Establishing the European Community



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

Establishing the European Community



 

10 EMU third stage

 

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES

 

Declare the irreversible character of the Community's movement to the third stage of Economic and Monetary Union by signing the new Treaty provisions on Economic and Monetary Union.

Therefore all Member States shall, whether they fulfill the necessary conditions for the adoption of a single currency or not, respect the will for the Community to enter swiftly into the third stage, and therefore no Member State shall prevent the entering into the third stage.

If by the end of 1997 the date of the beginning of the third stage has not been set, the Member States concerned, the Community institutions and other bodies involved shall expedite all preparatory work during 1998, in order to enable the Community to enter into the third stage irrevocably on 1 January 1999 and to enable the ECB and ESCB to start their full functioning from this date.

This Protocol shall be annexed to the Treaty establishing the European Community.

 

11 EMU and UK

 

THE HIGH CONTRACTING PARTIES,

 

RECOGNIZING that the United Kingdom shall not be obliged or committed to move to the third stage of economic and monetary union without a separate decision to do so by its government and Parliament,

NOTING the practice of the government of the United Kingdom to fund its borrowing requirement by the sale of debt to the private sector.

HAVE AGREED on the following provisions, which shall be annexed to the Treaty establishing the European Community:

 

1. The United Kingdom shall notify the Council whether it intends to move to the third stage before the Council makes its assessment under Article 109j(2) of this Treaty;

 

Unless the United Kingdom notifies the Council that it intends to move to the third stage, it shall be under no obligation to do so.

 

If no date is set for the beginning of the third stage under Article 109j (3) of this Treaty, the United Kingdom may notify its intention to move to the third stage before 1 January 1998.

 

2. Paragraphs 3 to 9 shall have effect if the United Kingdom notifies the Council that it does not intend to move to the third stage.

 

3. The United Kingdom shall not be included among the majority of Member States which fulfill the necessary conditions referred to in the second indent of Article 109j(2) and the first indent of Article 109j(1) of this Treaty.

 

4. The United Kingdom shall retain its powers in the field of monetary policy according to national law.

 

5. Articles 3a (2), 104c (l), (9) and (11), 105(1) to (5), 105a, 10! 108, 108a, 109, 109a (I) and (2) (b) and 1091(4) and (5) of the Treaty shall not apply to the United Kingdom. In these provision references to the Community or the Member States shall not include the United Kingdom and references to national central banks shall not include the Bank of England.

 

6. Articles 109e (4) and 109h and i of this Treaty shall continue to apply to the United Kingdom. Articles 109c (4) and 109m shall apply to the United Kingdom as if it had a derogation.

 

7. The voting rights of the United Kingdom shall be suspended in respect of acts of the Council referred to in Articles listed in paragraph 5. For this purpose the weighted votes of the United Kingdom shall be excluded from any calculation of a qualified majority under Article 109k (5) of this Treaty.

 

The United Kingdom shall also have no right to participate in the appointment of the President, the Vice-President and the other members of the Executive Board of the ECB under Articles 109a(2)(b) and 1091(1) of this Treaty.

 

8. Articles 3, 4, 6, 7, 9.2, 10.1, 10.3, 11.2, 12.1, 14, 16, 18 to 20, 22, 23, 26, 27, 30 to 34, 50 and 52 of the Protocol on the Statute of the European System of Central Banks and of the European Central Bank ('the Statute') shall not apply to the United Kingdom.

 

Task 18. Study the excerpt of the document. Then summarize the treaty for the representatives of the diplomatic mission. Translate it into Ukrainian.

 

 

APPENDIX 1

 

TREATY

On Friendship and Cooperation

Between (name of country)

And (name of country)

 

  (1) The Republic of ... and the Republic of..., Proceeding from the close relations of all-round cooperation existing between them; Firmly believing that the all-out strengthening friendly relations between the Republic of ... and the Republic of... is in the vital interests of the peoples both countries and serves the cause of world peace; Expressing their firm resolve to contribute to the development of good relations and mutually advantageous cooperation between states with different soc systems; Striving to continue the development and perfection of all-round cooperation between the two countries; in accordance with the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations Organization; HAVE RESOLVED to conclude this Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation AND AGREED as follows:
   
  (2)   Article 1   The High Contracting Parties shall continue strengthening relations of friendship, solidarity and mutual aid. They shall steadfastly develop political relations, deepen all-round cooperation, and give each other all- out support based on mutual respect for state sovereignty and independence, equality and non-interference in each other’s internal affairs.   Article 2   The High Contracting Parties shall join efforts to strengthen and expand mutually advantageous economic, scientific and technical cooperation with the aim of steadily improving the material and cultural standards of the peoples of their countries [ ... ].   Article 3   The High Contracting Parties shall promote ties in the spheres of culture, education, literature and the arts, public health, environmental protection, tourism, and in other fields [ ... ].   Article 4   The High Contracting Parties shall contribute in every way possible to the defense of international peace and the security of nations, and shall support the just struggle for the eradication of racism in all its forms and manifestations.   Article 5   The High Contracting Parties shall consult each other on all important international issues affecting the interests of the two countries. In case one of the Parties becomes the object of attack or of a threat attack, the High Contracting Parties shall immediately begin mutual consultations with a view to removing that threat and taking appropriate measures to ensure peace and the security of their countries.   Article 6   The treaty shall not affect the rights and obligations of the Parties under bilateral and multilateral agreements now in force, concluded with their participation [ ...].
   
    (3)   Article 7   The treaty is subject to ratification and shall enter into force on the date of the exchange of instrument of ratification which shall take place in the city of ... at the earliest date.   Article 8   The treaty is concluded for a period of 10 years an shall be automatically prolonged every time for another 5-year period, unless either of the High Contracting Parties gives notice of its wish to terminate it twelve months before the expiration of the respective period. IN WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized for that purpose, have signed this Treaty. DONE AT ... this ... day of ... one thousand nine hundred and ... , in duplicate, each copy in the English and Spanish languages, both texts being equally authentic.

 

For the Republic of …………………… (signed) For the Republic of ………………….. (signed)

 

Note: (1) – the Preamble (2) – the Substantive articles (3) – the Final Provisions

 


IV.AGRÉMENT

 

Lead-in

When one government wishes to accredit an ambassador or a minister to another government, it is necessary that the appointee should be approved by the government of the country to which he is being assigned. It is customary, in order to avoid personal embarrassments, to sound a foreign government privately before making a formal application for an agrément.

 

Task 1. Read the text and answer the checkup questions:

 

1. What is the usual procedure of appointing an ambassador or a minister to another government?

2. Why is it necessary to sound a foreign government privately before making a formal application for an agrément?

3. What provisions are laid down in Article 4 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations?

4. When is the appointment of an ambassador or a minister usually announced?

5. When can an ambassador-designate be admitted to the exercise of his functions?

6. What can be the reason for refusal of the agrément?

7. How should agrément be distinguished from agréation?

Article 4 of the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations provides:

"1. The sending State must make certain that the agrément of the receiving State has been given for the person it proposes to accredit as head of the mission to that State.

2. The receiving State is not obliged to give reasons to the sending State for a refusal of agrément."

The sending state may, after it has given due notification to the receiving states concerned, accredit a head of mission or assign any member of the diplomatic staff, as the case may be, to more than one state, unless there is express objection by any of the receiving states.

It is only when the agrément is secured that the ambassador-designate should take steps to proceed to the receiving state. Even then he should move with leisurely dignity.

If he is a non-career diplomat, he will then discover that ambassadors do not start their jobs like ordinary mortals in less lofty walks of life. It is not good to book a seat on the first airplane to the foreign capital. In fact it is particularly undignified to appear too eager to get down to work. There is a certain stylized, slow-motion pace that must be observed. Several weeks are usually allowed to elapse before the announcement of the appointment and the departure.

 

Task 2. Read the text again and find Ukrainian equivalents for the words in bold.

Task 3. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with suitable words:

 

1. government 2. ambassador 3. notice 4. numerous 5. distinguished 6. receiving

 

There have been a) … cases of refusal of the agrément, the grounds ranging from the fact that the nomination was made suddenly and without previous b) … to the facts that the proposed envoy had made a speech critical of the c) … state, or the nominee had accorded ill treatment to the nationals of the receiving state.

It is not proper for one d) … to intimate in any way to another that the appointment of a particular person as e) … would be agreeable to it.

Agréation should be f) … from agrément in that the former is the process of determining whether the proposed envoy is acceptable to the receiving state, while the latter is the approval of the nomination by the receiving state.

 

Task 4. Match the terms with their definitions. Consult the dictionary if necessary:

1. accreditation 2. agrément 3. agréation 4. diplomacy 5. diplomat 6. diplomatic agent 7. diplomatic bag (diplomatic pouch) 8. diplomatic corps 9. diplomatic immunity 10. diplomatic service   a) the exemption from local laws and taxation accorded to a diplomatic staff abroad b) a bag containing diplomatic mail c) a branch of public service concerned with the representation of a country abroad d) the collective heads of foreign diplomatic missions and their staffs in the capital of the country e) head of the mission or a member of the diplomatic staff of the mission f) 1. one engaged in diplomacy, esp. accredited to a seat of government in the receiving state; 2. an adroit negotiator; tactful person g) the approval of an ambassador or a minister by the government of the receiving state h) 1. the art and practice of conducting international relations; 2. skills and tact in handling affairs i) giving official authorization to or approval of; sending out a diplomatic envoy with credentials to an official or government of the receiving state j) the process of determining whether the proposed diplomatic envoy is acceptable to the receiving state

ASSIGNMENTS

 

Task 1. Complete the following sentences using the required information from the above text:

 

1. When one government wishes to accredit an ambassador or minister to another government, it is necessary ... . 2. The sending state may, after it has given due notification to the receiving states concerned,.... 3. Ambassadors do not start their jobs like .... 4. Several weeks are usually allowed to elapse before ... . 5. There have been numerous cases of refusal of the agrément, the grounds ranging from ... to .... 6. It is not proper for one government to intimate in any way to another that.... 7. Agréation is the process of... .

 

Task 2. Define the following terms in English consulting the Glossary of Diplomatic Terms if necessary:

 

accreditation, agréation, agrément, ambassador-at-large, ambassador-designate, chargé d'affaires, diplomatic immunity.

 

Task 3. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) a non-career diplomat; 2) the proposed envoy; 3) unless there is express objection by any of the receiving states; 4) to accord ill-treatment to smb; 5) to accredit an ambassador to another government; 6) to announce an appointment; 7) to approve the appointee; 8) to give reasons for a refusal of (an) agrément; 9) to give due notification to the receiving state; 10) to make c formal application for (an) agrément; 11) to make a nomination; 12) to make a speech critical of the receiving state.

 

Task 4. Point out the root in the word "accredit" and give a few derivatives with this root.

Task 5. Suggest the English equivalents for the following Ukrainian word combinations:

1) акредитування при органах міжнародної організації; 2) акредитований при голові держави; 3) посол США, акредитований в Україні; 4) акредитувати когось як Надзвичайного і Повноважного Посла; 5) бути тимчасово (постійно) акредитованим в країні.

 

Task 6. Study the use of italicized words in different phrases, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents:

~ AMBASSADOR ~

 

~ -designate; A. Extraordinary; A. Plenipotentiary; A. Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; resident ~ ; ~ at large; the newly appointed ~ ; in the capacity of ~; to appoint an ~ ;to appoint smb as ~; to accredit an ~ to another government; to confer the rank of ~ ; to exchange ~s; to hold the rank of ~ ; to raise to the rank of ~ ; to recall an ~ .

 

~ AMBASSADORIAL ~

~ law; ~ rank; ~ talks; at the ~ level.

 

~ CONSULAR ~

 

~ agent; ~ archives; ~ bag; ~ charges; ~ commission; ~ corps; ~ correspondence; ~ district; ~ employee; ~ establishment; ~ functions; ~ identity card; ~ immunity; ~ officer; ~ post; ~ pouch; ~ premises; ~ relations; ~ service; ~ staff.

 

 

Task 7. Suggest the English equivalents for the following Ukrainian word combinations:

 

запит агремана; запит агремана не вимагається; відмова в агремані; дати агреман; запитувати агреман; відмовити в агремані; повідомляти державі, що акредитує мотиви відмови в агремані.

 

Task 8. There are two exhibits given below. Study the documents paying attention to their structure. Then translate them into Ukrainian:

 

EXHIBIT 1 APPLICATION FOR AGRÉMENT   No.___   The Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia presents its compliments to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine and with reference to the Indonesian Embassy’s Note No.___ dated August 12, 20___, regarding agreement to the appointment of Mr. ... as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Indonesia to Ukraine with residence in Kyiv, has the honour to inform that the Government of the Republic of Indonesia has decided to establish an Embassy in Kyiv in the near future with a residence Ambassador in the city. This new decision therefore rescinds the previous arrangement requested for Mr. … .   In this connection, the Indonesian Government requests the agreement from Ukraine for Mr. ... as Ambassador of the Republic of Indonesia to Ukraine with residence in Kyiv. The curriculum vitae of Mr. ... is enclosed.   The Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine the assurances of its highest consideration.   Kyiv, October 19, 20__.   Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ukraine Kyiv   Attn.: the State Protocol Department, Ministry of Foreign Affairs  

 

EXHIBIT 2 AGRÉMENT   MIINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF(name of country) No.___   The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of... presents its compliments to the Embassy of... and has the honour to inform the latter that the Government of ... approves of His Excellency Mr. X. being appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of... to.... The Ministry avails itself of the opportunity to renew to the Embassy the assurances of its highest consideration.   EMBASSY OF(name of country) (city)  

 

Task 9. Reproduce the following in English using the suggested terminology:

 

Дипломатичні ранги (diplomatic rank) вводяться внутрішнім правом кожної країни і передбачаються для всіх посадових осіб, які працюють як у центральному апараті МЗС даної країни, так і в її закордонних дипломатичних представництвах (diplomatic missions).

Згідно з постановою Верховної Ради України від 31 січня 1992 р. та указом Президента України "Про Положення про дипломатичну службу в Україні" від 16 липня 1993 р. (п. 6), "дипломатичним працівникам присвоюються (to confer) такі дипломатичні ранги України:

аташе; (attaché)

третій секретар;

другий секретар другого класу;

другий секретар першого класу;

перший секретар другого класу;

перший секретар першого класу;

радник другого класу; (counsellor)

радник першого класу;

Надзвичайний і Повноважний Посланник (envoy) другого класу;

Надзвичайний і Повноважний Посланник першого класу;

Надзвичайний і Повноважний Посол.

Дипломатичні ранги Надзвичайного і Повноважного Посла, Надзвичайного і Повноважного Посланника першого класу, Надзвичайного і Повноважного Посланника другого класу присвоюються Президентом України за поданням Міністра закордонних справ України.

Інші дипломатичні ранги присвоюються Міністерством закордонних справ України на підставі рекомендації атестаційної комісії Міністерства закордонних справ України". Що стосується питання про відповідність дипломатичних рангів службовим посадам, то вони чітко регламентуються (to regulate) указом Президента України "Про Перелік посад, приписаних До дипломатичних рангів України" від 18 вересня 1996 р.

З українських дипломатів, які мають один із вищезгаданих дипломатичних рангів, комплектується дипломатичний персонал (diplomatic personnel) посольств України за кордоном. Очолюваний послом дипломатичний персонал українських посольств на особливо важливих напрямах дипломатичної діяльності може мати у своєму складі у порядку старшинства (in order of seniority) таких дипломатичних співробітників: радників-посланників, радників (counsellor), торгового представника (trade representative), військового, військово-морського (navy attaché), військово-повітряного аташе (air attaché), перших секретарів, заступників торгпреда, других секретарів, третіх секретарів, аташе, помічників військового, військово-морського, військово-повітряного аташе.

 

Task 10. Translate the following into Ukrainian:

No.____

 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine presents its compliments to the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Moscow and has the honour to inform the Embassy that the Government of Ukraine has agreed to the appointment of

 

Mr. ...

 

as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the Republic of Indonesia to Ukraine.

 

The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine avails itself of this opportunity to renew to the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Moscow the assurances of its highest consideration.

 

Kyiv, 2 November 19____

 

Task 11. Translate the following into English:

 

Посольство

(назва країни)

 

Посольство (назва країни) засвідчує свою повагу Міністерству Закордонних Справ (назва країни) і має честь за дорученням свого Уряду просити агреман Уряду (назва країни) на призначення Його Високоповажності Пана (ім'я, прізвище) Надзвичайним і Повноважним Послом(назва країни).

Посольство має честь надіслати при цьому коротку біографічну довідку на Пана (прізвище), який на даний час є Начальником Управління Міністерства закордонних справ з культурних зв'язків і справ громадян цієї країни за кордоном.

Посольство користується цією нагодою, щоб поновити Міністерству запевнення у своїй вельми високій повазі.

 

Міністерству м.____

закордонних справ (дата)

України Печатка

м. Київ

 

***

 

Міністерство закордонних справ України засвідчує свою повагу Посольству(назва країни) і має честь повідомити, що Уряд України згідний на призначення Його Високоповажності Пана(ім'я та прізвище)Надзвичайним і Повноважним Послом(назва країни) в Україні.

Міністерство користується цією нагодою, щоб поновити Посольству запевнення у своїй вельми високій повазі.

 

Посольству Київ(дата)

(назва країни) Печатка

м. Київ

 

 


V. INTEROFFICE MEMORANDA

 

Lead-in

In international relations many diplomatic documents are essential for different purposes.

 

Task 1. Read the text and answer the checkup questions:

1. What is the medium for internal correspondence within the UN Secretariat?

2. What subjects require interoffice memoranda?

3. When are they generally used?

4. Who are they usually addressed to?

5. How many subjects are normally dealt with in each memorandum?

6. What is the basic outline of an interoffice memorandum?

7. What is the correct form of the date in interoffice memoranda?

Interoffice memoranda are used for correspondence within the Secretariat. They are appropriate for correspondence both within a given duty station and with other duty stations. They are used to record facts, decisions or opinions to which reference may be necessary later, to make or respond to proposals or to convey information. They are incorporated in the official files kept by individual departments or offices.

Each memorandum should normally deal with one subject only. Where a memorandum requires supporting analysis or detailed statistical information, these should be set out in an annex.

Interoffice memoranda should be prepared on letter-size paper headed "INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM (emblem) MEMORANDUM INTERIEUR". They may be written in English or French.

Opposite the printed word "TO", the name of the addressee preceded by "Mr.", "Mrs.", "Miss" or "Ms" should be typed, followed by his or her official title: The section, division and department should be typed below the name.

 

Task 2. Read the text again and find Ukrainian equivalents for the words in bold.

Task 3. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with suitable words:

 

1. list 2. applicable 3. attached 4. titles 5. addressed 6. addressees 7. abbreviated 8. sender

 

Memoranda a) … to more than one person may be prepared in any of the following forms, as appropriate:

(а) The names and b) …, followed by the names of the division or section and the department or office, in abbreviated form if necessary, may be typed, one under the other, in the space opposite the word "To". If the c) … and the addressee(s) are in the same department, the department is mentioned only once. This applies also to the forms indicated in subparagraphs (b) and (d) below. If the word "Through" is not d) …, it may be deleted to provide extra space. The original should be sent to the senior addressee and copies to the other addressees;

(b) The names and titles, followed by the name of the division or section and of the department or office, in e) … form if necessary, may be given on a separate page, in which case the words "See attached list" should be typed opposite the word "To";

(c) memorandum may be addressed to groups of f) …, such as "All directors and chiefs of section", and reproduced in ditto or in any other appropriate form;

(d) memorandum may, if there are many addressees, be typed on ditto, with the name of the addressees given in a separate g) …, as in subparagraph (b) above;

(e) memorandum may be typed once, with the name omitted after "To". It may then be photocopied and the names may be inserted on each of the copies. Where desirable, the list of addressees may be h) … .

 

Task 4. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with suitable sentences:

 

1. The right-hand margin is of about 15 spaces when the left-hand margin is aligned with the first letter of the word "Subject", and of about 20 spaces when the memorandum is short and the left-hand margin is aligned with the first letter of the typewritten indication of the subject.

2. A concise statement of the subject matter should appear opposite the printed word "Subject".

3. When two or more persons collaborate in the drafting of a memorandum, the initials of all of the persons concerned should be given, those of the person having primary responsibility being given first, e. g. AB/CD/EF.

4. The section, division and department should appear on the next line, with the department in abbreviated form if space is not sufficient.

 

When a memorandum is sent through an intermediary, the name of the intermediary, normally preceded by "Mr.", "Mrs.", "Miss" or "Ms" and followed by the official title, should be typed after the word "Through". a) … If the sender and addressee are in the same department, the department may be omitted from the address of the sender.

After the printed word "From" the name of the sender (without "Mr.", "Mrs.", "Miss" or "Ms") should be typed, followed by the sender's official title. The section or division and the department should appear on the next line.

b) … . The subject should be typed in lowercase letters, with an initial capital for the first word and in single spacing. It should be underlined completely, whether on one line or more. If any of the elements mentioned above is too long to fit on one line, the text may be continued, indented two spaces, on a second line.

The date - given in the form "29 June 20 "____ and the reference number should be entered in the appropriate spaces provided on the right-hand side of the page.

If a memorandum is confidential and/or personal, the word "CONFIDENTIAL" or "PERSONAL" or the words "PERSONAL AND CONFIDENTIAL" should appear one and one-half spaces below the word "Reference".

On all carbon copies the initials of the drafting official, in upper-case letters followed by an oblique line and the initials of the typist, also in upper-case letters, e. g. AB/CD, should be typed ending two spaces from the upper right-hand corner of the page.

c) … . If a person makes minor changes on a draft prepared by someone else, his or her initials should not appear.

The left-hand margin should normally be aligned with the printed word "Subject" (see exhibit 1). If the memorandum is short, the margin may, for aesthetic reasons, be aligned with the first letter of the typewritten indication of the subject (see exhibit 2). d) … .

The text of a memorandum should begin four or more lines below the last line of the subject, depending on the length of the memorandum. Single spacing is normally used, although short memoranda (15 lines or less) may be typed in one-and-one-half spacing.

Interoffice memoranda should be signed or initialled either beside the name of the sender at the top of the page or at the end of the text. (From "United Nations Correspondence Manual")

 

Task 5. Study the following exhibits given below paying attention to their structure mentioned in the text above. Then speak on the means of correspondence within the UN Secretariat:

 

EXHIBIT 1 INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM  
UNITED NATIONS (emblem) INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM   NATIONS UNIES MEMORANDUM INTERIEUR  
TO: Mr. (name), Chairman A: Working Committee, Publications Board DATE: 10 February 20____ REFERENCE:

 

THROUGH: S/C DE: FROM: DE: Ms (name), Secretary Working Committee, Publications Board (name), Director Publishing Division Department of Conference Services
SUBJECT: OBJECT: Transborder Data Flows  

 

1. In reply to your memorandum of 20 January 20____ referring to the financial implications for external typesetting of the above publication in French and Spanish for internal reproduction, we have prepared the cost estimate. 2. The volumes are estimated at 220 pages each. The French typesetting estimate is $ 12,000, which includes the preparation of artwork for figures and maps. The Spanish estimate is $ 10,500; however, the translations would have to be submitted simultaneously in order to prepare both French and Spanish artwork together.   Copy to:…………………………………………………………………..

 

EXHIBIT 2 INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM (multiple addressees, addressed as groups)  
UNITED NATIONS (emblem) INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM   NATIONS UNIES MEMORANDUM INTERIEUR  
TO: All Directors, Chiefs A: of Service and Chiefs of Section DATE: 27 April 20____ REFERENCE:

 

THROUGH: S/C DE: FROM: DE:     (name), Under-Secretary-General for Conference Services and Special Assignments
SUBJECT: OBJECT: Statistical Unit  
  As from 1 May 20____, the departmental Statistical Unit (heretofore the Central Programming Unit of the Executive Office) will report to the Chief, Documents Control.

 

 

 

Task 6. Match the terms with their definitions. Consult the dictionary if necessary:

 

1. addressee 2. abbreviation 3. memorandum 4. intermediary 5. title 6. carbon copy 7. initials 8. upper-case (letters) 9. letter 10. subject a) any of a set of conventional symbols used in writing or printing a language, each symbol being associated with a group of phonetic values in the language; character of the alphabet b) the first letter of a word, esp. a person's name c) the predominant theme or topic, as of a book, discussion, etc d) of or relating to capital letters kept in this case and used in the setting or production of printed or typed matter e) a duplicate copy of writing, typewriting, or drawing obtained by using carbon paper f) a name or epithet signifying rank, office, or function g) a shortened or contracted form of a word or phrase used in place of the whole h) a person who acts as a mediator or agent between parties i) a person or organization to whom a letter, parcel, etc., is addressed j) an informal diplomatic communication, often unsigned: often summarizing the point of view of a government

 

 


ASSIGNMENTS

Task 1. Complete the following sentences using the required information from the above text:

 

1. Interoffice memoranda are used for.... 2. Each memorandum should deal with .... 3. It should be prepared on .... 4. The memorandum maybe addressed to ... . 5. If the sender and the addressee(s) are in the same department, .... 6. When a memorandum is sent through an intermediary, .... 7. The text of a memorandum should begin ....

 

Task 2. Decipher the following Latin abbreviations consulting:

i.q.e.d.; I.c.; loc.cit.; 1.s.; NB; op/c.; op.cit.; p.a.; Q.E. D.

Task 3. Summarize the following in English taking note of the words and phrases in bold type:

 

INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM

To the Under-Secretary for Conference Services

 

1. You asked for our comments and advice on the subject of protection of United Nations cultural property in the event of an armed conflict, in particular as it related to the United Nations Office at Geneva.

The question of the applicability to the United Nations of the Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of an Armed Conflict appeared, upon examination, to be one of considerable complexity.

In order to clarify the various matters involved, we decided to seek the advice of UNESCO, under whose auspices the Convention was concluded and which under the Convention has certain special responsibilities in regard to its application.

2. Our observations would be as follows:

· Because under the Convention "cultural property" covers property "irrespective of origin or ownership", United Nations cultural property is already protected, under Chapter I of the Convention, in those States which are parties to the Convention.

· Article 3 of the Convention states that "The High Contracting Parties undertake to prepare in time of peace for the safeguarding of cultural property situated within their own territory against the foreseeable effects of an armed conflict, by taking such measures as they consider appropriate". There may be advantage for the United Nations Office at Geneva to retain contracts in this connection with the Swiss authorities, in order to be informed of the measures of protection envisaged or adopted by Switzerland.

It would appear however to us that the United Nations itself should take the precautionary measures which it may deem fit while keeping the Swiss authorities informed in appropriate circumstances.

3. In the light of all relevant factors, our opinion would be that while we should remain in contact with Switzerland and possibly other host States Parties to the Convention as to the measures they are taking under the Convention and make them aware, at appropriate times, of the problem which the utilization for military purposes of areas surrounding United Nations buildings may present for the Organization, we should not, in the present circumstances, seek "special protection" under the Convention.

Our position in this respect is motivated by the general attitude the United Nations has to preserve as regards the admissibility of armed conflicts, the responsibilities it has with respect to the maintenance of international peace and security, and the fact that we may assume that the Organization's buildings and belongings would presumably be respected to the extent possible in case of an armed conflict, because of their very nature and purposes.

 

Task 4. Write an interoffice memorandum on behalf of the Director of Radio and Visual Services Division using the information below. See exhibits 1 and 2:

Addresses: Date: Reference: Subject: ALL Staff RVSD/DPI. 15 July 20____ . DPI 1542 (1 - 2) Reports on conferences, seminars and meetings away from Headquarters.

RVS staff members officially assigned to conferences, seminars and meetings away from Headquarters are reminded of their responsibility to submit post-mission reports to the Office of the Director upon their return. The reports are requested within one week of the end of the conference.

 

Task 5. Study the different uses of numbers in UN communications. Some of the principal rules are given below:

1. In general, numbers under 10 should be expressed in words: numbers from 10 on should be expressed in figures except when they begin a sentence. In statistical texts, however, numerals should be used exclusively.

2. Numerals rather than words should be used in referring to a chapter or section of a document (e. g., chapter V, paragraph 4). Care should be taken to distinguish between the Roman and Arabic numerals appropriate in such cases.

3. Sums of money and decimals are normally given in Arabic numerals, as in $ 6.50. The appropriate currency symbol should be given: for example, Jamaican dollars should be abbreviated $ "J", the symbol preceding the indication of the country.

4. Main Committees of the General Assembly are numbered by ordinals (e. g., the First Committee). Arabic numerals are used in the recording of votes, except for zero (e. g., The draft resolution was adopted by 12 votes to none, with 1 abstention).

5. The numbers of sessions of the General Assembly or of the Councils are spelt out (e. g., the thirty-eighth session), but the numbers of meetings are given in figures (e. g., the 9th meeting).

6. Percentages should be expressed in figures, and the words "per cent" should normally be written out. The sign may be used in tables, but only when space is limited.

7. Dates are given in the form: 4 January 1997, not January 4, 1997. Forms such as 4/1/97 are not used in official correspondence because of differences in usage regarding the positions of the numerals indicating the day and the month. Time is indicated as follows: 10.25 a. m., not 10:25 a. m..

 

Task 6. Translate the following Ukrainian word combinations into English:

 

1) внески членів-співробітників у розмірі 60% від мінімальної норми; 2) на 93% більше, ніж у 1995-1996 pp.; 3) нота від 10 грудня 1998 року; 4) порядок денний тридцять другої сесії Генеральної Асамблеї ООН; 5) резолюція 478 Ради Безпеки від 20 серпня 1990 року; 6) резо­люція 1514 (XV) Генеральної Асамблеї ООН від 14 грудня 1960 року; 7) сорок друга сесія Генеральної Асамблеї ООН.

 

 

VI. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS AND VISITS: COMMUNIQUÉS AND (JOINT) STATEMETS

 

Lead-in

Meetings between heads of government or state, as well as between ministers for foreign affairs, to discuss policies or problems of mutual interest to their countries have become common practice in intergovernmental relations. The results of such meetings are usually, for lack of time, not set out in formal treaties or agreements signed in the traditional manner. Very often, the participants confine themselves to the drawing up of a joint statement, declaration or communiqué, handed out during a press conference and usually published in newspapers. Such instruments, however important or binding upon the participating governments, have none of the classic character of international agreements.

 

Discuss the following questions:

1. How do you understand the terms “a communiqué” and “a joint statement”?

2. What purposes do they serve?

 

Task 1. Read the text and answer the checkup questions:

1. What are the final instruments of intergovernmental negotiations and visits?

2. Which final instrument gives a detailed description of the course of negotiations?

3. What is the role of final instruments in contemporary international relations?

4. What are the main differences between communiqués, statements and declarations? What is a final act?

5. Which of them is the most binding instrument?

6. What style is characteristic of final instruments?

7. How are they usually elaborated?

The final documents of intergovernmental negotiations or visits - joint statements, communiqués or declarations (whether signed or unsigned) come to life only if there is prior agreement between the participants on each paragraph, phrase or word in the text.

A communiqué is an official report on the course of international negotiations, and on the agreement achieved. It may be brief and contain an announcement of some fact or facts in general terms. Sometimes, however, it may be long and elaborate, and then it will include a detailed description of the course of negotiations, a declaration of the decisions adopted by the participants and the terms of the agreement achieved.

Prior to World War II a shorter variety was predominant.

Today the idea has undergone substantial change. Final documents of negotiations or visits now embrace a wide range of important international issues and are becoming more meaningful. Communiqués as well as joint statements and declarations have become increasingly widespread, playing a far more important role in international relations than they used to play in the past.

The nature, content and tone of a final document are determined primarily by the nature of the states adopting the document - states with similar or different social systems, allied states or states members of the opposing military groupings, and so forth.

 

Task 2. Read the text again and find Ukrainian equivalents for the words in bold.

Task 3. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with suitable words:

 

1. devoted 2. communiqué 3. talks 4. joint statements 5. to issue 6. avoided 7. bilateral 8. official

 

The first task of a a) … (joint statement or declaration) is called upon to fulfill is faithfully to reflect the outcome of the negotiations or exchange of views. In most cases the participants are interested in positive results - otherwise why enter into talks at all?

Although communiqués, joint statements and declarations (either b) … or multilateral) are similar in their purpose, there are certain differences between them. A communiqué is a more general kind of document. Its prime objective is to inform the press and the public at large of the results of the c) … and of the atmosphere in which they were held. A joint statement is a document that is more binding on the sides. It presumes that something substantial has come out of the negotiations – either in the field of general international problems or in the field of bilateral relations — and in view of that the participants decided d) … a joint statement. Finally, a declaration is a still more weighty and binding document. Declarations proclaim identical views and joint intentions. All three forms of documents – communiqués, e) … and declarations — record the decisions which have been adopted during the talks (for instance, it is announced that a consular convention has been signed during the talks, or that an invitation to make an f) … visit has been extended or accepted, and so forth). The language of communiqués is business-like and dryish. Elevation of style is characteristic of joint statements, and particularly declarations.

In terms of its subject matter, a final document (unless g) … specifically to one question or event) breaks down into two groups of questions — international and bilateral relations.

Each side tries to reflect in the communiqué (joint statement or declaration) its attitude to the burning issues of the day (both global and regional ones). If such questions or events have been h) … in the final document, the omission invites the assumption that the sides have no common viewpoint on the topic.

 

Task 4. Read the text below and put the paragraphs into the correct order:

 

… Final instruments of intergovernmental negotiations are sometimes drawn up in the form of a memorandum of understanding, which has become common practice of late.

… The chief merit of communiqués (joint statements or declarations) lies in a precise, realistic and faithful reflection of the results achieved and of the positions of the sides expounded during the talks. The final document does not reflect the ups and downs of negotiations but their end results, and it is in setting down those results on paper that each phrase, word or punctuation mark should be thoroughly weighed.

… The usual pattern of a communiqué (joint statement, or declaration) is as follows: mention is first made of the negotiations (or a visit) that have taken place and their duration; then follows a reference to the meetings that have taken place and a list of their participants; then comes a general appraisal of the atmosphere of the talks and a range of issues considered; the part setting forth the results of the talks on international problems usually precedes the one relating to questions of bilateral relations. If an invitation to pay a visit has been extended, agreement on that is generally recorded in the final part of a document. It has been customary to note, at the very end of a final document, the significance of the negotiations for the development of relationship between the two countries, as well as for international security.

… In most cases communiqués, joint statements and declarations have their own protocol part. When, besides negotiations, there has been a tour of the country, mention is usually made of the cities or important industrial, scientific or cultural centers or projects that were visited and of the reception accorded by the population. In listing the participants in the negotiations, it is important to be very precise in stating their surnames and initials in conformity with the rules of the language concerned, and in observing the precedence dictated by the protocol.

 

Task 5. Look at the exhibits given after the text above. Study the contents and the structure of these documents. Then translate them into Ukrainian:

 

EXHIBIT 1 COMMUNIQUÉ   COMMUNIQUÉ   At the invitation of President of... , President... of... paid an official working visit to (name of country) from April 26 to 28, 20____ . During the visit, talks were held between President of ... and President of.... The meetings and talks were held in the atmosphere of cordiality and mutual respect, which is a traditional feature of relations between peoples of our countries. During the talks, priority was given to examining the most topical problems of our time from the standpoint of further steps aimed at consolidating the policy of detente in Europe and all over the world, eliminating the seats of tension, strengthening international security and confidence between states. Mutual understanding was reached on the issues discussed. A detailed exchange of views was also held on the further development of the basic areas of bilateral cooperation in various fields. [… ] The Sides agreed to continue efforts to deepen economic relations on a stable and long-term basis. The activity of the permanent commission will be of major significance in the realization of this aim. [... J Determined to contribute to the development of their economic relations, the Sides agreed to take all necessary measures to ensure a further considerable growth of trade turnover. The Sides noted with satisfaction the successful development of cultural exchanges and cooperation between the two countries. [... ] As a result of the talks President of... and President of... signed a Programme for the Further Development of Cooperation between (name of country) and (name of country). President of... and President of... are convinced that this summit has been useful and will serve the cause of peace and security in Europe and all over the world. President... invited President... to pay an official visit to (name of country). The invitation was accepted with satisfaction.  

 

Joint Communiqués

 

Communiqué is a specific form of a diplomatic document. This is a French term which is used to indicate an official announcement by two or more sides.

 

EXHIBIT2 JOINT COMMUNIQUÉ   JOINT COMMUNIQUÉ   The Republic of Venezuela and the Kingdom of Nepal, desirous of strengthening the ties of friendship and with the рифове of bringing together effectively their respective peoples, have agreed to establish diplomatic relations as of this date.   The Governments of both countries are convinced that the establishment of diplomatic relations will further enchance co-operation between the two countries based on the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations.   New York, April 27th, 20____  
For the Government of Venezuela     (Signed) Anders Aquilar M.   Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Venezuela to the United Nations For His Majesty's Government of Nepal   (Signed) Jai Pratap Rana   Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of Nepal to the United Nations

 

 

EXHIBIT 3 (JOINT) STATEMENT   JOINT STATEMENT ENVIRONMENT OF DURABLE PEACE AND SECURITY   The prime ministers of India and Pakistan held a bilateral meeting on the sidelines of the UN general assembly in New York on 23 September 20___ . Their discussions covered the whole range of bilateral relations. The two prime ministers also carried out a detailed review of new developments in the region during the past few months. They reaffirmed their common belief that an environment of durable peace and security was in the supreme interests of both India and Pakistan, and of the region as a whole. They expressed their determination to renew and reinvigorate efforts to secure such an environment. They agreed that the peaceful settlement of all outstanding issues was essential for this purpose. The two leaders reiterated their commitment to create conditions which would enable both countries to fully devote their resources, both human and material, to improving the lives of their people, particularly the poorest among them. The two prime ministers noted with satisfaction the agreement reached between the foreign secretaries on operating the mechanism to address all items on the agreed agenda of 23rd June, 20___ in a purposeful and composite manner. They directed the foreign secretaries, accordingly, to resume the dialogue on the agreed dates. New York, N.Y. 23 September 20___ Prime Minister Prime Minister of India of Pakistan …………………… …………………… (signed) (singed)  

 

 

Task 6. Match the terms with their definitions. Consult the dictionary if necessary:

1. agenda 2. instruments 3. statement 4. communiqué 5. declaration 6. negotiation 7. bilateral (relations) 8. appraisal 9. protocol 10. talks a) an annex appended to a treaty to deal with subsidiary matters or to render the treaty more lucid b) affecting or undertaken by two parties; mutual c) a conference, discussion, or negotiation d) an assessment or estimation of the worth, value, or quality of a person or thing e) a discussion set up or intended to produce a settlement or agreement f) a formal statement or announcement; proclamation g) formal legal documents h) an official communication or announcement, esp. to the press or public i) a list of terms to be discussed or business to be transacted, as at a meeting, etc. or during the negotiations j) a declaration of matters of fact, esp. in a pleading

 

 

ASSIGNMENTS

 

Task 1. Complete the following sentences using the required information from the above text:

 

1. Meetings between heads of government or state to discuss policies or problems of mutual interest to their countries have become ... . 2. Very often, the participants confine themselves to .... 3. The final documents of intergovernmental negotiations or visits come to life only if ... .4. They now embrace a variety of .... 5. The nature, content and tone of a final document are determined primarily by .... 6. The first task a communiqué (joint statement or declaration) is called upon to fulfil is .... 7. The chief merit of communiqués (joint statements or declarations) lies in ... .

 

Task 2. Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents for the following English word combinations:

 

1) the burning issues of the day; 2) the contradictory tendencies in international development; 3) elevation of style; 4) a general appraisal of the international situation; 5) international and bilateral relations; 6) the public at large; 7) a weighty and binding document; 8) in terms of their subject matter; 9) to attract world-wide attention; 10) to avoid embarrassment or inaccuracy; 11) to issue a joint statement; 12) to reflect the outcome of the negotiations or exchange of views.

 

Task 3. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents:

 

1) to reaffirm one's joint determination; 2) to recognize the continuing importance of; 3) to reaffirm one's commitment to; 4) to share the view; 5) to reach a common recognition; 6) to affirm one's belief; 7) to grant the privileges and immunities to; 8) to accord every facility to; 9) to be briefed on; 10) to submit smth in writing; 11). upon receipt of a complaint; 12) to cease to exist; 13) to bear the cost; 14) to defray the travel expenses.

 

Task 4. Decipher the following Latin abbreviations:

 

et al.; etc.; ib.; ibid.; id; i. q.; p. p. s.; p. s..

Task 5. Study the use of italicized words in different phrases, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents:

 

~ DECLARATION ~

 

customs ~; a joint ~; a political ~; a solemn ~; a ~ for (against) smth; a ~ of independence; a ~ of policy; a ~ of the poll; a ~ of rights; a ~ of war; the D. on the Granting of Independence to Colonial Countries and Peoples; the UN D. on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination ; the Universal D. of Human Rights; to make a ~; to sign a ~.

~ STATEMENT ~<



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