To highlight the inventiveness



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

To highlight the inventiveness



a) to feature resourcefulness

b) to observe discovery

c) to set exclusiveness

Alternative avenues

a) additional streets

b) other means

c) traditional views

 

Unprecedented

a) never done before

b) once practiced

c) previously experienced


 

Task 11. Express your thoughts upon the following questions.

1. What do you think contributed most of all to the problem of oppressing indigenous peoples?

2. In what way indigenous peoples can uphold their rights?

3. What international mechanisms might be applied to enshrine indigenous people self-determination?

4. What major achievements in the field of the rights of indigenous peoples have been made?

Lead-in

The most fundamental document on human rights, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), is a product of the UN system. The UDHR was adopted unanimously by the General Assembly of the UN in 1948. It is not a binding treaty that states ratify or accede to. Rather, it is a declaration of ‘a common standard of achievement for all peoples and nations, to the end that every individual and every organ of society shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms and by progressive measures, national and international, to secure their universal and effective recognition and observance, both among the peoples of Member States themselves and among the peoples of territories under their jurisdiction.’

 

Task 12. What do you think were the reasons the Universal Declaration of Human Rights arose from?

 

Task 13. Below are extracts from the first 10 articles of UDHR (there are 30 in all see Appendix). Complete each article by choosing the correct word from the box.

 

charge detention discrimination exile free freedoms law liberty punishment race remedy rights slavery tribunal

Article 1

All human beings are born __________ and equal in dignity and rights.

Article 2

Everyone is entitled to all the rights and __________ set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as __________, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

Article 3

Everyone has the right to life, __________, and security of person.

Article 4

No one shall be held in __________ or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

Article 5

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or __________.

Article 6

Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the __________.

Article 7

All are equal before the law and are entitled without any __________ to equal protection of the law.

Article 8

Everyone has the right to an effective __________ by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

Article 9

No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, __________ or __________.

Article 10

Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial __________, in the determination of his __________ and obligations and of any criminal __________ against him.

 

Task 14. Translate into English.

1) Усі люди мають право на рівний захист перед законом. 2) Ніхто не може зазнавати безпідставного арешту. 3) Кожна людина має право на те, щоб її справа була розглянута прилюдно і з дотриманням усіх вимог справедливості. 4) Визнання прав людини на міжнародному рівні прийшло внаслідок двох світових війн. 5) Події другої світової війни безпосередньо привели до заснування Організації Об’єднаних Націй. 6) У завдання Ліги Націй входило стеження за дотриманням прав корінного населення колонізованих територій. 7) Загальна декларація прав людини, прийнята і проголошена резолюцією Генеральної Асамблеї ООН від 10 грудня 1948 року, докорінно змінила ситуацію навколо прав людини. 8) Кожна людина має право на життя, на свободу і на особисту недоторканність. 9) Кожна людина, обвинувачена у вчиненні злочину, має право вважатися невинною доти, поки її вина не буде встановлена в законному порядку. 10) Ніхто не повинен зазнавати тортур або жорстокого поводження і покарання.

МODERN HUMAN RIGHTS LAW

Reading 2: This text deals with the present-day human rights law.

 

Task 1. Read the text below and answer the following questions.

 

1.According to the text, what are the major tasks of international law?

2.What is the most important source of international law?

3.There has been mentioned that ‘an international treaty imposes binding obligations on states that are parties to it’. What is meant by binding obligations?

4.What types of treaties are mentioned in the text?

5.If there is a possibility for a state to become a party to a treaty it did not sign, through what type of treaty it is permissible?

 

Reading Comprehension

 

Task 2. Read the text and decide whether these statements are true (T) or false (F).

 

1.The governing idea of international law is to hold states responsible to the international community.

2.At present, treaties are the most widespread form of making binding agreements between states.

3.Resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly are inseparable part of human rights recognition within the scope of international law.

4.In order to become a party to an international treaty a state must previously ratify it before signing procedure.

5.Adopted treaties do not require any signing procedures which are necessary only in case the state has been a party to another treaty.

Human Rights in International Law: States are the ‘parties’ that take part in international law – the members of the United Nations are, for example, all ‘states’. A ‘state’ is simply a technical term for a country. Each state is a distinct political entity, independent and, usually, with an effective government.

International law governs relations between states, in matters such as the drawing of boundaries between states, the laws of war, laws governing international trade, and laws regulating the global environment. As well, international law governs relations between states and individuals. It does this by holding states accountable to the international community for the extent to which they recognize and protect human rights within their borders.

Today, most international law takes the form of treaties (also known as covenants, conventions, agreements, pacts and protocols), which are binding agreements between national governments. Statements and resolutions made by international organisations like the United Nations, and customary modes of behaviour by states, also contribute to the formation of international law.

In international law, human rights are recognized in three principal ways:

· international treaties, covenants and conventions

· customary international law

· resolutions of the United Nations General Assembly.

In the area of human rights, ‘express agreements’, including treaties, conventions, covenants, instruments, pacts and protocols, are the most significant source of international law.

The law of treaties concerns obligations that result from express agreements. The basic principle of treaty law is that agreements are binding upon the parties to them and must be performed by them in good faith. Similar to a contract, an international treaty imposes binding obligations on states that are parties to it. The parties accept responsibilities towards each other through mutual obligations and as with a contract, one treaty party can call other parties to account for their actions.

Treaties can be bilateral (between two countries) or multilateral (between more than two countries).

Becoming a party to a treaty is a legal process that involves a series of steps. A state usually signsan international treaty and later ratifiesit. A state will accedeto a treaty it did not sign.

The process of making a treaty: In concluding a multilateral treaty, states generally follow these procedures:

Adoption

The outcome of negotiations is generally the adoption of the text of the treaty in an international forum. Once adopted, the treaty becomes ‘open for signature’.

Signature

By signing a treaty, a state indicates its intention to become a ‘party’ to the treaty. Whilst signature often constitutes the first step in becoming a party, it does not mean that the state is bound by the terms of the treaty.

Ratification and accession

Ratification and accession are formal procedures by which a state indicates that it intends to be bound by a treaty. Once adopted, the treaty remains open for signature for a specified period of time. This time generally allows for ratification by the number of states that are necessary for the treaty to ‘enter into force’. Ratification is completed by a formal exchange or deposit of the treaty with the Secretary-General of the United Nations in New York. Accession is the process by which a state becomes party to a treaty it did not sign, and is only used in multilateral agreements. Accession may occur before or after a treaty has entered into force, but is usually used when the agreement has been previously signed by other states.

 

Task 3. Complete the definition below using the words in the box.

 

agreement designation form instrument law

 

Treaty: an international 1) ____________ concluded between states in written 2) ____________ and governed by international 3) ____________ , whether embodied in a single 4) ____________ or in two or more related instruments and whatever its particular 5) ____________ .

 

Task 4. Match the English and Ukrainian equivalents.

1. accession a) резолюція
2. adoption b) підписання
3. ratification c) заява
4. resolution d) приєднання
5. signature e) прийняття
6.statement f) ратифікація

 

Task 5. Choose the best word to fill the gap.

 

1. International law governs relations between __________ .

A covenants B individuals Corganisations D states

 

2. Statements and __________ contribute to the formation of international law.

A conventions B pacts Cresolutions D treaties

 

3. _________ international law is one of the key principles of human rights recognition.

A Common B Customary CPrivate D Public

 

4. The law of treaties concerns obligations that result from __________ agreements.

A express B implied Cmutual D written

 

5. An international treaty imposes binding __________ on states that are parties to it.

A agreements B applications Ccommitments D obligations

 

6.The parties accept responsibilities to each other through __________ obligations.

A bilateral B multilateral Cmutual D unilateral

 

7. Signingan international treaty usually precedes the __________of it.

A accession B adoption Cratification D resolution

 

8. The adopted treaty becomes open for __________.

A agreement B discussion Cenforcement D signature

 

9. Ratification and accession are formal __________ by which a state indicates that it intends to be bound by a treaty.

A conditions B conventions Cprocedures D requirements

 

10. Accession is the process by which a state becomes party to a __________ it did not sign.

A agreement B association Ctreaty D union

 

Task 6. Read the article about Peter Benenson, the founder of human rights group Amnesty International.

Amnesty International: Working to Protect Human Rights

 


 

Peter Benenson, the founder of Amnesty International, the organisation set up to bring pressure on governments to release people imprisoned for voicing their political or religious opinions, for whom Benenson coined the term “prisoners of conscience”.

The impetus for the founding of Amnesty was a newspaper article Benenson read, when travelling on the London Underground, in November 1960: two Portuguese students had been arrested and sentenced to seven years’ in jail for drinking a toast to liberty – the government of Portugal was then in the hands of the dictator Antonio Salazar – in a cafe in Lisbon.

Benenson, a barrister who already had experience of human rights work, came up with the idea of a one-year campaign to draw public attention to the plight of the world's political and religious prisoners. In 1961 Benenson launchedAppeal for Amnesty”, which on May 28 that year appeared on the front page of the Observer newspaper.

In October 1961, Benenson published Persecution, a short book which contained the stories of a handful of men and women from varying political and religious outlooks who had suffered imprisonment for expressing their opinions. By the end of that month Amnesty had accumulated 840 case files from 31 countries.


Understanding Expressions

Task 7. Choose the best explanation for each of these words or phrases from the text.


To bring pressure

a) to use power

b) to persuade

c) to enforce

 

An impetus

a) coveting

b) compassion

c) impulse

 

A toast

a) a slice of bread

b) drink to the health

c) exposure of radiant heat

 

A barrister

a) a person entitled to practise as an advocate

b) the chief law officer of a city

c) the chief lawyer in a government or city department

 

To come up with

a) to think of something

b) to enter carrying something

c) to participate in something

 

To draw attention

a) to distort

b) to focus

c) to pervert

 

The plight

a) betrothal

b) engagement

c) terrible condition

 

To launch

a) to introduce to the public for the first time

b) to conceal the origins of the matter

c) to process through a legitimate business

 

To appeal

a) to make a serious, urgent request

b) to make a formal application

c) to pacify by acceding to demands

 

Persecution

a) action of charging someone with a crime

b) cruel and unfair treatment

c) party conducting legal proceedings


Task 8. Translate into English.

1) Ратифікація – це процес надання юридичної сили документу шляхом затвердження його відповідним органом кожної зі сторін. 2) Європейський Союз зробив перший крок на шляху до підписання Європейської конвенції з прав людини. 3) Приєднання до Конвенції буде означати, що громадяни ЄС, які вважають, що їхні права були порушені з боку ЄС і його установ, тепер будуть в змозі звертатися до суду з позовами проти ЄС. 4) Підписання договору не створює юридичних зобов'язань, у такий спосіб держава демонструє намір вивчити його і розглянути питання щодо його ратифікації. 5) Ратифікація або приєднання означає угоду щодо юридичних зобов’язань у відповідності з положеннями договору. 6) Договір означає міжнародну угоду, укладену між державами в письмовій формі, що регулюється міжнародним правом. 7) Прийняття тексту договору відбувається за згодою всіх держав, що беруть участь у його складанні. 8) При підписанні, ратифікації, прийнятті, затвердженні чи приєднанні до договору держава може сформулювати певні зауваження. 9) Чинне міжнародне право визнає за особами, які належать до національних, етнічних, релігійних, мовних меншин, всі загальновизнані громадянські, політичні, економічні, соціальні та культурні права людини.

Task 9. Read the poem.

Human Rights

by Teresa Patterson

 

Do not forfeit your right to live

With peaceful joy, with tears and laughter,

With purpose and view of the ever after,

Learn how to love and how to give.

Do not forfeit your right to live…

 

Do not pay homage to rage, to sorrow,

Save a few memories for tomorrow,

In every moment play your part!

For glory do not forsake your heart…

Embrace the NOW with delight!

To love, do not forfeit your right…

 

Do not forfeit your happiness…

Don’t live your life in token’s shadow

While there is sunshine in the meadows,

Even if you are penniless…

For life itself is pure happiness.

 

Do not forfeit your right to pray

If obstacles happen on the way,

There is no sin in honest toil…

Sow all your seeds in fertile soil,

Then share your bounty with thy neighbor.

Do not forfeit the joys of labor.

 

Do not forfeit your right to live.

Cherish your days, then close the chapter,

Before embracing the ever after.

Do not just forget, but forgive.

Thus you can earn your right to live…

Forever…

Task 10. In order to find out what should and what shouldn’t be done to live one’s good life fill in the table of dos and don’ts below.

Do Don’t
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

 


Language Focus

Word-formation

Complete this table by filling in the correct noun form of the verbs listed.

Verb Noun
1.to accede  
2.to adopt  
3.to agree  
4.to declare  
5.to negotiate  
6.to ratify  
7.to recognize  
8.to resolve  
9.to restrict  
10.to sign  

 

Prepositions

Complete the sentences below using the prepositions from the box.

for of in on from to out to towards upon

 

1.A central goal of U.S. foreign policy has been the promotion of respect ______ human rights, as embodied in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

2.The session of the interdepartmental working group on examining observance ______ the human rights was held at the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine.

3.The Observatory has been informed by reliable sources about the suspension of telephone communication imposed ______ several human rights groups in Egypt.

4.The article examines states' decisions to commit ______ human rights treaties.

5.The fundamental freedoms set ______ in Article 1 of the United Nations Charter constitute the corner stone of human rights respect.

6.All states, members of international organisations, are accountable ______ the international community.

7.In international law, human rights are recognized ______ three principal ways.

8.The law of treaties concerns obligations that result ______ express agreements.

9.The basic principle of treaty law is that agreements are binding ______ the parties to them.

10.The parties accept responsibilities ______ each other through mutual obligations.

 

 


Appendix 1



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