SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX



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SUBJECTIVE INFINITIVE COMPLEX



 

It is said that … − He is said to … .

Study this example situation:

 

Henry is very old. Nobody knows exactly how old he is, but: It is said thathe is 108 years old. or He is said to be 108 years old. Both these sentences mean: “People say that he is 108 years old.”

 

Суб’єктивний інфінітивний комплекс вживається з такиими дієсловами в пасивному стані:

I. to say − говорити; to report − повідомляти;

to think − думати; to know – знати;

to consider – вважати; to believe – вірити;

to suppose – припускати to expect – сподіватися, очікувати.

to allege – стверджувати;

II. to see – бачити; to feel – відчувати;

to hear – чути; to notice – помічати.

to observe, to watch – спостерігати;

III. to order – наказувати; to ask – просити.

to request – просити, вимагати;

to allow, to permit – дозволяти;

to make, to cause, to force – примушувати;

 

Compare the two structures:

· Cathy works very hard. It is said that she works 16 hours a day. or She is said to work 16 hours a day. · The police are looking for a missing boy. It is believed that the boy is wearing or The boy is believed to be wearing a white pullover and blue jeans. a white pullover and blue jeans. · A friend of mine has been arrested. It is alleged that he kicked a policeman. or He is alleged to have kicked a policeman. · Those two houses belong to the same family. It is said that there is a secret tunnel or There is said to be a secret tunnel between them. between them. · The strike started two weeks ago. It is expected that it will end soon. or The strike is expected to end soon.

Ці структури зазвичай вживаються в інформаційних репортажах. Наприклад, в репортажі про нещасний випадок:

It is reported that two people were or Two people are reported to injured in the explosion. have been injured in the explosion.

 

9. Write these sentences in another way, beginning as shown. Use the underlined world in your sentence.

1. It is expected that the strike will end soon.

The strike………………………………………………………………………….

2. It is expected that the weather will be good tomorrow.

The weather……………………………………………………………………….

3. It is believed that the thieves got in through the kitchen window.

The thieves…………………………………………………………………...……

4. It is reported that many people are homeless after the floods.

Many people………………………………………………………………………

5.It is thought that the prisoner escaped by climbing over a wall.

The prisoner……………………………………………………………………….

6. It is alleged that the man drove through the town at 90 miles an hour.

The man………………………………………………………………………...…

7. It is reported that the building has been hardly damaged by fire.

The building………………………………………………………………………

8. a) It is said that the company is losing a lot of money.

The company………………………………………………………………...……

b) It is believed that the company lost a lot of money.

The company………………………………………………………………...……

c) It is expected that the company will lose money this year.

The company…………………………………………………………...…………

9. It is supposed that he is a lover of music.

He………………………………………………………………………...………..

10. It is known that they will arrive tomorrow.

They……………………………………………………………………………….

11. It is hoped that a cure for the disease is imminent.

A Cure for the disease…………………………………………………………….

12. It is said that he was a dishonest man.

He……………………………………………………………………………...…..

13. It is supposed that the Loch Ness monster exists.

The Loch Ness monster……………………………………………………..……

14. It is known that they left the country.

They……………………………………………………………………………….

15. It is believed that the hostage died.

The hostage……………………………………………………………..…………

10. Translate:

1. Думають, що у неї немає недоліків. 2. Віриться, що вони в безпеці. 3. Очікується, що він приїде сьогодні. 4. Вважається, що він гарний музикант. 5. Відомо, що він добре знає англійську. 6. Припускається, що вони одружаться наступного місяця. 7. Повідомляють, що він помер. 8. Говорять, що у неї гарні манери. 9. Очікується, що страйк почнеться завтра. 10. Стверджують, що вони вкрали машину. 11. Було чути, як вона співає.12. Кожного ранку бачили, як вона йшла до крамниці. 13. Спо- стерігали, як діти гралиcz в садку. 14. Було чути, як співають пташки в садку. 15. Їм наказали залишити зал. 16. Його примусили вдягнути пальто.

17. Його попросили зробити цю роботу на завтра. 18. Йому не дозволили робити перерву. 19. Помітили, як злодій прослизнув у будинок. 20. Знають, що він пише нову книгу.

 

 

CAUSATIVE FORM

TO HAVE SOMETHING DONE

Causative form вживається, коли дію здійснюєте не ви, а хтось, з ким ви домовилися, щоб він зробив цю роботу для вас.

Present Simple Past Simple Future Simple Present Contin. Past Continuous Future Continuous Present Perfect Past Perfect Present Perfect Continuous Past Perfect Continuous Infinitive -ing form   She paints her portrait. She painted her portrait. She will paint her portrait. She is painting her portrait. She was painting her portrait.   She will be painting her portrait.   She has painted her portrait. She had painted her portrait. She has been painting her portrait She had been painting her portrait. She can paint her portrait. She likes painting her portrait. She has her portrait painted. She had her portrait painted. She will have her portrait painted. She is having her portrait painted. She was having her portrait painted. She`ll be having her portrait painted. She has had her portrait painted. She had had her portrait painted. She has been having her portrait painted. She had been having her portrait painted. She can have her portrait painted. She likes having her portrait painted.

 

10. Read the situation, then write sentences using the causative form:

Model:Our house is small. We need to build an extension. What should we do?

− We should have an extension built.

1. Liz is at the beauty parlour. The beautician is painting her nails. What is she doing? 2. Wilf has written a novel and it’s going to be published. What is she doing? 3. A jeweler has made a special wedding ring for Ann. What has Ann done? 4. Simon`s suits are all made by a tailor. What does Simon do? 5. They have been burgled three times. Putting in a burglar alarm would help. What should they do? 6. Tina’s boots have a hole in them. She can’t wear them until they are mended. What should she have done? 7. Sonia is going to the optician for an eye test tomorrow. What is she going to do? 8. Trevor has paid a technician to install his computer. What has she done? 9. They had arranged for their house to be cleaned by the end of the week. Now it is clean. What had they done? 10. The grass has grown too much. What should they have done? 11. His tooth was filled yesterday. What happened to him? 12. No one has informed them of the meeting. What should he have done for them?

 

12. Write sentences in the causative form as in the example:

John will have someone to bring him the post. –

John will have the post brought to him.

1. Did Shiela ask the dressmaker to make her a dress? 2. When will his photographs be developed? 3. The decorator are decorating Tim`s house at the moment. 4. Your car needs to be serviced. 5. The gardener was pruning Bob’s bushes. 6. The manager had asked the secretary to book a room for him. 7. I paid someone to fix the roof of my house. 8. Let’s ask the porter to carry the luggage to the taxi. 9. Larry has got the plastic surgeon to remove his tattoo. 10. The nurse took his temperature. 11. The make-up artist was applying the model’s lipstick. 12. Ask the cook to prepare the vegetables. 13. Have you told the accountant to check the figures? 14. Jim hates the teacher correcting his mistakes. 15. Did the beautician paint Joanne’s nails? 16. He told the maid to serve breakfast in his room. 17. Dad was late because the garage had been servicing his car. 18. Pam is going to tell someone to repair the pipes. 19. My parents’ house was burgled last Monday. 20. He used to employ a chef who cooked his meals. 21. Does your mother ask for her shopping to be delivered to her house? 22. Did you pay an artist to paint a portrait of your family? 23. Do you employ someone to clean your house? 24. Did you tell the tailor to make a suit for you?

13. a) Use the words in brackets to complete the sentences. Use the structure “have something done”:

1. We ………. (the house/paint) at the moment. 2. I lost my key. I will have to …………… (another key/make). 3. When was the last time you ……………

(your hair/cut). 4. You look different. …………………………(you/your hair cut) 5. ……………..(you/a newspaper/deliver) to your house or do you go to the shop to buy one? 6. A: What are those workmen doing in your garden? B: Oh, we……..(a swimming pool/build). 7. A: Can I see the photographs you took when you were on holiday? B: I am afraid I …………………………….(not/the film/develop) yet. 8. This coat is dirty. I must……………………….(it/clean). 9. If you want to wear earring, why don`t you ………………………….(your ears/pierce)?

 

 

b) Now you have to use “have something done”:

George’s nose was broken in a fight.

What happened to George? – He had his nose broken in a fight.

1. Sarah’s bag was stolen on a train. What happened to Sarah?......................................................................................................................

2. Fred’s hat was blown off in the wind. What happened to Fred?........................................................................................................................

3. Diana’s passport was taken away from her by the police. What happened to Diana?.................................................................................................................

14. Translate:

1. Зазвичай я стрижуся раз на місяць. 2. Вони перевіряють свої зуби раз на рік. 3. Нашу машину вчора обслужили. 4. Завтра йому зроблять флюорографію. 5. Вона завжди перевіряє зір раз на рік. 6. Завтра їй налаштують телевізор. 7. Мені тільки що запломбували зуб. 8. Її тільки що видалили апендицит. 9. Їх тільки що сфотографували. 10. Нам тільки що обклали кухню кахлем. 11. Вона тільки що пофарбувалась. 12. Мені тільки що перевірили зір. 13. Я підстригся перед тим, як пофарбувався. 14. Їм поштукатурили стіни перед тим, як поклеїти шпалери. 15. Їм поштукатурять стіни перед тим, як поклеїти шпалери. 16. Я підстрижуся перед тим, як пофарбуватися. 17. Вона здала аналіз крові, перед тим, як видалити гланди. 18. Вона здасть аналіз крові перед тим, як видалити гланди. 19. Йому зараз налаштовують телевізор. 20. Вона перевіряла зір, коли я вперше побачив її. 21. Мені будуть чистити костюм завтра з 5-ї до 6-ї години. 22. ЇЇ портрет малюють з 6-ї години. 23. Їм штукатурили стіни протягом години, коли ми прийшли. 24. Їм будуть чистити костюм протягом години, коли ми прийдемо. 25. У мене забрали документи у відділку поліції. 26. У нього вкрали гроші в потязі. 27. Йому розбили ніс у бійці. 28. У нього здуло вітром капелюх. 29. У мене конфіскували гроші на кордоні. 30. Наші сумки перевірили в аеропорту. 31. Їх анкетні дані записали.

 

SEQUENCE OF TENSES

УЗГОДЖЕННЯ ЧАСІВ

Узгодженням часів в англійській мові називають залежність часу дієслова-присудка підрядного речення від часу присудка головного речення.

Узгодження часів дотримується в підрядних додаткових реченнях, які залежать від головного речення з дієсловом-присудком в минулому часі.

Якщо дієслово-присудок головного речення вживається в одній із форм теперішнього чи майбутнього часів, то в підрядному додатковому реченні вживається час, який вимагається за змістом.

 

Головне речення Підрядне речення
Одночасність Передування Наступність
Present, Future Present Indefinite Past Indefinite Future Indefinite
He says that he is busy he was busy he will be busy

 

“The car is broken”. The man says that the car is broken.

“He has broken a glass” My sister says that he has broken a glass”.

“I finished it” My sister says that she finished it”

“He will go to the seaside” My brother says that he will go to the

seaside”

 

Якщо ж присудок головного речення виражений дієсловом в одному з минулих часів або в Present Perfect, то в підрядному додатковому реченні відбувається узгодження часів, тобто дієслово-присудок має бути в одному з минулих часів або в майбутньому з погляду минулого (Future-in-the- Past).

 

Головне речення Підрядне речення
Одночасність Передування Наступність
Past Ind., Present Perf. Past Indefinite, Past Continuous Past Perfect, Past Perfect Continuous Future-in-the-Past
I thought that He said that you were busy. he was waiting for us that moment. you had been busy. he had been waiting the day before from 5 till 6. you would be busy. he would be waiting from 5 till 6 the next day.

 

REPORTED SPEECH

Зміст прямої мови передається за допомогою підрядного додаткового речення зі сполучником thatабо без нього чи інфінітивного обороту.
Mary says, “I don`t know his address.” –
Mary says that she doesn`t know his address.

 

Changing from Direct into Indirect Speech

Direct Speech Indirect Speech
“I work hard”, he said. “I am working hard”, he said. “I have worked hard”, he said. “I worked hard”, he said. “I will work hard”, he said. “I have been working hard”, he said. “I am going to work hard”, he said. “I can work harder”, he said. “I may work harder”, he said. “I must work harder”, he said. “I should work harder”, he said. “I ought to work harder”, he said. “You had better help me”, he said. “ You need not do it now”, he said. “Do you work hard enough?” she said to him. “Work harder!” she said to him. He said (that) he worked hard. He said (that) he was working hard. He said (that) he had worked hard. He said (that) he had worked hard. He said (that) he would work hard. He said (that) he had been working hard He said (that) he was going to work hard. He said (that) he could work harder. He said (that) he might work harder. He said (that) he had to/must work harder. He said (that) he should work harder. He said (that) he ought to work harder. He said (that) I had better help me. He said (that) I did not need to do it then. He asked him if he worked hard enough.   He told him to work harder.

 

 

a)Як і в укрaїнській мові, особові та присвійні займенники при заміщені прямої мови непрямою змінюються або залишаються залежно від змісту:

She says, “I’ll work in my village”.

She says that she will work in her village.

 

b)Якщо в словах автора дієслово-присудок виражає минулу дію, то при перетворенні прямої мови на непряму час дієслова змінюється відповідно до правил узгодження часів:

 

c)При перетворенні в непряму мову наказових речень наказовий спосіб дієслова прямої мови замінюється інфінітивом. У заперечній формі перед інфінітивом ставиться частка not.

The teacher says, “Mary, read this text”. –

The teacher askes Mary to read this text.

Mother says, “Don’t drink coffee in the evening”. –

Mother tells to me not to drink coffee in the evening.

 

 

d)При перетворенніпрямої мови в непряму деякі змінюються таким чином:

пряма мова непряма мова
yesterday the day before
the day before yesterday two days before
tomorrow the next day
the day after tomorrow two days later
now that moment
this evening that evening
last week the previous week
last year the previous year
next week the following week
next year the following year today that day
ago before
here there
this that

these those

 

E) SAY – TELL – ASK

SAYвживається в непрямій мові, якщо немає непрямого додатка після нього.



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