Five dollars a pound, two miles an hour. 





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Five dollars a pound, two miles an hour.



7. у деяких сталих словосполученнях: to go for a work ходити на прогулянку, to have a look глянути, to be in a hurry поспішати, for a long time довго, to have a restвідпочивати, to have a walkпрогулюватися, to have a talkпоговорити, to havr a bathприйняти ванну, to have a showerприйняти душ, to have a snackперекусити, to have a breakмати перерву, to have a feverмати жар, to have a headache мати головний біль, to have a coughкашляти

Означений артикль вживається:

1. перед іменниками в однині та множині, якщо зрозуміло про який предмет йдеться (з контексту або попередньої інформації) або єдиними в певній ситуації:

I sent you a letter. I`d like to know Я відправив вам листа. Я хотів би

your reaction on the letter. знати вашу реакцію на цей лист.

Did you see the contract Чи не бачили ви контракт, що ми

we signed yesterday. підписали вчора?

2.перед іменниками, що означають предмети єдині в своєму роді:

the sun сонце, the moon місяць, the earth земля, the sky небо.

3.перед іменниками, що означають не окремий предмет, а весь клас у цілому:

The rich should pay more taxes. Багатим слід платити більше

податків.

The rose is my favorite flower. Троянда – це моя найулюбленіша

квітка.

The bicycle is an excellent means Велосипед – чудовий засіб

of transport. транспорту.

4.перед іменниками з прикметниками в найвищому ступені та порядковими числівниками:

the best way – найкращий спосіб, the coldest place – найхолодніше місто,

the seventh century – сімнадцяте сторіччя, the first of January – перше січня

5.перед іменниками з означенням, яке вказує, про який саме предмет іде мова та після словосполучень one of, some of, each of, most of,і слів all, both:

one of the letters один з листів, each of the contractsкожен з контрактів,

all the compagniesвсі компанії

She opened the door of the room. Вона відчинила двері кімнати.

6.перед прізвищами в множині, що означають всю родину:

The Browns left for Australia Брауни поїхали в Австралію

a month ago. місяць тому.

7.перед іменниками, що означають типові риси, які асоціюються з відомими прізвищами:

He is the Raphael of music. Він Рафаель в музиці.

8.перед іменниками, що означають музикальні інструменти й танці:

the pianoпіаніно, the violinскрипка, the tangoтанго, the valtzвальс

9.в деяких сталих виразах:

in the streetна вулиці, in the morningвранці, in the afternoon вдень,in the eveningввечорі,the sameтой же самий, the following,the nextнаступний, the lastостанній, to go to the theatreходити в театр, to play the pianoграти на піаніно,the other dayнещодавно, цими дняти, to tell the truthказати правду.

Артикль не вживається:

1. перед іменниками, перед якими стоїть присвійний, вказівний або питальний займенник та також займенники some, any, no, each, every:

my brother мій брат, this country ця країна, What story? Яке оповідання some students кілька студентів, no mistake жодної помилки, each pupil кожний учень, every day щодня.

2. перед злічувальними іменниками в множині, що вказують на клас, до якого належить особа чи предмет у ролі підмета:

They are sales representatives. Вони торгові представники.

I see cars. Я бачу машини.

My friends are students. Мої друзі – студенти.

3. перед абстрактними та незлічувальними іменниками в загальному значенні:

This work does not give me satisfaction. Ця робота не приносить мені

задоволення.

Time is money. Час – це гроші.

4. якщо перед іменником стоїть інший іменник в присвійному відмінку:

Jack`s family родина Джека, England`s industry промисловість Англії

5. перед іменниками next (в значенні “майбутній”), last (в значенні “минулий”), breakfast, lunch, dinner, tea, supper, коли мовиться про прийом їжі

He has just had lunch. Він тільки що пообідав.

next week, next year наступного тижня, наступного

року;

last week, last year минулого тижня, минулого року.

6. перед іменниками, які стоять перед прізвищами та іменами людей:

Colonel Smith, Mr. White, Miss Jane

7. перед іменниками, що означають назви мов:

French is a difficult language. Французька дуже важка мова.

8. перед іменниками, що означають дні тижнів, місяців і здебільшого пір року, але якщо є обмежувальне значення, то вживається означений артикль: on Monday, in July, in autumn, in the autumn of 1918

9. у багатьох сталих словосполученнях: at night вночі, by train потягом, by mistake помилково, to take place відбуватися, мати місце, to go to bed лягати спати, from time to time час від часу, in time вчасно, at school в школі, at home вдома, at work на роботі.

 

EXERCISES

1. Fill in the articles where necessary.

1. He is … very clever boy. 2. Her father is … chemist. 3. They are … scientists. 4. You will return in … minute. 5. I won … ten million gryvnas. 6. Some … boys were there. 7. Not … word was pronounced after it. 8. Ann read … adventure novel. 9. I shall come in … hour. 10. He is … smart student. 11. Bring me some … water. 12. … my lunch was lost. 13. She is … very talented. 14. What … mess! How can you sit here? 15. His daughter is … very smart girl. 16. Give me … apple which is …nearest to you. 17. … elephant is … very big animal. 18. He failed his exam. This was … worst for him. 19. This is … man I told you about. 20. What … nice day today! 21. They say … love is blind. 22. … weather is foggy today. 23. It was such … tasty cake. 24. He invited her to … dinner.

 

2. Fill in the articles where necessary.

1. What do you do after … breakfast? – After … breakfast I go to school. 2. My granny likes to read … book after … lunch. 3. … people usually have … breakfast in … morning. They have … dinner in … afternoon. In … evening … people have … supper. 4. There is a proverb: “After … dinner sleep a while, after … supper walk … mile”. 5. Who cooks … dinner in your family? 6. Yesterday father told us … very interesting story at … breakfast. 7. What did you have for … lunch at … school on …Wednesday? – We had … salad and … tea. 8. My mother never has … supper with … family because she does not like to eat in … evening. 9. When do you clean your teeth in … morning: before … breakfast or after … breakfast? 10. For … breakfast I have … coffee with … milk and … sugar. I have … jam, too. There are different things on … dinner-table. There is … bread, … butter and … jam. There are … cups and … glasses there. There is … jug on … table. … milk in … jug is hot. There is … tea-pot on … table. There is … tea in … tea-pot. … tea is hot, too. There are … plates, … forks and … knives on … table. 11. … lamp is on … table. 12. There is … lamp on … table. 13. Is there … lamp on … table? 14. Is … lamp on … table? 15. Is there … clock on … wall. 16. Where are … shelves? – … shelves are on … wall. 17. They have … large flat. There are … four rooms in … flat.

18. Is … newspaper on … table? 19. Is there … newspaper on … table? 20. There is … butter on … plate. 21. Where is … butter? – … butter is on … little plate. 22. There is … white and … brown bread on … table. 23. Let`s go to … shop. I must buy … bread and … milk.

 

3. Fill in the articles where necessary.

1. My friend`s …flat is very comfortable. There are … three rooms in … flat: … living-room, … study and … bedroom. … living room is not very large. … walls in … living-room are blue. There are … pictures on … walls. There is … table in … middle of … room with some chairs around it. To … left of … door there is … sofa. Near … sofa there are … two large armchairs. They are very comfortable. There is … piano in my friend`s living-room. … piano is to … right of … door. …bedroom and … study are small. … furniture in … flat is brown.

2. Here is … large window. Through … window we can see … room. Opposite … window there is … door. On … door there is … curtain. In … corner of … room there is … round table. On it we can see … books and … telephone. There is … bookshelf over … table. On … bookshelf we can see … newspapers and … book by … Jack London. There are … two pictures in … room. One … picture is small, … other is very large. There are … two bookcases in … room. … bookcases are full of … books. There is … large sofa in … room. On … sofa we can see … bag. Whose …bag is that? There is no … bed in … room. On … small table near … window there are … flowers and … glass of … water. In … front of … window we can see … armchair.

 

4. Fill in the articles where necessary.

1. I bought … new hat yesterday. … shop-assistant said it was … latest style. 2. I want to ask you to accompany me to … shop. 3. Where did you buy this overcoat? – I bought it at … big store in Nevsky Prospect on … Tuesday.

4. My … sister bought … blue hat on … Wednesday. … colour suits her very nicely as she got … blue eyes. 5. I must buy … pair of … new gloves. 6. Where is … shoe department? – It is on … third floor. 7. I think … coat is a little tight. 8. We came to … big store to find out if we could have … suit made to order. 9. I don`t like … hat you have chosen. … colour ir not becoming to you. 10. Here is … department of ready-made clothes. Let`s go in and see if we can buy … nice pair of … trousers for you. 11. I am going to give him … tie as … birthday present. 12. I was at … cinema yesterday. – What … film did you see? – Oh, I saw … very good film. I think it is … best film of … year. 13. Do you often go to … theatre? – No, I don`t. I like to go to … theatre, I am very busy. I work from … morning till night. I even have no … time to play … piano. 14. Oleg has … lot of interesting books at … home. 15. … lot of … tourists from … different countries come to St. Petersburg. They want to see one of … most beautiful cities in … world. 16. My new friends said to me: “I am … student of … first course”. 17. We went to … cinema in … evening. 18. What foreign languages does your father speak? – He speaks … English. He studied … English at school. 19. I am interested in … history. 20. We played … tennis at … lesson of physical training yesterday. We had … good time. 21. Did you go for … walk yesterday? – No, we didn`t . … weather was bad, and we went to … cinema. 22. What are your friends doing? – Mary is playing … piano. Tom and Nick are playing … chess.

 

5. Fill in the articles where necessary.

1. Look at … sky. It is covered with … dark clouds. Let`s hurry … home. 2. It was very pleasant to live in … country in … summer. …weather was fine and it seldom rained. Summer is … fine season. 3. How lovely … night is! There are no … clouds in … sky and … air is so fresh. 4. When … spring comes, … sun shines brighter, … snow melts, … days become longer. 5. …winter is … good time for sports. 6. On … Sunday my friend and I usually go to … country. We ski, skate, play … snowballs and have … very good time. 7. … fog is so dense that is difficult to walk. 8. My friend is … very good chess-player. 9. In … summer we lived in … country and went up to … town by train. 10. Tomorrow is … Sunday. If it is too hot in … town, we will go to … country. On … Monday we will come back. 11. Is this … interesting book? Is this … very interesting book? Is this … very interesting book you have spoken about so much? Is it … same book you have recommended to us? 12. She is … teacher. She is … good teacher. She is … teacher of our school. She is … teacher of … English. Here is … teacher, ask her about … question which interests you. 13. There is … word in … text which cannot understand. There is … very difficult word, too, which I cannot pronounce. Here is … word I was looking up in the dictionary. This word is … adverb. 14. … first men were vegetarians.

 

6. Fill in the articles where necessary.

Once there lived … king. His name was Midas. He had … little daughter. They lived in … beautiful palace with … wonderful garden around it. Now … king was fond of … gold. He loved … gold more than anything else in … world. One day, when … king was looking at his gold, a young man appeared before him. “You are … very rich man, Midas,” said … young man. “Yes”, said … king, but I would like to be richer. I would like to have … golden touch. I want everything that I touch to turn into … gold.” … young man was … magician, and he gave … king … golden touch which he wanted to have. … king was very happy. He touched … table, and … table became gold. He went into … garden. There were … beautiful roses in … garden. He touched … roses, and they also became gold. … king`s daughter, who loved … roses very much, saw it and began to cry. “Don`t cry, … dear daughter,” said … king and touched his daughter`s head. … next moment … girl turned into … beautiful gold statue.

 

7. Fill in the articles where necessary.

In … small town in … East was once … man who had … parrot. … parrot was taught to say … words: “ There is no doubt about it.” It used to repeat these words all … day long. Every time it was asked … question, it gave … same answer. “There is no doubt about it.” One day … man decided to sell … bird; so he put … parrot into … cage and went to … market with it. “Twenty pounds for … very clever parrot!’ he cried. … man who was passing by heard it and turned to … parrot. “Are you worth twenty pounds?’ he asked. “There is no doubt about it!” answered … parrot. “What … clever parrot!” said … man and bought … bird. He took … parrot home and invited his friends to look at … clever bird. … friends came and looked at … parrot and talked to it. Now you must know that … man was not rich. In … fact, he was often short of … money. So … week or two later, sitting in … armchair and looking at … parrot, ha said: “What … fool I was to throw away such … lot of … money!” “There is no doubt about it!” cried … parrot. And this time … bird was right.

 

8. Fill in the articles where necessary.

Swift, … famous English writer, was traveling one day on … horseback with his servant. … weather was bad, it was raining, and … roads were muddy. In … evening the two men came to … inn. Before going to … bed Swift told his servant to clean his boots. But … servant was lazy and did not do it. In … morning Swift asked … servant why he had not cleaned … boots. “What is … use cleaning … boots now?” said … servant. “… roads are muddy, and … boots will soon be dirty again. “All right,” said … writer. “Let`s go We must continue … journey.” “But I have not had … breakfast,” said … displeased servant.” “Well, what is … use giving you … breakfast now?” said Swift: “You will soon be hungry again.”

 

9. Fill in the articles where necessary.

… Russia is such … large country that when it is night in one part of … country, it is day in another part, when it is winter in one part of … country, it is already … summer in another. Imagine it is … beginning of … May now. It is spring in St. Petersburg. … weather is fine. It is still cool at … night, but it is quite warm in … afternoon. It sometimes rains, but … rain is warm, too. … ground is covered with … soft green grass, and … trees are covered with … green leaves. But while it is … spring in St. Petersburg, it is …winter in … north of … country at … beginning of … May. Here it is cold and sometimes frosty, … rivers and … seas are covered with … ice. … ice does not melt in some places even in … summer. … ground is covered with … deep snow. In … south of … country … weather is quite different. It is already … summer in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. It is much warmer than in St. Petersburg. It is sometimes even hot. … sky is usually cloudless and it seldom rains here. People wear … summer clothes.

 

10. Fill in the articles where necessary.

… train stopped at … little station. … passenger looked out of the window of … train carriage and saw … woman selling … cakes. … man had not had … breakfast in … morning. He was hungry and wanted to buy … cake. … woman was standing rather far from … carriage. … man did not want to go and buy … cake himself because he was afraid to miss … train. He saw … boy who was walking along … platform near … carriage. He called … boy and asked him: “How much does … cake cost?” “Threepence, sir,” answered … boy. … man gave him a sixpence and said: “Bring me … cake, and with … other threepence buy … cake for yourself.” … boy took … money and went to … woman. A few minutes later … boy returned. He was eating … cake. He gave … man threepence change and said: “… woman had only one cake, sir.”

 

11. Fill in the articles where necessary.

It was … nice summer day. … weather was fine, … sun was shining in … blue sky, … air was fragrant with … smell of … grass and … flowers. … dog which was running about … streets of … little town saw … butcher`s …stall with … lot of … meat. … dog cautiously approached … stall and, when … buther turned away to talk to … woman, quickly seized … big piece of … meat and ran away with it. On … way home … dog had to cross … stream by … narrow bridge. As he was crossing, he looked down into … stream and saw its reflection in … water. He thought it was … other dog with … other piece of … meat. He snapped at … reflection and dropped its own piece of … meat. That`s how … dog was punished for … greediness.

 

12. Fill in the articles where necessary.

Once … Frenchman was traveling in Sweden. He stopped at … hotel in … little Swedish town. It was … evening, … man was tired, so he went to … bed at once. In … morning he had … breakfast in … hotel restaurant. After … breakfast he went for … walk. He walked along … streets of … town, visited … museum and … shops. Presently he felt hungry and dropped into … café for lunch. He sat down at … table, called … waiter and ordered … mushrooms. But … Frenchman did not know Swedish and … waiter did not know French. Nobody in … café could speak French. Then … Frenchman took … piece of … paper and … pencil and drew the picture of … mushroom. … waiter looked at … picture and left … room at once. Five minutes later he returned with … umbrella.

 

13. Fill in the articles where necessary.

On … Sunday our family went to … country. We got up at … sunrise and quickly had … breakfast. After … breakfast we left … home. There is … little village not far from St. Petersburg where we have friends. We went there by … train. We had … very good time in … country. … weather was fine, … sky was blue and … sun was shining. We stayed out of … doors all … day long. We played … volley-ball and … tennis. We returned to … town late in … evening. When we came … home, we had … supper and went to … bed at once.

 

14. Fill in the articles where necessary.

… English king Richard the Lion Heart was … tall, strong man. He was very proud of his strength and liked to show … people how strong he was. Once, as he was riding on … horseback in … country-side, his horse lost … shoe. Luckily he was not far from … village and soon he found … blacksmith. “Give me … good horseshoe,” he said to … man. … blacksmith gave … king … horseshoe. Richard took it in his hand and broke it in two. “This horseshoe is no good,” he said, “give me … better one.” … blacksmith did not say … word. He gave … king … other horseshoe, but Richard broke it, too. … blacksmith gave him … third shoe. This time Richard was satisfied and ordered … blacksmith to shoe his horse. When … work was done, Richard offered … man … coin. … blacksmith took … coin between his fingers and broke it in two. Now it was Richard`s turn to be surprised. He took … larger coin out of his pocket and handed it to … blacksmith. … man broke it, too, saying : “This coin is no good, give me … better one.” Richard smiled and gave … man … gold coin.

 

TEST 2

Variant 1

1. Masha invited our family to … tea a week ago.

a) an b) a c) the d) –

2. The children in Ukraine learn … English, French and Germaine.

a) a b) the c) an d) –

3. … Moon is the satellite of the Earth.

a) the b) – c) an d) a

4. You can see a lot of cherry trees in blossom in … spring.

a) a b) the c) an d) –

5. … iron is heavier than aluminum.

a) the b) – c) a d) an

6. My parents emigrated to Canada in … spring of 1997.

a) an b) the c) a d) –

7. It was … second experiment which they made.

a) the b) an c) a d) –

8. … coffee is imported from Brazil and Nigeria.

a) an b) the c) a d) –

9. Everybody in our family likes … tea.

a) an b) a c) the d) –

10. The Browns had … very substantial dinner.

a) the b) a c) an d) –

11. He looked at the sky and saw … pale moon.

a) – b) the c) a d) an

12. He failed the exam. It was … tragedy for him.

a) an b) – c) a d) the

13. “let`s go to … bed”, she ordered her son.

a) the b)a c) an d) –

14. … fox belongs to the dog`s family.

a) a b) an c) the d) –

15. It was … most beautiful flower I have ever seen.

a) a b) an c) the d) –

16. “… green is my favorite color”, she said.

a) – b) the c) a d) an

17. … carp is a fat fish used for stewing.

a) the b) – c) a d) an

18. Kevin injured his leg is still in … hospital.

a) – b) the c) a d) an

19. …orchid is one of the most beautiful flowers on our planet.

a) the b) a c) an d) –

20. Look at Patricia! She is so different from all … Bensons.

a) an b) the c) – d) an

21. The sweater was cheap. It cost only … few pounds.

a) a b) an c) the d) –

 

 

Variant 2

1. Buy … dozen eggs, … loaf of bread and … tin of pickles.

a) a, a, a b) an, an ,an c) the, the, the d) –, –, –

2. Walter is having … chicken and … broccoli for dinner.

a) the, the b) an, an c) a, a d) –, –

3. It was … second chance of hers and she thought it was … best.

a) a, a b) the, the c) –, – d) an, an

4, Most of all I love … waltzes and … Strauss waltz is very sweet.

a) the, – b) –, a c) an, the d) the, a

5. That was … most popular and … most famous song of …Beatles.

a) a, a, a b) the, the, the c) –, –, – d) an, an, an

6. We worked for … year at … United Nations.

a) the, – b) a, the c) – , a d) the, a

7. Would you like … tuna sandwich? – Yes, give me … bit.

a) a, a b) an, an c) the, the d) –, –

8. … official language of Ukraine is … Ukrainian language.

a) a, the b) a, – c) –, the d) the, the

9. … Greens left for America in … spring of 1997.

a) the, the b) a, a c) – , the d) the, an

10. They looked at … only woman in the room who was sitting near … fireplace.

a) an, the b) –, a c) the, the d) an, the

11. If you have … flu just take … pill and drink … hot tea with … lemon.

a) the, the, a , the b) an, the, –, –

c) – , a, –, –, c) the, –, a, –

12. … weather is very warm today. What … weather for such … day.

a) a, an, the b) the, –, a c) –, –, a d) an, –, the

13. He was … tall blond lad with … pale face and … exhausted look.

a) the, the, a b) an, an, the c) –, –, a d) a, a, an

14. Today we are having …fried potatoes with … meat and … rice pudding.

a) –, –, a b) the, the, – c) an, – , a d) a, a, the

15. As far as I know Brian was … first to come and … last to leave.

a) –, – b) an, an c) the, the d) a, a

16. … official languages of Canada are …English language and … French language.

a) a, the, – b) the, the, – c) the, the, the, d) the, –, –,

17. Wendy is … doctor, Bernie is … artist and Sarah is … nurse in … nursing home.

a) –, the, the, a b) a, an, the, a c) –, –, the, the d) an, an, –, the

18. …little white poodle was sitting on … window sill of … red-brick house.

a) the, a, an b) –, the, a c) an, the, – d) a, the, a

19. When Kate entered … office her colleagues told her that … Mr. Jones had called her.

a) the, a b) an, the c) –, a d) an, a

20. … whale is … largest mammal on … planet.

a) an, the, – b) a, a, the c) the, the, the d) –, –, a

21. … lilac was blooming in … garden in … spring of 1945.

a) a, a, a b) the, the, the c) –, –, – d) an, an, an

DEGREES OF COMPARISON

СТУПЕНІ ПОРІВНЯННЯ

ADJECTIVE

Форми вищого та найвищого ступенів порівняння прикметників можуть бути, як і в українській мові, простими і складеними.

Прості форми ступенів порівняння утворюються додаванням до основної форми прикметників закінчення -er у вищому і -est у найвищому ступені:

cold – colder – coldest(холодний – холодніший – найхолодніший).

Складені форми ступенів порівняння утворюються додаванням до основної форми прикметника слова more(більш)у вищому ступені і most(найбільший) – у найвищому:

dangerous – more dangerous – most dangerous

(небезпечний – небезпечніший або більш небезпечний – найнебезпечніший або найбільш небезпечний).

Прості формиступенівпорівняння мають:

а) усі односкладові прикметники:

short – shorter – shortest

б) двоскладові прикметники, що закінчуються на -y, - er, -le, -ow:

heavy – heavier – heaviest

clever – cleverer– cleverest

simple – simpler – simplest

narrow – narrower – narrowest

в) двоскладові прикметники з наголосом на другому складі:

polite – politer – politest

severe – severer – severest

Складені форми ступенів порівняння мають усі багатоскладові прикметники (з кількістю складів більше двох), а також двоскладові прикметники з наголосом на першому складі, крім тих, що закінчуються на -y, -er, -le, -ow:

difficult – moredifficult – mostdifficult

famous – more famous – most famous

Правила правописупростихформ ступенів порівняння прикметників:

а)якщо прикметник закінчується німим -е, то перед закінченням -er та

-est воно випадає:

large – larger – largest

white – whiter - whitest

б) якщо односкладовий прикметник закінчується однією приголосною з попереднім коротким голосним звуком, то кінцева приголосна перед закінченнями -erта -est подвоюється:

hot – hotter – hottest

big – bigger - biggest

в) якщо прикметник закінчується буквою -yз попередньою приголосною, то перед -er, -est yзмінюється на i :

dirty – dirtier – dirtiest

dry – drier – driest

Особливі форми:

1. Ступені порівняння прикметників good (добрий, хороший) і bad(поганий) утворилися від інших коренів:

Good – better – best

Bad – worse – worst

2.Прикметники old (старий) та far (далекий) мають дві форми вищого та найвищого ступенів:





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