Task 3. Read the text Types of Legal Professions and give a summary of it.

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Task 3. Read the text Types of Legal Professions and give a summary of it.

Solicitors There are about 50,000 solicitors, a number which is rapidly increasing, and they make up by far the largest branch of the legal profession in England and Wales. They are found in every town, where they deal with the day-to-day work of preparing legal documents for buying and selling houses, making wills, etc. Solicitors also work on court cases for their clients, prepare cases for barristers to present in the higher courts, and may represent their client in a Magistrates' court.

Barristers There are about 5,000 barristers who defendor prosecute in the higher

courts. Although solicitors and barristers work together on cases, barristers specialize in representing clients in court and the training and career structures for the two types of lawyer are quite separate. In court, barristers wear wigs and gowns in keeping with the extreme formality of the proceeding. The highest level of barristers have the title QC (Queen's Counsel).

Judges There are a few hundred judges, trained as barristers, who preside in more

serious cases. There are no separate training for judges.

JuryA jury consist of twelve people ("jurors"), who are ordinary people chosen at random from the Electoral Register (the list of people who can vote in elections). The jury listen to the evidence given in court in certain criminal cases and decide whether the defendant is guilty or innocent. If the person is found guilty, the punishment is passed by the presiding judge. Juries are rarely used in civil cases.

Magistrates There are about 30,000 magistrates (Justices of the Peace or JPs), who judge cases in the lower courts. They are usually unpaid and have no formal legal qualifications, but they are respectable people who are given some training.

Coronershave medical or legal training (or both), and inquire into violent or

unnatural deaths.

Clerksof the court look after administrative and legal matters in the courtroom.[16]



Task 4. Choose the correct definition for each legal profession mentioned in the text:

a) an officer acting as a judge in the lower courts.

b) a public official with authority to hear and decide cases in a law court.

c) a group of people who swear to give a true decision on issues of in a law court.

d) an official who investigates the cause of any death thought to be violent or

unnatural causes.

e) a lawyer who has the right to speak and argue in higher law courts.

f) a lawyer who prepares legal documents, advises clients on legal issues and

speaks for them in lower law courts.

Learn the new words

English Kazakh Russian
solicitor (n) солиситор, адвокат солиситор, адвокат
defend (v) қорғау, қорғаныс защищать, оборонять
barrister (n) барристер, адвокат барристер, адвокат
career (n) мансап карьера
judge (n) судья судья
jury (n) алқа билер соты суд присяжных
random (n) сайлау, белгісіздік выбор, неопределенность
guilty (adj) кінәлі виновный
punishment (n) жаза наказание
coroner (n) тергеуші коронер
inquire (v) сұрау салу, білу, сауалнама жүргізу запрашивать, узнавать, проводить опрос
violent (adj) зорлықпен насильственный, жестокий
legal matter құқықтық дау, іс правовой спор, дело

Task 5. Work in pairs. Write a dialogue to illustrate the topic "Legal Professions in Britain or in Kazakhstan"Act it out with your partner.

CONTRACT LAW (2 hours)

Warming up

1. How do you understand the term Contract Law?

2. What kind of contract have you entered recently?

3. What is necessary for a valid contract to be formed?

Task 1. Read the definition. How do you understand it?

Contract Law is a body of law which regulates the formation and enforcement of contracts.

from USlegal dictionary

Task 2 Read the text and pay attention on the new words and expressions:


Contract law deals with promises which create legal rights. In most legal
systems, a contract is formed when one party makes an offer that is accepted
by the other party. Some legal systems require more, for example that the parties
give each other, or promise to give each other, something of value. In common-
law systems, this promise is known as consideration. In those systems, a
one-sided promise to do something (e.g. a promise to make a gift) does not
lead to the formation of an enforceable contract, as it lacks consideration.

When the contract is negotiated, the offer and acceptance must match each
other in order for the contract to be binding. This means that one party must
accept exactly what the other party has offered. If the offer and acceptance
do not match each other, then the law says that the second party has made
a counter-offer (that is, a new offer to the first party which then may be
accepted or rejected). For there to be a valid contract, the parties must agree on the essential terms. These include the price and the subject matter of the contract.

Contracts may be made in writing or by spoken words. If the parties make a
contract by spoken words, it is called an oral contract. In some jurisdictions,
certain special types of contracts must be in-writing or they are not valid (e.g.
the sale of land). Contracts give both parties rights and obligations. Rights are something positive which a party wants to get from a contract (e.g. the right to payment of money). Obligations are something which a party has to do or give up to get those rights (e.g. the obligation to do work). When a party does not do what it is required to do under a contract, that party is said to have breached the contract. The other party may file a lawsuit against the breaching party for breach of contract. The non-breaching party (sometimes called the injured party) may try to get a court to award damages for the breach. Damages refers to money which the court orders the breaching party to pay to the non-breaching party in compensation. Other remedies include specific performance, where a court orders the breaching party to perform the contract (that is, to do what it promised to do).

A party may want to transfer its rights under a contract to another party. This
is called an assignment. When a party assigns ('gives') its rights under the contract to another party, the assigning party is called the assignor and the party who gets the rights Is called the assignee.[17]

Learn the new words

English Kazakh Russian
сontract law келісім құқығы договорное право
consideration (n) қарау, талқылау рассмотрение, обсуждение
require (v) талап ету требовать
formation (n) қалыптастыру формирование
counter-offer қарсы ұсыныс встречное предложение
essential terms маңызды шарт существенные условия
oral contract ауызша келісім устная договренность
right (n) құқық право
breaching party кепілді орындамаған тарап сторона, не выполняющая гарантии
breach of contract шартты орындамау невыполнение контракта
non-breaching party адал тарап добросовестная сторона
injured party зардап шеккен тарап сторона, понесшая ущерб
damage (n) зиян ущерб
specific performance шарттарды жеке-жеке орындау исполнение условий по/в отдельности
assignment (n) тағайындау, беру, ұсыну назначение, передача, предоставление
assignor (n) құқық беруші, цедент передающий право, цедент
assignee (n) өкіл, тарап прдставитель, сторона


Task 3. Read the text again and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F):

1.In all legal systems, parties must give something of value in order for a
contract to be formed.

2.An offer must be met with a counter-offer before a contract is agreed.

3.Oral contracts are not always valid.

4.If in breach, the court will always force the party to perform the contract.

5.Assignment occurs when one party gives its contractual rights to another party


Task 4. Complete these sentences using the words in the box:

breach counter-offer damages formation obligations oral contract terms


1. Usually, contract occurs when an offer is accepted.

2. A new offer made by one party to another party is called a………………….

3.The price and the subject matter of a contract are the essential…………of a contract.

4.A contract which is not in written form but has been expressed in spoken
words is called an………………..

5.Under a contract, a party has…………..(that is, certain things it has to do). 6.

6.When a party does not do what it has promised to do under a contract,
it can be sued for.... of contract.

7.A court can award....................... to the non-breaching party.


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