Unit 7. Types of diplomatic documents



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Unit 7. Types of diplomatic documents



 

1. LETTERS OF CREDENCE AND LETTERS OF RECALL 2. VERBALE NOTES, PERSONAL NOTES AND CIRCULAR NOTES 3. Treaties 4. AGRÉMENT 5. INTEROFFICE MEMORANDA 6. FINAL INSTRUMENTS OF INTERGOVERNMENTAL NEGOTIATIONS AND VISITS: COMMUNIQUÉS AND (JOINT) STATEMETS  

 

 

I. LETTERS OF CREDENCE AND LETTERS OF RECALL

 

Lead-in

International documents are the result of long negotiations, proposals and counter-proposals, and the interplay between actors.

Task 1. Read the text and get ready to answer the checkup questions:

1.What is the usual practice of applying for agrément?

2.When is the appointment of a diplomatic envoy made public?

3.What is a "true copy" of the credentials? When is it delivered?

4.Which document accredits a new head of mission to the head of state requesting faith and credence in the former's statements?

5.Why should a chargé d'affaires call on the Dean of the diplomatic corps before the arrival of the newly appointed ambassador?

6.What is considered an official recognition of an ambassador or a minister plenipotentiary?

7.When are the letters of credence usually presented?

In view of the importance of the position, official as well as personal, of the head of a diplomatic mission, custom requires that the government which sends the envoy ascertains before his appointment that he will be persona grata. The request for agrément or acceptance is presented either through the head of mission of the receiving state or the chargé d'affaires who is temporarily in charge of the mission, or through the diplomatic mission of the sending state in the receiving state. As soon as consent is obtained the appointment is made public.

The new head of mission is provided by the government with official letters called letters of credence or, colloquially, credentials. These letters are placed in an enve­lope sealed with wax, and must, in principle, be opened by the head of state at the time of presentation. A true copy (copie d'usage) is added which is destined to be delivered by the head of mission to the Minister for Foreign Affairs at the time of his arrival. These letters confer upon the foreign envoy the authority for his mission and determine bearing of his appointment.

The protocol forms of his official document include one which accredits, personally, the new head of mission to the head of state and requests faith and credence in the former's statements.

In most states, the presentation of credentials by a diplomatic representative implies recognition de jure of a provisional government. Political agents sent to de facto recognized foreign governments are simply provided with credentials addressed from Minister for Foreign Affairs to Minister for Foreign Affairs. In certain states, however — the United States and Japan, for instance, — the presentation of credentials addressed by head of state to head of state does not carry with it recognition de jure of the local government. The delivery of credentials can, at that time, be accompanied by formal reserves which specify the character of the relations between both states.

 

Task 2. Read the text again and find Ukrainian equivalents for the words in bold.

Task 3. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with suitable words:

 

1. representative 2. functions 3. credentials 4. recall 5. Foreign 6. d'affaires 7. head 8. Convention

 

 

Chargés d'affaires with letters (Vienna a) …, art. 14c) receive lettres de cabinet or cabinet letters addressed by Minister for b)… Affairs to Minister for Foreign Affairs. These letters are delivered directly to the Minister for Foreign Affairs on arrival of the chargé d'affaires who, from that moment, is considered as having officially assumed his functions.

Before the arrival of a head of mission the chargé c) … makes known to the Minister for Foreign Affairs the date and hour of arrival of the incumbent and ascertains when the Minister will receive the new head of mission on his first visit. The chargé d'affaires should also call on the Dean of the diplomatic corps and announce the arrival of the new d) … of mission.

The arrival of a head of mission in the capital where he is to exercise his e) … does not call for any official ceremony. The new agent must be considered incognito until he presents his f) … to the head of state. It is customary, however, for the local authorities to show him and those accompanying him certain attentions, such as customs and frontier police facilities and reception at his place of arrival by an official of the protocol service, etc. Local customs determine these various attentions.

Delivery of the credentials of the new head of mission should be preceded by the sending of the letters of g) … of the agent whose mission has been brought to an end. These letters are presented by the head of mission on the occasion of his audience to take leave. They can also be brought by the new diplomatic h) …. This is always the case in the United Kingdom.

 

Task 4. Read the text below and fill in the gaps with suitable sentences:

 

1. An account of the ceremony is generally published in an official publication.

2. From this moment, the head of mission enjoys the diplomatic status with all its accompanying immunities and prerogatives.

3. He has recourse to the proto­col service for all information which he may need for his purpose.

4. The Minister for Foreign Affairs is not required to return the visit of the new head of mission; this also applies to the Dean of the diplomatic corps.

 

As soon as the new head of mission has arrived he is informed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the day and hour when the Foreign Minister will receive him for the delivery of the copie d'usage of the credentials, which will be in his possession, and perhaps of the letters of recall of his predecessor. The custom of each Ministry of Foreign Affairs is to indicate the form in which the new head of mission should make his visit and, should the occasion arise, other visits. a) … .

It is the general custom for the new arrival, immediately after his private reception by the Foreign Minister, to call, unofficially, on the Dean of the diplomatic corps in order to ascertain local protocol requirements. b) … .

When a copy of the credentials of a new head of mission has been examined and found correct in substance as well as in form, the protocol service at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs will, in accordance with local custom, arrange an audience for the new head of mission with the head of state, for delivery of the credentials.

The reception by the head of state of an ambassador or a minister plenipotentiary constitutes official recognition of this representative. The protocol service handles the ceremonial, i.e., composition and order of the procession which may include an escort, military honours, exchange of addresses, etc. c) … .

All heads of mission are received by the head of state, in the order of their arrival in the capital (Vienna Convention, art. 13). The ceremonial dress should be the same for all heads of mission of equal rank (art. 18). d) … . He takes rank on the diplomatic list as from the day and hour he presented his credentials (art 16). In some countries, however, diplomatic status and seniority both date from the delivery of the copie d'usage as, for instance, in Great Britain.

 

Task 5. Match the terms with their definitions. Consult the dictionary if necessary:

 

1. diplomatic immunity 2. chargé d’affaires 3. Amabassador 4. diplomatic corps 5. Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary 6. Ambassador Extraordinary 7. de jure 8. letters of credence (credentials) 9. de facto 10. incognito 11. letters of recall a) existing in fact, whether legally recognized or not b) according to law; by right; legally c) under an assumed name or appearance; in disguise d) a formal paper from the head of one state to the head of another accrediting an ambassador, minister or another diplomatic agent as one authorized to act for his government or head of state e) a nonaccredited personal representative of the head of state on a special diplomatic mission f) a personal representative of the head of one state accredited to the head of another state, head of the mission (1st class) g) a diplomatic representative inferior in rank to an ambassador or minister who is sent to another country and accredited to the minister for foreign affairs; head of the mission (3rd class) h) the entire body of diplomats accredited to a given state i) the immunity from local jurisdiction and exemption from taxation in the country to which they are accredited afforded to diplomats j) a top-ranking diplomat accredited to a foreign government or to the head of state as a resident representative k) a formal paper from the head of one state to the head of another recalling an ambassador, minister, or other diplomatic agent

 

 


ASSIGNMENTS

 

Task 1. Complete the following sentences using the required information from the above texts.

1. A new head of mission is provided by the government with ... . 2. The letters of credence confer upon a foreign envoy ... 3. In most states, the presentation of credentials by a diplomatic representative implies... 4. In certain states, the presentation of credentials addressed by head of state to head of state does not carry with it .... 5. A new diplomatic agent must be considered incognito until ... . 6. The letters of recall are presented by the head of mis­sion on the occasion of .... 7. The Minister for Foreign Affairs receives a new head of mission for ... . 8. When a copy of the credentials of a new head of mission has been examined and found correct ....

 

Task 2. Suggest the Ukrainian equivalents for the following English word combinations:

 

1) the delivery of the copie d'usage of one's credentials; 2) the letters of recall of one's predecessor; 3) an official recognition; 4) the reception by the head of state of an ambassador; 5) recognition de jure of a provisional government; 6) at the time of presentation; 7) in accordance with local custom; 8) in the order of arrival; 9) in substance as well as in form; 10) to announce the arrival of a new head of mission; 11) to arrange an audience for the new head of mission with the head of state; 12) to ascertain local protocol requirements.

 

Task 3. Memorize the phrases below, suggest their Ukrainian equivalents:

1) to contribute to the maintenance of the friendly relations so happily existing between the two countries; 2) to give smb another appointment; 3) to recall smb from the post of Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary; 4) to receive favourably one's Letters of Recall.

Task 4. Point out the root in the words "credence" and "credentials", give a few derivatives with this root.

Task 5. Suggest the English equivalents for the following:

1) вручення вірчих грамот; 2) що заслуговує довіри; 3) мандат (посвідчення особи); 4) мандатна комісія; 5) політичне переконання; 6) рекомендаційний лист; 7) особа, що має гарну репутацію; 8) віддавати комусь шану; 9) вручати вірчі грамоти; 10) довіряти; 11) відмовити в довірі; 12) втратити довіру.

Task 6. Study the use of italicized words in different phrases. Suggest their Ukrainian equivalents:

~ DIPLOMATIC ~

~ act; ~ activity; ~ agent; ~ bag; ~ circles; ~ contacts; ~ corps; ~ courier; ~ identity card; ~ immunity; ~ intercourse; ~ mail; ~ mission; ~ law; ~ personnel; ~ pouch; ~ practice; ~ privileges; ~ recognition; ~ relations; ~ representative; ~ service; ~ sources; ~ status; through ~ channels.

 

~ IMMUNITY ~

 

consular ~; diplomatic ~; parliamentary ~; deprivation of parliamentary ~;~ of a deputy; ~ of office; ~ of residence; ~ from taxation; to accord smb ~; to enjoy ~; to guarantee ~.

 

Task 7. Suggest the English equivalents for the following:

1) дипломатична недоторканість; 2) дипломатична пошта; 3) дипломатичний представник; 4) дипломатичне представництво; 5) дипломатичне визнання; 6) позбавлення парламентської недоторканості; 7) недоторканість службового приміщення; 8) звільнення від податків; 9) дипломатичними каналами; 10) користуватися недоторканістю.

Task 8. Translate into Ukrainian taking note of the words and phrases in bold type:

1. An ambassador or ministeris, on being appointed to a post,provided with Credentials, or Letters of Credence, signed by his sovereign or the head of his State. 2. The head of the missionis considered as having taken up his functions in the receiving State either when hehas presented his credentials or when he has notified his arrival and atrue copy of his credentials has been presented to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the receiving State, or such other ministry as may be agreed. 3. The order of presentation of credentials or of a true copy thereof is determined by the date and time of the arrival of the head of the mission. 4.Heads of mission take precedence in their respective classes in the order of the date and time of taking up their functions.Alterations in the credentials of a head of mission not involving any change of class do not affect his precedence. 5. Letters addressed by presidents of republics to sovereigns may be credentials of ambassadors or ministers,letters of recall, recredentials, announcement of election to the presidency, etc. 6. In the United Kingdom, the form ofletters of credencedoes not differ from that of any other type of formal royal letter. 7. It is unusual, in modern practice, foran ambassador, on retiring from his post, to present his Letters of Recall himself. 8. Not to find himself in an awkward position, thenewly appointed ambassador should be sure that hispredecessor had already presented his Letters of Recall. 9. Accrediting citizen X. by the present Letters of Credence we request You, Your Majesty /Your (Royal) Highness/, to receive him favourably and to give credence to all that he will have the honour to communicate to You on behalf of the Government.

 

Task 9. Read the following passage from the letters of credence, translate it into Ukrainian:

  AMBASSADOR of (name of country)   (city) (name of country) March10, 20___   Dear Colleague, I have the honour to inform you that I have, today, presented to His Excellency … , President of (name of country), the Letter of Credence accrediting me as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of (name of country) to (name of country). I avail myself of this opportunity to express my sincere desire o maintain and further develop the cordial relations, both official and personal, which exist so happily between our two countries.   Please accept the assurances of my highness consideration.   Sincerely, ……………….   His Excellency Mr. ………………. Ambassador of (name of country) to (name of country)  

 

Task 10. Identify the type of a diplomatic document presented below, give reasons to prove your choice.

ELIZABETH THE SECOND,   BY THE GRACE OF GOD OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND AND OF HER OTHER REALMS AND TERRITORIES QUEEN, HEAD OF THE COMMONWEALTH, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH,   &., &., &.,   To the President of the Republic of ... Sendeth Greeting!   Our Good Friend! Having need elsewhere for the services of Our Trusty and Well-beloved X. who has for some time resided with You in the character of Our Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, We have thought fit to notify to You the termination of his Mission in that capacity. We have thought fit to notify to You his Recall. We are Ourselves so satisfied with the zeal, ability, and fidelity with which X. has executed Our orders on all occasions during his Mission that We trust his conduct will also have merited Your approbation, and in this pleasing confidence We avail Ourselves of the Opportunity to renew to You the assurances of Our constant friendship, and of Our earnest wishes for the welfare and prosperity of the Republic of ... . And so We commend You to the protection of the Almighty. Given at Our Court of St. James, the …… day of …… , One thousand Nine hundred and …… in the …… Year of Our Reign.   Your Good Friend, ………………….. ELIZABETH R.  

 

Task 11. Translate the documents below:

  ПРЕЗИДЕНТ РЕСПУБЛІКИ ПОЛЬЩІ ……………………………………………… ПРЕЗИДЕНТУ УКРАЇНИ ……………………………………………..   Шановний …,   В цей історичний для Польщі та України час політика укріплення братської дружби і співробітництва між польськими і українським народами безсумнівно повинна отримати подальший розвиток та поглиблення. Заради досягнення цієї шляхетної мети я вирішив акредитувати при ВАС … як свого Надзвичайного і Повноважного Посла. Акредитуючи … цією грамотою, прошу ВАС, Шановний… , прийняти його з прихильністю і вірити всьому тому, що він буде мати честь висловлювати ВАМ від мого імені і від імені Уряду Республіки Польщі.   (підпис) Скріпив … Міністр іноземних справ Республіки Польщі Варшава 27 березня 20… року

 

  … Президент України Його Високоповажності Панові … Президентові Турецької Республіки   Ваша Високоповажносте,   Керуючись бажанням розвивати і поглиблювати дружні відносини між нашими державами, я вирішив призначити Пана … Надзвичайним і Повноважним Послом України в Турецькій Республіці. Прошу прийняти його з прихильністю і вірити всьому тому, що він висловлюватиме від мого імені або за дорученням Уряду України. Водночас користуюся нагодою, щоб висловити свої найкращі побажання народові Турецької Республіки і запевнити Вашу Високоповажність у моїй вельми високій повазі   (Особистий підпис Президента) Засвідчив … Міністр закордонних справ України м. Київ 2005 р.  

 

  Вірчі грамоти (letters de créаnce – фр.) – документ, що засвідчує представницький характер дипломатичного представника і акредитує його в іноземній державі. Вірчі грамоти підписуються главою держави, який призначає дипломатичного представника, і адресується главі держави, що приймає дипломатичного представника. Складовими елементами вірчих грамот є: відповідне конституції чи іншому основному закону країни, що приймає дипломатичного представника, титулування глави цієї держави; фраза, що мотивує призначення дипломатичного представника, в редакції якої відображається стан дипломатичних відносин між двома країнами; ім’я, прізвище, а також ранг дипломатичного представника, що відповідає рівню, на якому обидві країни обмінюються дипломатичними представниками; прохання вірити всьому тому, що буде висловлювати дипломатичний представник від імені глави своєї держави або від імені свого уряду.  

 

  Відкличні грамоти (letters de rappel – фр.) – документ, відповідно якому уряд повідомляє про відкликання свого дипломатичного представника. Вони адресуються главі держави, при якій був акредитований дипломатичний представник, підписуються главою держави, призначеного дипломатичного представника, і скріпляються міністром іноземних справ. У відкличних грамотах в короткій формі повідомляється про факт відклику дипломатичного представника, про причини відклику; висловлюється надія, що дипломатичне представник сприяв підтримці і розвитку дипломатичних відносин між країнами.  

 

Task 12. Look at the exhibits paying attention to the structure of these documents. Compile your own letter of credence (or a letter of recall) using the models below:

EXHIBIT 1 LETTERS OF CREDENCE (Credentials)     ELIZABETH THE SECOND,   BY THE GRACE OF GOD OF THE UNITED KINGDOM OF GREAT BRITAIN AND NORTHERN IRELAND AND OF HER OTHER REALMS AND TERRITORIES QUEEN, HEAD OF THE COMMONWEALTH, DEFENDER OF THE FAITH,   &., &., &., TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF (name of country)   Sendeth Greeting! Our Good Friend! Being desirous to maintain, without interruption, the relations of friendship and good understanding which happily subsist between Our Realm and the (name of country), We have made choice of Our Trusty and Well-beloved Sir ..., Knight Commander of Our Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, to reside with You in the character of Our Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary. The experience which We have had of Sir ...'s talents and zeal for Our service assures Us that the selection We have made will be perfectly agreeable to You; and that he will discharge his Mission in such a manner as to merit Your approbation and esteem, and to prove himself worthy of this new mark of Our confidence. We therefore request that You will give entire credence to all that Sir ... shall communicate to You in Our name, more especially when he shall renew to You the assurances of the lively interest which We take in everything that affects the welfare and prosperity of the Republic (name of country). Given at Our Court of Saint James's, the ... day of August, One thousand Nine hundred and ..., in the ... Year of Our Reign. Your Good Friend, ………………….. ELIZABETH R.  

 



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