TepMoMexaHM'lecKafl o6pa6oTKa



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

TepMoMexaHM'lecKafl o6pa6oTKa



 

TepM0Mexam1qecKaH o6pa6oTKa (TMO) - 3$$eKTHBHh H cnoco6 IlOBb IIIeHHH KOMilJieKca MexaHuqeCKHX CBOHCTB nopOIIIKOBhlX MaTe­ pHaJIOB paJmfqHoro HaJHaqeHHH, JaKJI10qa10rn;HHCH B coqeTaHHH Tep­ MHqeCKOH o6pa6oTKH c nJiaCTHqecKOH .ue$opMauueH.IlpHMeHHeMbie cxeMbITMO npe.ucrnBJIHIOT co6oif BapuaHThITpex ocHOBHh X npouec­ coe: BbICOKOTeMnepaTYPHOH (BTMO), HHJKOTeMnepaTYPHOH (HTMO)

H npe.ueapHTeJlbHOH (IlTMO) TepMOMexaHuqecKOH o6pa60TKH. JI10- 60H BH.ll TMO yqacTByeT B $opMHpoeaHHH CTpYKTYPhInpu $opMoo6- paJoeaHHH nopOIIIKOBblX HJ,UeJIHH.

Ilpu BTMO .ue$opMaUHIO MaTepuaJia c 6oJibIIIOH cTeneHbIO o6)Ka­

THH (.uo 80-90 %) ocymecTBJIHIOT npoKaTKOH, 3KCTpYJHeH, IIITaM­

IlOBKOH H T.,ll., COBMern;aH ee c ynJIOTHeHHeM nopoIIIKOBOfO MaTepHa­ Jia HJIH o6pa60TKOH MaJIOnopHCTbl X MaTepHaJIOB. IlpH HJfOTOBJieHHH MaTepHaJIOB no TeXHOJIOfHH .UBOHHOfO npeccoeaHHH-cneKaHHH, BTO­ poe cneKaHHe nocJie .uonpeCCOBKH MO)KHO JaMeHHTb HarpeBOM no.u ropHqyIO .ue$opMaUHIO. Ilpoee.ueHHe ropH"!eH IIITaMilOBKH B paMKaX BTMO noJBOJIHeT noJI)"IHTh ynpot:JHeHHe HJ.UeJIHH, He Tpe6y10mee, KaK npaeHJio, .uonoJIHHTeJibHOH MexaHHt:JeCKOH o6pa6oTKH. YnpoqHe­ HHe, .uocTuraeMoe npH BTMO, JaBHCHT OT cnoco6a, cTeneHH HuTeM­ nepaTYPhI .ue$opMaUHH, J])IHTeJibHOCTH nocJie.ue<t>opMaUHOHHOH Bbl­

.uep)KKH, JaKaJIO"IHOH cpe,Ubl , COCTaBa o6pa6aTbIBaeMoro MarepHaJia H

.upyrnx $aKropoe. B cJiyqae nopucThIX JarOToBoK cymecTBeHHOe BJIHH­ HHe oKaJhrnaeT paJMep qacTHU nopoIIIKa. facTHI.lhI 6oJiee MeJIKOro nopoIIIKa .ue$opMHPYIOTCH B 60JibIIIeH .UOJie o6'beMa, "!TO npHBO,UHT K o6paJoBaHHIO O,UHOpO,UHOH H MeJIKOJepHHCTOH CTpYKTYPbl. IlocJie

BTMO cTpyKTYPa MaTepuaJia 6oJiee ycTOHt:JHBa, a npot:JHOCTh Bb1rne,


qeM Henocpe.ucTBeHHO nocJie JaKaJIKH.

HTMO B OCHOBHOM npHMemnoT TOJibKO ,UJIH o6pa6oTKH Jiempo­ BaHHb X CTaJieH c 6oJibIIIOH ycTOHqHBOCTbIO nepeoXJIIDK,D,eHHOfO ayc­

TeHHTa: CTaJib HarpeeaIOT Bb IIIe ToqKH Ac3, JareM no.uc'fY)KHBaIOT .uo

TeMnepaTYPbl MaKCHMaJibHOH ycTOftqHBOCTH nepeOXJIIDK,D,eHHOfO ayc­

TeHHTa H B 3TOM COCTOHHHH npH TeMnepa'fYpe HIDKe nopora peKpHC­ TaJIJIHJal.{HH .ue<f>opMHPYIOT c o6xaTHeM 30-40 %, noCJie qero HeMe,U­ JieHHO JaKaJIHBaIOT.

IlpH OTMO .ue<f>opMal.{HH H Harpee no.u JaKaJIKY paJ,UeJieHhI Bo epeMeHH: MaTepHaJI BHaqaJie no.ueepra10T MexaHHqecKoft .ue<f>opMa­ UHH B XOJIO,UHOM COCTOHHHH, a JaTeM JaKaJIKe H OTilYCKY. 11Hor.ua

OTMO npe.uIIIecTByeT BTMO. XoJIO.UHaH nJiaCTHqecKaH o6pa6oTKa npHBO.llHT K YnJIOTHeHHIO nopHCTOH JaroTOBKH: npH o6xaTHH .uo 30 % nopHCTOCTb nopoIIIKOBb X MarepHaJIOB YMeHbIIIaeTCH .uo 4-2 %, a noCJie

.ue<f>opMal.{HH Ha 50 % HJ,UeJIHH noJiyqaIOTCH npaKTHqeCKH 6ecnopHC­

TbIMH. OTMO o6ecneqHeaeT nOBbIIIIeHHe npoqHoCTH npH HeKOTopoM CHHXeHHH nJiaCTHqHOCTH, OHa HaH60Jiee TeXHOJIOfHqHa H He Tpe6yeT cnel.{HaJibHoro o6opy.uoeaHHH.

 

QMcnepcMOHHo-ynpO'IHJltO aJI TepMM'l8CK8JI o6pa6oTKa

 

 

Lf.HcnepCHOHHO-ynpoqHHIOmaH TepMHqecKaH o6pa6oTKa (Lf.YTO) BOJMOXHa ,UJIH MaTepHaJIOB, KOMilOHeHTbl KOTOpb X npH TeMnepaTYPe cneKaHHH HMeIOT orpaHHqeHHYIO BJaHMHYIO paCTBOpHMOCTb, yMeHb­ IIIa10myIOCH npH CHHXeHHH TeMnepaTYPbI B npouecce OXJIIDK,ll,eHHH nocJie HJOTepMHqeCKOH BbI,UepXKH. LI.YTO CKJia,UbIBaeTCH HJ .ueyx 3Ta­

noe: 1) JaKaJIKH c TeMnepa'fYp BblIlle JIHHHH npe,UeJibHOH pacTBopH­

MOCTH KOMilOHeHTOB Ha .llHarpaMMe COCTOSIHHH (6bICTpoe OXJIIDK,D,e­

HHe npH JaKaJIKe B 3TOM CJiyqae <f>HKCHpyeT npH KOMHaTHOH TeMne­ paTYPe nepeCbimeHHbl H HeycTOHqHBbIH TBep,UbIH pacTBop); 2) crnpe­ HHSI cnJiaBOB, npH KOTOpOM npoHCXO.llHT pacna.u nepecb1meHHOfO TBep­

.uoro paCTBopa, noJiyqeHHOro B peJyJibTaTe JaKaJIKH, H Bbl,UeJieHHH HJ6bITOqHOH <f>aJbl B BH,Ue oqeHb MeJIKO,UHCnepCHblX qaCTHL{ XHMHqec­ KOfO coe,UHHeHHH HJIH TBep.uoro pacTBopa.

CrnpeHHe cnJiaBa npHBO.llHT K noBbIIIIeHHIO ero npoqHoCTH H TBep­

.uocTH, a rnKXe CHHxeHHIO nJiaCTHqHocTH. MaKcHMaJibHoe JHaqemte TBep,UOCTH H npoqHOCTH MOXeT 6bITb noJiyqeHo TOJibKO npH OTHOCH­ TeJibHO HHJKOH TeMnepa'fYpe CTapeHHSI, KOTOpasi ,UJISI Ka)l(,UOfO cnJiaBa CBOH. IlOBbIIIIeHHe TeMnepa'fYpbl crnpeHHSI npHBO,UHT K KoaryJISIL{HH BbI,UeJISIIOmHXCSI qacTHL{ H na.ueHHIO npoqHoCTHblX CBOHCTB .llO JHaqe-


HHH, 6oJiee HHJKHX, qeM noJiyqeHHbie npH JaKaJIKe.

HaJIHqHe nopHCTOCTH B nopoIIIKOBb X MarepHaJiax (HJ.UeJIHHX) BJIH­ HeT Ha npouecc TBep.ueHHH, KOTOpb H JaMe,UJIHeTCH npH ee BOJpacTa­ HHH. loBTOpHoe npeccoeaHHe H cneKaHHe JafOTOBOK yCKOpHeT npo­ uecc TBep.ueHHH B HaqaJibHblH nepHO.ll, HO CHIDKaeT ero KOHeqHble

peJyJibTaTbl.

 

AMT8 OT K0pp03MM

 

KoppoJHOHHaH CTOHKOCTb nopoIIIKoeoro MaTepHaJia HBJIHeTCH o.u­ HOH HJ ea)l(HeHIIIHX xapaKTepHCTH K, JaqacryIO onpe.ueJIHIOmeif caMY BOJMO)l(HOCTb npHMeHeHHH .ueTaJieH HJ Hero B COOTBeTCTByIOmHX KOH­

CTpYKUHHX. HccJie,UOBaHHH noKaJaJIH, qTo B OCHOBHOM noee.ueHHe nopoIIIKOBb X MaTepHaJIOB nO,UqHHHeTCH o6mHM JaKOHOMepHOCTHM OKHCJieHHSI H 3JieKTpOXHMHqeCKOH KOppOJHH, o.uHaKO oco6oe COCTO­

SIHHe nopHCTblX TeJI o6ycJIOBJIHBaeT HeKOTOpbie cneuH<f>HqecKHe oco- 6eHHOCTH. HaJIHqHe nop H nopoBb X KaHaJIOB npHBO.llHT K yeeJIHqe­ HHIO aKTHBHOH noeepXHOCTH MaTepHaJia, qTo Bb JblBaeT paJBHTHe KoppOJHOHHblX npoueccoe 0.llHOBpeMeHHO Ha BHeIIIHeH H BHYfPeH­

HeH (B o6beMe nopoIIIKOBOfO TeJia) noeepXHOCTSIX.

c ueJiblO JamHTbl noeepXHOCTH nopOIIIKOBb X HJ,UeJIHH OT KOppo­

JHH Ha Hee HaHOCSIT paJJIHqHble XHMHqeCKHe HJIH 3JieKTpOJIHTl'fqeC­ KHe noKpblTHSI: XHMJiqeCKOe HHKeJIHPOBaHHe, <f>oc<f>aTHPOBaHHe, 3JieK­ TpOXHMHqecKOe HHKeJIHpOBaHHe, Me,UHeHHe, l.{HHKOBaHHe, Ka,UMH­

poeaHHe, xpOMHpOBaHHe H .up.

Lf.Jisi npe.uoTBpameHHSI BHyTpeHHeH KoppOJHH HJ-Ja nona.uaHHH B nopOBbie KaHaJiblXHMHqecKHX paCTBOpOB, HCilOJibJyeMbIX npH COJ,Ua­

HHH JamHTHOfO noKpbITHH, nopHCTbie nopoIIIKOBbie HJ,UeJIHH (nopH­ CTOCTbIO > 5-6 % ) npe.ueapHTeJibHO nponHTbIBaIOT paJJIHqHb MH

eemecTBaMH (CMOJiaMH, 6HTYMHblMH JiaKaMH, paJJIJiqHblMH XHMl'fqeCKH CTOHKHMH eemecTBaMH). 0HH o6paJyIOT Ha noeepxHOCTH nop nJioT­ Hbie nJieHKH, KOTOpbie npensiTCTBYIOT .ueHCTBHIO XHMHqeCKH aKTHB­ HbIX pacTBOpOB (3JieKTpOJIHTOB), o6Jia.uaIOT JlOCTaTOqHOH 3JieKTpOnpo­

BO.llHOCTblO H JierKo Y.llaJIHIOTCH c noeepxHOCTH HJ,UeJIHH. 0.UHHM HJ JiyqIIIHX MaTepHaJIOB MS! JanoJIHeHHSI nop nopoIIIKOBOfO TeJia nepe.u noKpbITHeM ero noeepXHOCTH JamHTHblM CJIOeM SIBJIHeTCH rH,Upo<f>o6-

HaSI KpeMHHHOpraHHqecKaSI )l(H,L\KOCTb, HaJbIBaeMaSI npo.uyKT 136-41

(crnpoe HaJBaHHe f lOK-94), paCTBOpSIIOmaSICSI B 6eHJHHe HJIH qeTbl­ peXXJIOpHCTOM yrnepone. B npouecce BJaHMoneii:cTBHSI 3TOH XH.L\KOCTH

c noeepXHOCTbIO o6pa6aTbIBaeMoro MaTepHaJia o6paJyeTCSI TOHKaH noJIHMepHaSI nJieHKa, KOTOpasi He CMbIBaeTCSI BO.llOH. y 100 % o6paJ-


QOB, nO,ll,BeprttyrhIX BaKY)'MHOH npomtTKe 10%-Hh M paCTBOpOM npo­

.LJ.YKTa 136-41, BHyrpeHH.SUI Koppo3HH He 6bIJia o6Hap}')KeHa nocne HCnh TaHHSI B 3%-HOM pacTBope XJIOpHCToro HaTpHSI B TeqeHHe 30 cyroK.

Ilpe,ll,CTaBJISllOT HHTepec H 3arnHTHb e naporepMHqecKHe nJieHKH, XOTSI B 3TOM cnyqae Ha,ll,O cqHTaTbC51 c 3aTpy,ll,HeHHOCTblO nonyqeHmI xopomero cuennett,HSI cnoSI ocIDK,.ll.aeMoro MeTaJIJia c OKHCJieHHOH no­ eepXHoCThIO o6pa6aThIBaeMoro nopomKoeoro MaTepHana.

B nocne.LJ.HHe fO.LJ.hI,ll,JISI JaKphITHSI noeepxHoCTHh X nop pacmHpSieT­

CSI npHMeHeHHe noSIBHBllIHXCSI OKOJIO 35 JieT TOMy Ha3a,ll, TaK Ha3blBa­ eMb X aHa3p06Hb X (T.e. cnoco6Hb X noJIHMepH30BaTbCSI B OTCYfCTBHH KHCJiopo.LJ.a B03.LJ.yxa) repMeTHKOB. TaKHe aHa3po6Hbie MaTepHaJihIHC­ noJib3YIOT 6e3 OTBep,ll,HTeJieH H paCTBOpHTeJieH. OHM o6Jia,ll,aIOT xopo­

meH. npoHHKa10meH. H ecachrna10meH. cnoco6HOCThIO. B HX cocTaB exo­

MT nOJIHMepH3aQHOHHO-aKTHBHOe COe,ll,HHeHHe-HHrH6HTOp (OCHOBa KOMn03HQHH), HHHQHaTOp H MO.LJ.H<l>HUHPYIOlliHe ,ll,06aBKH.IlpH no­

na,ll,aHHH B nopOBhie KaHaJibl npH OTCY'fCTBHH B03,ll,yxa npoHCXO,ll,HT

noJIHMepH3aQHSI CMOJlh , ee 3aTBep,ll,eBaHHe H cuenneHHe c MeTaJIJIH­ qecKOH noeepxHOCThIO. B HameH. CTpaHe BhinycKaeTCSI nponHThIBaIO­ maSI KOMn03HQHSI IlK-80, npe,ll,CTaBJISIIOlliaSI co6oH. O,ll,HOKOMnoHeHT­

HYIO HH3KOBSl3KYIO )l{H,ll,KOCTb Ha OCHOBe aKpH.Jioeoro MOHOMepa. Ee npHMeHSIIOT ,ll,JISI 3aKpb THSI nop H 3alliHTblOT Kopp03HH nopOllIKOBb X H3,ll,eJIHH; OHa n03BOJISieT 3anoJIHSITb nopbl pa3MepOM ,ll,O 0,3 MM 3a O,ll,HH QHKJI H ,ll,O 0,5 MM 3a ,ll,Ba QHKJia. IlponHTKY Be,ll,yr B BaKY)'Me, 3areM H3,ll,eJIHSI npOMhIBaIOT B XOJIO,ll,HOH BO,ll,e ,ll,JISI Y.LJ.aJieHHSI H36b TKa

·repMeTHKa c HX noeepXHOCTH H npOBO,ll,SIT OTBep)l(,ll,eHHe repMeTHKa B BO,ll,e npH 92 ± 2 ·c (aHa3po6HaSI )l{H,ll,KOCTb noJIHMepH3yeTCSI B nopax

H3,ll,eJIHSI). Atta3po6Hhle repMeTHKH B noJIHMepH30BaHHOM COCTOSIHHH xapaKTepH3YIOTC BbICOKOH XHMHqecKOH CTOHKOCTblO K arpecCHBHblM cpe,ll,aM. 3anoJIHettHe HMM nop cymecTBeHHo ynyqmaeT HeKoTOpb1e MexaH}fqeCKHe CBOHCTBa nopOllIKOBb X H3,ll,eJIHH H noBbllliaeT q}fCTOTY o6pa60TKH HX noeepxHOCTH.

 

MexaHM'lecKafl o6pa6oTKa

 

0.LJ.HO H3 Ba)l(Hb X npeHMYllieCTB nopOllIKOBOH MeTaJIJIYPrHH - no­ JiyqeHHe H3,ll,eJIHH, He Tpe6yIOlliHX ,ll,OnOJIHHTeJibHOH MexaHHqecKOH o6pa6oTKH. 0.LJ.HaKo B pSl,ll,e cnyqaee uenecoo6pa3HO H3fOTOBJISITh H3 nopOllIKa 3afOTOBKH cpaBHHTeJibHO npoCTOH <f>opMhl, noJiyqeHHe KO­ TOpb X He Tpe6yeT npHMeHeHHSI CJIO)l(HOH H ,ll,OporoH. OCHaCTKH ,ll,JISI

<f>opMoeaHHSI, a nocne,ll,y10mee ycJio)l(HeHHe HX <f>opMhI11 noeb1meH11e


ToqHoCTH pa3Mepoe 06ecneq1rnaTh nocne cneKaHHSI Kan116poeaH11eM 11 o6pa60TKOH pe3aHHeM.

KMu6poBaHue. 3ToT BH.LJ. o6pa6oTKH npe,ll,CTaBJISieT co6oH. ceoeo6-

pa3Hoe .LJ.OnpeccoebIBaHHe cneqeHHh X 3aroTOBOK. Ilp11 ero npoee,ll,e­ HHH npoHCXO,ll,HT nnacT11qecKaS1 ,ll,e<f>opMaQHSI noeepXHOCTHbIX CJIOeB o6pa6aTbIBaeMOH 3afOTOBKH, KOTOpaSI np1106peTaeT Tpe6yeMbie pa3- Mepbl c TOqHOCTbIO He X}')Ke 6-7-ro KBaJIHTeTOB H 7-ro KJiacca mepo­ XOBaTOCTH.IlpHnyCK Ha KaJIH6poBaHHe He MmKeT 6bITb OOJibllIHM (o6blq­ HO 0,5-2 % OT KaJIH6pyeMoro pa3Mepa), np11qeM Hapb e H BHyr­ peHHHe noeepXHOCTH ,ll,eTaneH. CJie,ll,yeT KaJIH6poBaTb c pa3HbIMH npH­ nycKaMH: Hapble - no B03MO)l(HOCTH c 60JihllIHMH, a BHyrpeH­ HHe - no B03MO)l(HOCTH c MeHhllIHMH. Kan116poeaH11e npoBOMT KaK e npecc-<f>opMax, e KOTOph X ocymecTBJISIJIH npeccoeaHHe, TaK 11 B cneQHaJihHh X Kan116poeoqHhIX npecc-<f>opMax, qTO npe,ll,noqTHTeJih­ Hee. KanH6pyeMoe H3.LJ.eJIHe n1160 3anpeccoeb1Ba10T B npecc-<f>opMy 11 C)l(HMaIOT pa,ll,HaJihHO (noJimKHTeJihHOe KaJIH6poeaHHe, KOr,ll,a ceqe­ HHe cneqeHHoro H3.LJ.eJIHSI 6oJibllie Tpe6yeMoro no qepTe)l(y), JIH6o CB060,ll,HO noMernaIOT B npecc-<f>opMe H C)l(HMaIOT B,ll,OJlb npO,ll,OJihHOH OCH (OTpHQaTeJibHOe KaJIH6poeaHHe, KOf,ll,a ceqeHHe cneqeHHOfO H3-

,ll,eJIHSI MeHbllie Tpe6yeMoro no qepTexy). 06blqHo KaJIH6poeaHHe npo­ BOMT no Bh COTe H nonepeqHoMy (HapOMY HJIH BHyrpeHHeMy) pa3Mepy pa3,ll,eJibHO HJIH COBMeCTHO.

Ilp11 pa3.LJ.eJihHOM npouecce BHaqane npH npoxo)l(,ll,eHHH JaroTOBKH qepe3 MaTpHUY npecc-<f>opMblKaJIH6pyeTCSI BHellIHSISI noeepXHOCTh, a 3aTeM npH npoxo)l(,ll,eHHH nyaHCOHa qepe3 OTBepCTHe B 3aroTOBKe - BHyrpeHHSISI noeepXHOCTb (pHC. 278). TaKHM o6pa30M, 3aroTOBKY CHa­ qana no,ll,BepraIOT C)l(aTHIO (npH KaJIH6poeaHHH Haporo ,ll,HaMeT­ pa), a 3aTeM paCTSJ)l(eHHIO (npH KaJIH6poeaHHH BHyrpeHHero ,ll,HaMeT­

pa). B no3HUHH I npoHCXO.LJ.HT BhITaJIKHBaHHe npoKaJIH6poeaHHOH .LJ.e­

TaJIH, ee Y.LJ.aJieH He c Topua npecc-<f>opMhIH 3arpy3Ka HoeoH. JaroTOe­ KH; e no3HUHH II npo11cxo.LJ.HT KaJIH6poeaHHe HapoH. noeepxHoc­ TH; B no3HQHH Ill -COOTBeTCTBeHHO BHyrpeHHeH noeepXHOCTH 3aro­

TOBKH; e noJHQHH IV - Bh XO.LJ. KaJIH6py10mero nyaHcoHa H ycTaHoe­ Ka ero e KpaHHee eepxHee noJio)l(eHHe. -

IlpH COBMeCTHOM (KOM6HHHPOBaHHOM) KaJIH6poBaHHH npOHCXO­

,ll,HT O,ll,HOBpeMeHHOe 06)1(aTHe Hap}')KHOH noeepXHOCTH 3aroTOBKH, npOXO,ll,SlllieH qepe3 MaTpHUY npecc-<f>opMbl , H BHyTpeHHeH, Haxo­

,ll,SlllieHCSI B KOHTaKTe c KaJIH6pyIOlliHM hyaHCOHOM (pHC. 279). B TaKOH

npecc-<f>opMe H}f)l(HHH nyaHCOH 7 - nnaea10m11H.; eepxHHH nyaHCOH 5, yKpenneHHb H B nyaHCOHO,ll,ep)l(aTeJie 6, npOTaJIKHBaeT qepe3 MaT­ PHUY 8 KaJIH6pyeMyIO 3afOTOBKY 3, KOTopaSI ycTaHaBJIHBaeT H QeHT-


PHc. 278. CxeMa KaJIH6poeaHHH c BbITaJIKHBaHHeM .ueTa.JIB eeepx: I -BbITaJIKHBaHHe

.UCTan:H; II, III -KaJIH6poeaHHe ttapHOH H BHYfPCHHeH noeepXHOCTH .ueran:H; IV -

Bb!XO.U Bepxttero nyaHCOHa; /, 2 - nyaHCOHbI ; 3 - KaJIH6pyeMaH .UCTaJib; 4 -

BbITaJIKHB3TeJJb; 5 - M3TpHUa

 

 

pupyeT Ha onopHoif TUIHTKe 2 HIDKHHH nyaHCOH 7. Bh Ta.JIKHBaHue OTKa.JIH6poBaHHOH JJ,eTa.JIH 3 ocymecTBJU eTCSI CJieJJ,yIOIUeH 3aroTOBKOH

4, JanpeCCOBbIBaeMOH B MaTpHUY 8 eepxHHM nyaHCOHOM 5 H yJJ,ep)l(H­ BaIOIUeH TUiaea10muif HH)KHHH nyaHcoH 7. Opu nepeMeIUeHHH onop­ HOH nJIHTKH 2 B cropoHy roToBaSI JJ,eTan:b 3 onycKaeTcSI Ha noJJ,CTaBKY I , H npu ycrnHOBKe onopHoif nJIHTKH 2 B nepeoHatJan:bHoe noJio)l(e­ HHe JJ,eTa.Jib 3 Bb Ta.JIKHBaeTCSI H3 MaTpHI.(bl 8. ,LI,m1 o6JieNeHHSI nepe­

)1,Bff)l(eHHSI onopHOH fUIHTKH 2 MaTpHI.(a 8 nocJie CHSITHSI Ka.JIH6pyIO­

IUero JJ,aBJieHHSI c noMOIUbIO pe3HHoeoro aMopTHJaTopa noJJ,HHMaeTcSI Ha 1-2 MM BBepx.

B JII06oM cJiyqae y Kan:u6py10metf npecc-<f>opMbI JaxoJJ,HaSI tJaCTb MaTpHUhIJJ.OJI)l(Ha fibITh KoHycHotf (1,5-2°). Opu Kan:u6poeaHHH BTY­

JIOK c HapblM 6ypTOM TaKOH KOHYC B MaTpHI.(e He MO)l(eT 6bITb BbinOJIHeH (npu ero Ha.JIHlJHH yqacTOK UHJIHHJJ.PHtJeCKOH tJaCTH BTYJI-


 

PHc. 279. CxeMa o.uttoepeMettttoro KaJJH6poeaHHH ttapyi1rnow H BHYTPCHHeH noeepXHOcrH .UCTaJIH: a - JarpyJKa; 6 - KaJJH6poeaHHe; 8 - CTaJIKHB3HHC .UCTaJIH;

i! - Y.UaJICHHC nJJHTKH

 

 

KH, npHMb KaIOIUeH K 6ypTHKY, He 6yJJ,eT OTKa.JIH6poeaH). IT03TOMY

npHMeHSIIOT npecc-<f>opMbl co C'beMHb MH 3aXO)J,HblMH KOHycaMH, KO­

ropble YJJ.a.JISIIOT nocJie BXOJJ.a HatJa.JibHOH l.(HJIHHJJ.PHtJecKofl qacTH BTYJI­ KH e MaTpHUY (puc. 280). Kan:u6pyeMaSI BTYJIKa 6 noJJ,BOJJ.HTCSI K MaTpH­

ue 3 aepXHHM nyaHCOHOM 7 c noMOIUbIO C'beMHOH 3aXOJJ,HOH lJaCTH 4,

COCTOSIIUeH H3 TpeX KJIHHbeB, yKpenJieHHb X B o6of1Me 5. flocJie OTBO­ JJ,a KJIHHbeB BTYJIKa 6 npoTan:KuaaeTCSI a MaTpHUY 3 H Kan:u6pyeTcSI no HapoMy JJ,HaMeTpy (puc. 280, a, 6). 3aTeM noJJ,aeTCSI onpaaKa 9,

KOTOpaSI, npoHJJ,SI qepe3 OTBepCTHe BTYJIKH, Ka.JIH6pyeT ee BHYTpeH­ HIOIO noaepXHOCTb (puc. 280, 6, z). 0rKa.JIH6poaaHHYIO BTYJIKY 6 Bbl­ Ta.JIKHBaIOT aaepx npu yJJ,an:eHHOH noJJ,cTaBKe I cMemeHHeM MaTpHUhI BHH3 eepxHHM KOJibUOM 8, npu 3TOM BTYJIKa 6 onupaeTCSI Ha HIDKHHH

 

PHc. 280. CxeMa KaJIH6poeaHHH BTYJJKH c ttapHb M 6ypTOM B npecc-Q>opMe co CbCMHblM JaXO,UHblM KOHYCOM: a -HCXO.UHOC fiOJIOJKCHHe; 6 -KaJIH6poBaHHC HapyJKHOH

noeepXHOCTH c y.uan:eHHCM 33XO.UHOH '13CTH M3TpHUb ; 8, i! -KaJJH6poBaHHC BHYTPCHHCH

noeepXHOCTH; a, e - BbITaJIKHBaHHe .UCTaJIH

31 3


nyaHCOH-B'fYJIKY 2. MaTpwua 3 BhinOJIHeHa pa3pe3HOH c yrnoM HaKJio­ Ha o6pa3yJOmei1 KOHyca no Hap)')KHOH noeepxHOCTH .uo 15°, 'ITO ynyq­

waeT 06)1(aTHe B'fYJIKH no Hap)')KHOH noeepXHOCTH H o6JiefllaeT H3- BJie'leHHe ee H3 npecc-cpopMhI.

.[l.JUInOBhlWeHHH npOH3BO)J,HTeJihHOCTH npw KaJIH6poBaHHH qacTO HCnOJih3YIOT MHOrortte3p;Hhle npecc-cpopMhl.

Pe3aHue. 0.UHHM H3 ycJIOBHH npHMeHeHHH o6pa6oTKH nopowKo­

BhIX 3afOTOBOK pe3aHHeM HBJIHeTCH Tpe6oBaHHe o6ecne'leHHH TO'IHOC­ TH pa3MepoB H3)leJIHH no 7-8-My KBaJIHTezy H wepoXOBaTOCTH no­ BepXHOCTH ::; 40 MKM. Ee HCnOJih3YIOT .llJIH H3fOTOBJieHHH )leTaJieH HeUHJIHH,llpH'leCKOH HJIH KaKOH-JIH6o yCJIO)J(HeHHOH reoMeTpH'leCKOH

cpopMhl c Bh TO'-IKaMH, KaHaJiaMH, OTBepCTHHMH (B TOM 'IHCJie pacnonaraJOIUHMHCH nepneH.UHKYJIHpHo HJIH no.a yrnoM K ocw. npec­ coeaHHH), pe3h60H H T.)l. 06pa60TJ<Y npOBO)lHT Ha TOKapHh X, cppe- 3epHh X, CBepJIHJlhHh X H .upyrwx MeTaJIJI006pa6aThIBalOIUHX CTaHKax. JJJ060H BH,ll MexaHH'leCKOH o6pa60TKH nopOWKOBh X MaTepHaJIOB npH­ BO)lHT K HX ynpyroii H nJiaCTH'leCKOH .uecpopMaUHH, conpOBO)l(,llaeTCH

TpeHHeM H TenJIOBhlMH HBJieHHHMH, ynJIOTHeHHeM HJIH pa3ph XJieHH­ eM noBepXHOCTHOro CJIOH.

To'IHOCTh H 'IHCToTa MexaHH'leCKOH o6pa6oTKH nopowKoBoro Ma­ rnpwana 3aBHCHT OT ero nopHCTOCTH, XHMH'leCKOfO COCTaBa, npO'IHO­ CTH, TBep,llOCTH H CTpYJCTYPhl. l-fa-3a HH3KOH nJiaCTH'IHOCTH nopOWKO­

BhIX MaTepHaJIOB CTp)')KKa, o6pa3yJOmaHCH B pe3yJihTaTe pe3aHHH, npH OTphIBe OT OCHOBHOH MaCChlo6pa6aThIBaeMOH 3aroTOBKH .upo6HTCH Ha He6oJihWHe KYCO'IKH, noxo)l(He Ha CTp)')KJ<Y Ha.llJIOMa. Hanwqwe B no­ pornKOBOM MaTepHane nop CHJihHO 3aTpy)lHHeT ero o6pa60TKY pe3a­ HHeM, CHH)l(aeT CTOHKOCTh HHCTpyMeHTa, xorn B 3TOM cnyqae YCHJIHH pe3amrn ecer.ua MeHhWe, 'leM np11 o6pa6oTKe Jil1ThIX MeTaJIJIOB 11 cnna­ BOB. 3aTpy)lHeHHaH o6pa60TKa nopOWKOBhlX MaTep11aJIOB CBH3aHa c HecTa611JihHOCThlO pe3aHl1H 113-3a HaJIH'l11H nop, HapywaJOIU11X cnJIOW­ HOCTh MaTep11ana, nOHl1)1(eHHOH TennonpOBO)lHOCThlO (B 30He pe3a­ Hl1H B03pacTaeT TeMnepazypa) H nOBhIWeHHOH CKJIOHHOCThlO nop11c­ ThIX TeJI K OKl1CJieH1110, ee.uymeMy K a6pa3HBHOMY 113HOCY HHCTpy­ MeI-tTa. B CBH311 c 3Tl1M onhIT 06pa60TK11 KOMnaKTHhIX (JI11ThIX) MeTan­

JIOB 11 cnJiaBOB HeJih3H aBTOMaT111.JeCKH nepeHOCl1Th Ha o6pa60TKY no­ pl1CThIX nopOWKOBhIX MaTepl1aJIOB (np11 HCXO)lHOH nop11CTOCTl1 no­ PH.UKa HeCKOJihKl1X npou,eHTOB 3To B03MO)l(HO).

06pa60TKY pe3aH11eM nopOWKOBhIX MaTep11aJIOB o6hi'-IHO ueneco­ o6pa3HO npOBO)ll1Th TBep.uocnJiaBHhIM 11HCTpyMeHTOM, TaK KaK ­ Ma3HaH o6pa6oTKa cymecrneHHo y.uopo)l(aeT nony'-laeMhie 113.UeJIHH, a 11HCTpyMeHT 113 6hICTpope)l(ymel1 CTaJil1 BO MHOfHX CJiy'-laHX 11MeeT


Hl13J<YIO CTOHKOCTh.

IlpH o6pa60TKe nopHCTh X nopOWKOBh X MaTep11aJIOB HeJih3H npH­ MeHHTh 06hl'IHh e OXJia)l()lalOIUHe H CMa30'IHO-OXJia)l()lalOIUHe )l(H)lKO­ CTH (CO)I() Ha BO.llHOH OCHOBe, a TaK)l(e )l(H)lKOCTl1, co.uep)l(am11e meJIO'lh HJIH KHCJIOThl, TaK KaK 11X nona.uaHHe B nophlH3)leJIHH Bh 3hl­ BaeT Koppo3HJO KaK npw xpaHeHHH, TaK w npw nocne.uyJOmeH: 3Kcn­ nyarnuww. .[lJIH oXJia)l()leHIDI nopornKOBh X 113.uenwH: np11 HX o6pa6oTKe pe3aHHeM npHMeHHIOT MacJia, 3MYJihCHH HJIH HHepTHh e ra3hl.

IlponHTKa nopoWKOBhIX H3.UeJIHH MacnoM np11 nocne.uyJOmeH: o6- pa6oTKe pe3aHHeM CHH)l(aeT wepOXOBaTOCTh l1X noeepXHOCTH, B 1,3-1,5 pa3a yMeHhWaeT ycHJIHe pe3aHIDI H Il03BOJIHeT B 2,5-4 pa3a nOBh CHTh ypoeetth .uonycTHMh X cKopocTeif pe3aHHH. M11KpOCTpYJCTYpa nopow­ KOBh X nopHCTb X MaTepHaJIOB cymeCTBeHHO BJIHHeT Ha HX o6pa6aTbl­ BaeMOCTb (HanpHMep, )l(eJie3orpacpHTOBh e MaTepHaJibl c cpeppMTHOH

CTpYKTYPOH o6pa6aTbIBalOTCH nyqwe, 'leM c cpeppHTOnepJIHTHOH HJIH nepJIHTHOH). c nOBb WeHHeM nopHCTOCTH nopOWKOBb X 113,lleJIHH OT 15

.uo 30 % IlOBb WaeTCH wepoxoBaTOCTb HX noBepXHOCTH, HO CHH)l(aeTCH ycHJIHe pe3aHHH B 1,6-1,7 pa3a.

IlpH o6pa6oTKe pe3aHHeM CTpYKTYPa H CBOHCTBa noeepXHOCTHh X CJIOeB nopOWKOBOH .ueTaJIH H3MeHHIOTCH. lpaBHJihHO Bb 6paHHh H pe­

)l(J1M pe3aHIDI no3BOJIHeT o6ecne'IHTh Ha noeepXHOCTH o6pa6aTh BaeMoro 113,lleJIHH Tpe6yeMb e nopHCTOCTh, CTeneHb HaKJiena H ypoBeHb OCTa­ TO'IHb X HanpH)l(eHHH, a TaK)l(e HCKJIIO'IHTb IlOHBJieHHe Ml1KpOTpelUHH H npH)l(OfOB, npe.uornpaTHTb OTCJiaHBaHHe MaTepwana.

TotteHue. Bb16op HHCTpyMeHTaJihHoro MaTep11ana .llJIH TO'leHHH no­

pornKOBh X 113,lleJIHH onpe.ueJIHeTCH 3KOHOMH'leCKOH 3ct>ct>eKTHBHOCThlO, CTOHKOCTblO H npOH3BO.llHTeJibHOCTblO: nopHCTbie MaTepHaJihl Ha oc­ HOBe )l(eJie3a HJIH Me.UH (6poH3hl) uenecoo6pa3HO o6pa6aTbIBaTb rnep­

.llhIMH cnJiaBaM11 rpynnhIBK. .[lJIH MaTep11anoB c noBh WeHHOH nop11- CTOCTh10 MO)l(HO HCnOJib30BaTb MHHepanoKepaMHJ<Y, a B cnyqae MaTe­ pMaJIOB BbICOKOH TBep,llOCTH peKOMeH,llyeTCH npHMeHHTb CBepxrnep­

)lble HHCTpyMeHTaJihHb e MaTep11aJibl.

CKopocTh pe3aHHH 3ae11c11T OT cocrnea nopowKoBoro MaTep11ana 11 nrna HHCTpyMeHTaJihHoro MaTepwana - B cnyqae pe3UOB 113 rnep.uoro cnJiaBa OHa COCTaBJIHeT 50-200 M/MHH. HH3KHe CKOpOCTH pe3aHHH

(.uo 60 M/MHH) He peKOMeH)lylOTCH .llJIH o6pa60TKl1 nopHCTbIX 113.lle­

JIHH Ha OCHOBe )l(eJie3a H3-3a 6oJibWOH wepoxoBaTOCTH nonyqaeMOH noeepXHOCTl1. IlpH CKOpOCTH pe3aHHH > 80 M/MHH wepoxoBaTOCTb

noeepXHOCTH CHJibHO CHH)l(aeTCH, OTCYTCTByeT HapOCT006pa30BaHHe. CTOHKOCTh pe3UOB TeM Bh We, 'leM Hl1)1(e cKopocTh pe3aHHH.

.[lJIH noJiy'leHl1H noBepXHOCTeH c MaJIOH BbICOTOH Ml1KpOHepOB-

 

31 5


HOCTe:H nopoIIIKOBhie )J,eTaJIH o6pa6aThIBaIOT c no)J,aqe:H 0, 1-0, 12 MM/06 (qeM 60Jibllle nopHCTOCTh, TeM MeHbllle no)J,aqa; HanpHMep, npH nopHCTOCTH > 25 % peKoMeH)J,yeTCH no)J,aqa

0,035 MM/06, a npH nopHCTOCTH < 24 % - 0,07 MM/06). OmHMaJih­

HaH rny6HHa peJaHHH COCTaBJIHeT npH o6pa60TKe nopOIIIKOBh X )J,eTa­ Jie:H 0,2-0,3 MM.

feoMeTpHqecKHe napaMeTpbl pe3UOB JaBHCHT OT COCTaBa o6pa6a­ TbIBaeMoro MarepHana H pe.xrnMa pe3aHHH. KpHrepHeM HX HJHoca cny­

.xrnT H3HOC no 3a)J,He:H noeepXHOCTH peJua, KOTOpb H He )J,OJI)((eH npe­ BhllliaTh 0,5 MM. IlpH 60JibllleM H3HOCe pe3ua npOHCXO)J,HT JaMa3bIBa­

HHe nop, yruIOTHeHHe o6pa6aTbIBaeMOH noeepXHOCTH, nOBblllleHHe ee IIIepoxoeaTOCTH H CHH)((eHHe H3HOCOCTOHKOCTH.

CaepAenue u pa3aepm 1J1aanue omaepcmuu. )lJIH 3THX BH)J,OB peJaHHH

nopOlllKOBbIX )J,eTane:H npHMeHHIOT ceepJia H pa3eepTKH H3 6blCTpope­ xyme:H CTaJIH HJIH OCHameHHh e nJiaCTHHKaMH H3 TBep)J,b X CnJiaBOB rpynnhl BK. B KaqecTBe KpHrepHH HJHoca npHHHT HJHoc no Ja)J,He:H

noeepXHOCTH pexymero HHCTpyMeHTa B 0,3 MM (ceepJia) H 0,2-0,3 MM

(pa3BepTKH).

IlpH ceepJieHHH nopoIIIKOBb X )((eJie3orpaQ>HTOBh X MaTepHaJIOB nopHCTOCTbIO > 10 % ueJiecoo6pa3HO npHMeHHTh 6b CTpope3, a c no­ pHCTOCThIO < 5 % - TBep)J,b H CnJiaB. feoMeTpHqecKHe napaMeTpbl

ceepJI H CTpYKTYPa o6pa6aTbIBaeMblX nopoIIIKOBh X MaTepHaJIOB oKa- 3bIBaIOT Ha CTOHKOCTh ceepJI 60J1ee pe3Koe BJIHHHHe, qeM Ha cm:H­ KOCTh peJuoe. Heo6xo)J,HMO noMHHTh 06 yrmoTHeHHH noeepxHOCTHOro CJIOH nopOlllKOBOH )J,eTaJIH npH ceepJieHHH.

PaJeepThIBaHHe oTBepcTHH B nopoIIIKOBh X )J,eTaJIHX nocJie HX ceep­ JieHHH npHMeHHIOT c ueJiblO HcnpaBJieHHH Q>opMhl, noJiyqeHHH BhlCO­ KHX 'IHCTOThInoeepxHOCTH H TOqHoCTH paJMepoe. PaJeepTKH HJ 6blc­

Tpopexyme:H CTaJIH HMeIOT He)J,OCTaTO'I HYJO CTOHKOCTh, oco6eHHO npH CKOPOCTHX > 30-40 M/MHH, no3TOMY 60J1ee npe)J,nO'ITHTeJlhHhl TBep­

)J,OCnJiaBHhie pa3BepTKH.IlpH pa3eepTb1BaHHH OTBepCTHH Heo6XO)J,HMO npuMeHHTh CO)I(.

IIIAurjJoaanue.IlpH 3TOM BH)J,e MexaHH'IeCKo:H o6pa6oTKH noeepx­

HOCTHh H CJIOH nopoIIIKoeo:H )J,eTanH yrnoTHHeTcH, 'ITO cymecTBeHHO HJMeHHeT ero ceo:HcTBa, oco6eHHo noBhIIIIaH HJHococToHKOCTh. Ha yrnoTHeHue noeepXHOCTHOro CJIOH cymecTBeHHO BJIHHeT nopHCTOCTh: 'IeM oHa Bh llle, reM 60Jihllle ynJIOTHeHHe.

HJMeHHH pe)((HM lllJIHQ>oeaHHH, MO)((HO pery rnpoeaTh ceotfcTea

noeepxHOCTHoro CJIOH nopoIIIKOBhlX )J,eTane:H. TaK, yeeJIH'IeHHe rny- 6HHhIlllJIHQ>oeaHHH c 0,01 )J,O 0,1 MM npHBO)J,HT K pocry MHKpoHan­ pH)((eHHH Ha 15-30 %. 0)1,HOBpeMeHHoe yeeJIH'IeHue no)J,a'IH u yMeHh-

31 6


IIIeHHe CKOpOCTH CTOJia CTaHKa npu nJIOCKOM lllJIHQ>oeaHHH KpyraMH H3 Kap6H)J,a KpeMHHH HJIH 3JieKTpOKOpyH)J,a npHBO)J,HT K CHH)((eHHIO MHKpOTBep)J,OCTH B TOHKHX noeepXHOCTHb X CJIOHX nopoIIIKOBh X HJ)J,e­

JIHH.

Bh COKYIO cTeneHh yrnoTHeHHH IIIJIHQ>yeMoH noeepxHoCTH npu ucnoJihJOBaHHH KopyH)J.oBh X Kpyroe )J,aeT cJie)J,yIOIUHH pe.xrnM: none­

pe'IHaH no)J,aqa 0,3-0,6 MM/XO)],, CKOpOCTh XO)J,a CTOJia 13-15 M/MHH,

rny6HHa lllJIHQ>oeaHHH 0,05-0, 1 MM. EcJIH yrnoTHeHue noeepxHoCTH nopoIIIKOBOH )J,eTaJIH He)((eJiaTeJihHO HJIH He Tpe6yeTCH, TO nonepeq­ HaH no)J,a'Ia )J,OJI)((Ha COCTaBJIHTh 1,7-3 MM/XO)],, CKOpOCTb XO)J,a CTOJia

- 6-12 M/MHH, a rny6HHa lllJIHQ>oeaHHH - 0,01-0,03 MM.

 

KonmpoilbHlJle aonpoclJI

1.IlepeqHCJIHTe BH)J,hlo6pa60TKH nopOIIIKOBh X HJ)J,eJIHH (MaTepH-

aJIOB).

2. )l.a:HTe xapaKrepHCTHKY repMH'IeCKOH " XHMHKO-TepMH'I eCKOH

o6pa6oTKe nopoIIIKOBhlX MaTepHaJIOB.

3. PaccKa.xrnre o Jamure nopoIIIKOBh X MarepHaJIOB OT Koppo3HH.

4. B qeM JaKJI10qaeTCH KaJIH6poeaHHe nopoIIIKOBh X HJ)J,eJiu:H?

5. PaccKa.xrnTe 06 o6pa6oTKe nopoIIIKOBh X HJ)J,eJIHH (MaTepuanoe) peJaHHeM.

 

PeK0Menoame.t1bHlJIU 6u6Auozpa</JuttecKuu cnucoK

1. PoMaH 0. B., Fa6pue.t10B H. ll. Cnpaso'IHHK no nopoIIIKOBOH MeTaJI­ JiypruH: nopOIIIKH, MarepHaJihl, npouecchI. - MHHCK: oeJiapych,

1988. - 175 c. (c. 107 - 120).

2. EpMaKoB C.C., BR3HUKOB H.<P. IlopoIIIKOBhle CTaJIH H HJ)J,eJIHH. -JI.:

MaIIIHHOCTpOeHHe. JleHHHfPa)J,CKoe OT)J,eJieHHe, 1990. - 319 c.

(c. 216 - 310).

3. ,D,opo</Jeea JO.I'., MapuneHKO JI.I'., YcmUMeHKO B.H. KottcTpyKUHOH­ Hh e nopollIKOBh e Marepuanbl H HJ)J,eJIHH. - M.: MeTanJiyprHH, 1986.

- 144 c. (c. 60 - 88).


6M6nMorpa<l>M'leCKMM cnMCOK

 

. AKTya.TibHbie npo6JieMbl nopOWKOBOH MeTa.TIJiypmH/ no)l pe)l.

O.B. PoM aHa, B.C. ApyH'IOAOM a. - M.: MeTa.TIJiypmH, 1990. - 232 c.

AHopue6CICUU P.A. nopOWKOBOe MaTep.Ha.TIOBe)leHHe. - M.: MeTa.TI­ JiyprJijl, 1991. - 205 c.

EM bUJUH M./O. Hayqtthie octtoBhInopornKoBoH MeTa.TIJiypm 11 11 Me­ TaJIJiyprn11 BOJIOKHa. - M.: MeTa.TIJiyprnH, 1972. - 336 c.

EaAbUJU H M./O., Kunapuco6 C.C. OcttOBhInopornKoBOH MeTa.TIJiyp­ rnH. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprnH, 1978. - 184 c.

Bunozpaoon I'.A., KamawuncKuii B.ll. TeopHH JIHCTOBOH npoKaTKH MeTaJIJIMqecKHX nopornKoB H rpattyJI. - M.: MeTa.TIJiyprnH, 1979. - 224 c.

I'ezy3un fl.E. <l>H3HKa cneKaHMH. - 2-e H3)l., nepepa6. 11)lon. - M_-: HayKa, 1984. - 312 c.

JI.o6ponoAbCKuii A.I'. IIIJIHKepttoe JIHTbe. - M.: MeTa.TIJiyprnH, 1977.

- 240 c.

EpMaKon C.C., BR3HU K08 H.<1>. IlopornKoBhie CTa.TIH H H3)leJIJijl. - 4-e H3)l., nepepa6. M )lon. - JI.: Marn11ttocTpoettHe. Jlett.Httrp. OT)l-HHe, 1990. - 319 c.

)[(iJaHonu11 F.M. Teopm1npeccoBaHJijl MeTaJIJIHqeCKMX nopornKoB. - M.: MeTa.TIJiyprnH, 1969. - 264 c.

3Ao6un r.n. <l>opMOBaH.He 113)1,eJIHH H3 nopornKOB TBep)lblX CnJiaBOB.

- M.: MeTa.TIJiyprnJI, 1980. - 224 c.

Hnencen B.A. <l>ettoMettoJiornJI cneKaHHJI 11 tteK0Topb1e Bonpocb1 Teop1111. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprnJI, 1985. - 247 c.

KM uH11en 3.JJ., KMU H'le6a 3.H., CaKonu,ena M E. 06opy,lloBaHHe;:urn JIMThJI nJiaCTMacc no)l )laBJiettHeM. - M.: MarnHHOCTpoett.He, 1985. - 254 c. .

Kunapucon C.C., llaoM Ko 0.B. 06opy)loBattHe npe)lnpHJITHH no­ pornKOBOH MeTaJIJiyprnH. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprnJI, 1988. - 448 c.

KAR111Co Jl.H., YM aHcKuii A.M., Eo6pon B.H. 06opy)loBattHe H octtac­ TKa JlJIJI <f>opMOBaHMJI nopornKOBhIX MaTepHaJIOB. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprJijl, 1986. - 336 c.

Kpunonoc F.A., 3nepe6 A.JI.., MaKcuMon JI.JO. Ilpouecch1 H o6opy,llo­ BaHHe JlJIJI ra3ocrnT11qecKoi1 o6pa6oTKH. M.: MeTaJIJiyprnJI, 1994. - 301 c.

Kpynun A.B., CoA06be8 B.fl., llonon F.C., Kpacmen M.P. 06pa6oTKa MeTaJIJIOB B3phIBOM. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprnJI, 1991. - 496 c.

JloJ1Ce11nu1Co6 E.E. OpoKaTKa B nopornKOBOH MeTaJIJiyprnH. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprnJI, 1987. - 184 c.


llonUAbCKuii P.H., llu6U HCKuii /O.E. OpeccoBaHHe nopornKoB Kepa­ MHqecKHX Mace. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprnH, 1983. - 176 c.

nopOWKH UBeTHbIX MeTaJIJIOB: CnpaBOlJHHK/ no)l pe)l. C.C.Ha6oii­ 'leHICO. - M.: MeTaJIJiypmH, 1997. - 542 c.

OpouecCbl H30CTaTHlJeCKOfO npeccoBaHHH/ no)l pe)l. fl.JI..J/.J1CeiiM ­ ca. Oep. c attrn. no)l pe)l. H.H. llanupona H fl.JI.. llaxoM o6a - M.: Me­ TaJIJiyprn H, 1990. - 192 C.

Pau11eH KO A.11. OcttoBhInpouecca cneKaHHH nopowKoB nponycKa­ HHeM 3JieKTpHlJecKoro TOKa. - M.: MeTaJIJiyprHH, 1987. - 128 c.

PoM aH O.B., fa6pueAo6 H.n. CnpaBOlJHHK no nopornKOBOH MeTaJI­

JIYPrHH: nopOWKH, MaTepHaJihl, npouecCbl. - MHHCK: 5eJiapycb, 1988.

- 175 c.

Ca6uu,Kuii A. fl. )l(H)l,Ko<f>a3Hoe cneKattHe cHcTeM c B3aHMO)leH­ CTBYIOlUHMH KOMnottettrnMH. - HoBocH6HpcK: HayKa. CH6. OT)l-HHe, 1991. - 184 c.

Ciwpoxoo B.B., CoAOHU H C.M. <l>H3HKo- MeTaJIJiyprnqecKHe octtOBbI cneKaHHH nopornKoB. - M.: MeTaJIJiypmH, 1984. - 159 c.

<l>oMU Ha 0.H., Cy6opo8a C.H., TypeU,ICUU fl.M. nopOWKOBaJI MeTaJI­ JiyprnH: 3ttUHKJione)lHH Me)l(Jlyttapo)lHhIX CTaH)lapTOB. - M.: HOK J.13)1.aTeJibCTBa CTaH,llapTOB, 1999. - 312 c.

lllamOAona H.F., I'op6ynon H.F. JluxmM aH B.H. <l>H3HKO-XHMHlJec­

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