largest numbers have been classified as from Germany, the Ukraine and Italy. The native Indians in 1961 totaled 208.286 (living mostly in the Prairie Provinces). The Eskimos numbered 11.835 (Arctic Canada, mostly).

 

1 – Британское содружество наций

2 – Монреаль, большой город в провинции Квебек с французским большинством населения

3 – Индейцы, древнейшее коренное население Америки

 

Текст 8 (b). Canadian State organization

Canada is one of the self-governing nations of the Commonwealth of Nations. The governor general as the representative of the queen is appointed on the recommendation of the Canadian cabinet. The active executive authority rests in the cabinet which is selected by the prime minister from among his followers in the House of Commons. The Prime Minister is normally the leader of the political party holding the most seats in parliament. The Canadian parliament consists of the Senate and a House of Commons.

The capital of Canada is Ottawa. Canada is officially a BI-lingual country.

 

Education in Canada

In the English-speaking provinces the elementary schools usually have 8 grades, with pupils beginning at the age of five or six years. Secondary schools continue for another four or five grades and provide entrance qualifications for university courses of from three to seven years in various academic and professional fields.

In the French-speaking schools of Quebec, boys and girls are taught separately, taking primary courses to grade seven. Pupils may then enter either the church-operated college classique, which provides an eight year course leading to the baccalaureate and entry to a university professional course, or the may enroll in the secondary division of the public school, which provides farther training preparatory to certain technical fields, trades, arts or home economics; or, in a growing number of schools the first four years of the classical course. Higher schools of applied science, commerce or agriculture, affiliated with universities, are available to graduates of the secondary courses. Trade school or regional agricultural school training is optional.

There are special day or residential schools for Indians.

Текст 8(c). Canadian English

 

The English language was brought to Canada by English-speaking loyalists1 (settlers) from revolting American colonies. They formed the original population of Ontario and New Brunswick. In Canada English had to work its way through a thick accent, which might be Ukrainian, German, Estonian, Finnish, Norwegian, Swedish, or Czech. The most surprising thing about the English currently used in Canada is its homogeneity. Regional differences exist, but they are subtle. Anyone wishing to know what Canadian English is like when purged of individual peculiarities and accidentals would be well advised to listen to the best C. B. C. (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation2) announcers and to C. B. C. Drama. These offer something which is not a copy of British English; nor yet of American English.

 

1 – Лоялисты, противники отделения Сев. Америки от Англии, поселились в Канаде, которая считалась Британской территорией.

2 – Канадская радиовещательная корпорация.

 

Do you know it?

 

Do you know that in 1854 Ottawa was chosen as the seat of government because it was more than a hundred miles from boundary. A second reason for the selection was that Ottawa stood at the crossroads of French and English-speaking Canada. Montreal is the largest and most important city in Canada of more than a million people. One of the oldest Canadian universities – the McGill University is housed in a group of buildings at the base of Mount Royal.

The second city in Canada is Toronto. It is an important educational centre. There is the University of Toronto with its colleges: Victoria College, Trinity College and St Michael’s College.

Three transcontinental railways connect the eastern cities with the Pacific coast and with such important ports as Vancouver, Victoria, Prince Rupert. Vancouver is famous for its harbour among high Rocky Mountains.



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