XMMMKO-TepMM'leCK8JI o6pa60TK8



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XMMMKO-TepMM'leCK8JI o6pa60TK8



 

XHMHKO-TepMHqecKa.H o6pa60TKa (XTO) JaKJIJOqaeTCSI B HarpeBe H Bbl,llep)l(Ke MeTa.JIJIOB H CIIJiaBOB rrpH Bb COKOH TeMrrepaTYpe B aK­ THBHb X raJOBh X, )l(H)lKHX HJIH TBep,llb X cpe,llax. Otta o6ecneqHeaeT H3MeHeHHe CBOHCTB IIOBepXHOCTH rropoIIIKOBb X H3,lleJIHH, B TOM qHc­

Jie ee XHMHqecKOfO COCTaBa rrpH .llH<l><l>Y3HOHHOM HaCb IUeHHH qacTH­ Ubl MaTepHaJia-OCHOBbl KaKHM-JIH6o JiernpyIOIUHM 3JieMeHTOM (Ha­ rrpHMep, xeJie3HOH rropOIIIHHKH xpoMOM, KpeMHHeM, MapraHueM H .

,llp.). lpH XTO rropHCTh X HJ,lleJIHH KpoMe rroBb IIIeHHSI TBep,llOCTH HJIH rrpHo6pereHHSI CIIeUHa.JlbHb X CBOHCTB Ha HX IIOBepXHOCTH MOXeT rrpo­ HCXO,llHTb JarreqHBaHHe nop, Hrpaiomee B p.H,lle CJiyqaeB 60JibllIYJO pOJib

,llJISI IIOBbIIIIeHHSI Bcero KOMIIJieKca CBOHCTB rrpH coxpaHeHHH MaCCbl H paJMepoe HJ,lleJIHH. B cJiyqae Bh COKOIIJIOTHh X rropoIIIKOBh X MarepHa­ JIOB MO)l(HO coBMeIUaTb XTO co crreKaHHeM HJIH ttarpeeoM nepe,ll Ka­

KHM-JIH6o BH,llOM fOp.Hqero <i>opM006pa30BaHHSI. fiOCJie HeKOTOpblX BH.llOB XTO rrpoBOMT TepMHqecKYIO o6pa6oTKY, yJiyqIIIa10my10 ceoH:­ CTBa cep,llu,eBHHhI H rroeepxHOCTH HJ,lleJIHSI, a HHOr,lla TO npe,llrne­ crnyeT XTO.

PacnpocTpaHeHHbIMH BH,llaMH XHMHKO-TepMHqeCKOH o6pa6oTKH nopOlllKOBblX MarepHaJIOB .HBJISIIOTCSI u,eMeHTaUHSI, aJOTHpOBaHHe H cyJib<l>H.llHPOBaHHe - HaCbIIUeHHe H3,lleJIHH COOTBeTCTBeHHO yrnepo­

,llOM, aJOTOM HJIH cepoH:. KpoMe 3Toro, B rrpaKTHKe nopornKoeoH: MeTarrJiypfHH HCIIOJlb3YIOT TaK Ha3bIBaeMyIO .llH<l><l>Y3HOHHYIO MeTaJI­ JIH3aUHIO - BBe,lleHHe B COCTaB nopOIIIKOBOfO MaTepHarra xpoMa, aJIIO­

MHHHSI, THTaHa H T.,ll. Hepe,llKO Be.llYT HaCbIIUeHHe cpa3y HeCKOJlbKHMH 3JieMeHTaMH - UHaHHpoeaHHe (C + N), Kap6oxpoMHpoeaHHe (C + Cr), Kap6oxpoMCHJIHUHpoeattHe (C + Cr + Si).

XHMHKO-TepMHqecKa.H o6pa60TKa OCHOBaHa Ha o6orameHHH no­ eepXHOCTH nopOllIHHKH (qaCTHUbI) JiempyIOIUHM 3JieMeHTOM H BKJIIO­ qaeT B ce6SI CJie,llyIOIUHe 3TaIIbI: o6pa30BaHHe BO BHellIHdicpe,lle .llH<l>­

<l>YH.llHPYIOIUero 3JieMeHTa B aKTHBHOM aTOMapHOM COCTOSIHHH; KOH­

TaKT aKTHBHblX aTOMOB c noeepXHOCTblO HaCbIIUaeMoro MaTepHaJia, a,llCOp6UHIO HX H 803HHKHOBeHHe XHMHqecKOH CBSl3H c aTOMaMH o6-

pa6aTbIBaeMoro MaTepHaJia; TBep,llo<t>aJHYIO .llH<l><t>YJHIO OT noeepXHO­ CTH B o6oeM H3,lleJIH.H.

Oco6eHHOCTH CTpoeHHH nopornKOBhIX MaTepHaJIOB cnoco6cTByIOT HHTeHCH<i>HKaUHH .llH<l><l>YJHH. TaK, ecJm B JIHThIX 6ecnopHCTbI X MaTe­ p11anax HaCbIIUaIOIUHH JiernpyIOIUHH 3JieMeHT .llH<l><l>YH.llHpyeT no 3ep­ HaM H MeXJepeHHbIM rpaHHUaM erny6b TOJlbKO OT HX ra6apHTHOH noeepXHOCTH, TO B nopOllIKOBblX 3Ta .llH<l><l>YJHSI ocymecTBJISieTCSI OT


BceU: aICTHBHOH (CYMMapHOH) noBepXHOCTH qaCTHU, qTQ cymecTBeH­ HO yMeHbUiaeT pacCTOHHHe, Ha KOTOpoe ,llOJDKHblnepeMeCTHTbCH aTO­ Mbl)l)IH .UOCTIDKeHHH Tpe6yeMoro peJynhTaTa (pttc. 276). C TeXHonorn­

qecKoU: TOqKH 3peHHH 3TO 03HaqaeT COKpameHHe BpeMeHH Bcero npo­ uecca.IlpH ,llOCTaTOqHo' 6onbllIOH BpeMeHHOH Bbl,llep)l(Ke H OTKpbITOH

nopHCTOCTH XTO, HJHaqanbHO npe,llHaJHaqeHHaH ,u rn noBepxHocT­

HoU: o6pa60TKH, MOXeT npHBeCTH K ofi'heMHOMY HaCblll.l,eHHIO HJ,lle­ nHH nernpyIOll.l,HMH 3neMeHTaMH.

IlOCKOnbKY HaCb ll.l,eHHe noBepXHOCTHOfO CnOH o6pa6aTbIBaeMOf0 Marepttana nernpyIOll\HMH 3neMeHTaMH - npouecc .umt><t>YJHOHHbIH,

.TO ero peJynbTaTbl 6y)lyT JaBHCeTb OT reMneparypbl, CKOpOCTH, ,ll)IH­ TenbHOCTH HarpeBa, ,llHCnepCHOCTH HCXO)lHOfO nopornKa (6onee ,llHC­ nepCHb e nopOllIKH COJ,llaIOT B JafOTOBKe 6onee MenKHe nopbl, qTo o6ecneqHBaeT nOBb UieHHe CKOpOCTH .UH<l><t>YJHH, oco6eHHO B Haqanb­ Hb H nepHO)l HaCb ll.l,eHHH), npHpO,llblnernpyIOmero 3neMeHTa H .up.

fny6HHa .llH<l><l>YJHOHHOfO cnoH B nopOllIKOBb X Marepttanax cyme­ CTBeHHO JaBHCHT eme H OT TaKOH cneuH<t>HqecKOH BenffqHHbl, KaK KPHBHJHa HacblmaeMoU: noBepXHOCTH. Hatt6onbrnaH rny6ttHa HaCb ­ meHHH Ha6nIO,llaeTCH Ha Bb nyKnbIX noBepXHOCTHX, MeHblllaH - Ha IlnOCKHX H oco6eHHO Ha BOfHYTb X.

CTpYKTYPa .UH<t><l>YJHOHHb X cnoeB onpe.uenHeTCH ,llHarpaMMoU: co­ CTOHHHH OCHOBHOfO MeTanna (cnnaBa) H HaCb ll.l,aIOmero 3neMeHTa B npe.uenax OT ttynH .uo MaKCHManbHOH ero KOHUeHTpaUHH. EcnH B )lBOH­ HOH cttcTeMe pacTBopeHHe .utt<l><l>YH.llHpy10mero 3neMeHTa B Mernnne­ ocHoBe He Bb JblBaeT B npouecce Hacb1meHHH <t>aJOBb X npeBpameHHH

(nHHHH J, 3, 4, 6 Ha pHC. 277), TO MHKpOCTpyKrypa cnoH nocne ox-

 

 

a 6

P11c. 276. CxeMa HaCb lUeHIDI JiernpYJOWHM 3JleMeHTOM qacmu (:repeH) 6ecrropHCTbIX

(a) H rropHCTbIX rropowKOBbIX (6) MaTepHaJIOB


na)l(_,lleHHH Mano qeM OTnttqaeTCH OT nepBOHaqanbHOH (HCXO)lHOH:). fny- 6HHY cnoH B 3TOM cnyqae MOXHO npH6nH3HTenbHO YCTaHOBHTb no paJnH'IHOMY TpaBneHHIO qaCTHU (3epeH) HnH 6onee cnoXHblMH peHT­ reHOBCKHMH H 3neKTpOHHO-MHKpOCKOnffqeCKHMH MeTO,llaMH. KoHueH­

TpaUHH .UH<t><l>YH.llHPYIOmero 3neMeHra 6y.ueT nocreneHHo YMeHbUiaTbCH OT noBepXHOCTH K cep.uueBHHe HJ.UenHH. B cnyqae <t>aJOBbIX npeBpame­ HHH npH HaCblll.l,eHHH npoHCXO)lHT nepeCTpOHKa perneTKH O,llHOH <t>aJbl

B perneTKY .upyroU: (HanpHMep, perneTKH a.-<t>aJbIB perneTKY y-<t>aJbI, pttc. 277, a, nHHHH 2). HJMeHeHHe KpHCTannttqecKoro CTpOeHHH Ha­

qffHaeTCH OT noBepXHOCTH HJ,llenHH H H,lleT B rny6b ero no HanpaBne­ HHIO .UH<t><l>YJHH, BCne,llCTBHe qero o6paJyIOTCH JepHa HOBOH <t>aJbl BbITHHYTOH <t>opMb , XOTH nocne oxna)l(_,lleHHH BbITHHYTOCTb JepeH He coxpaHHeTCH H3-Ja o6pa30BaHHH paBHOOCHb X 3epeH nepBHqHoH: <t>aJbl.

IlpH HaCbill.l,eHHH no H30TepMe 5 (pHC. 277' 6) BHaqane H,lleT HaCblll.l,e­

HHe y-<t>aJbI, a JareM nepecTpoU:Ka ee perneTKH B perneTKY a.-<t>aJbI.

Ilocne Oxna)l(_,lleHHH B CTpyKrype ONeTnHBO HafinIO)laIOTCH KpHCTannbI HaCbill.l,eHHH, nOCKOnbKY o6paTHOH nepeKpHCTMnHJaUHH He npOHC­ XO,llHT. Ilo 3THM KpHCTannaM HaCb ll.l,eHHH MO)l(_HO onpe.uenHTb, XOTH H He oqeHb TQqHo, rny6HHY .UH<l><t>YJHOHHOro cnoH.

CocTOHHHe H <t>HJHKO-XHMHqecKaH npttpo.ua Hacb1ma10mttx cpe.u npH XTO oKaJbIBaIOT 6onbrnoe BnHHHHe Ha peJynhTaTbInpouecca. OT HX arperaTHOI'O COCTOHHHH JaBHCHT rny6HHa H CTpoeHHe cnoeB. KpoMe

3TOfO, OHM He )lOn)l(_Hbl6b Tb arpeCCHBHb MH K o6pa6aTbIBaeMb M Ma-

 

 

a

 

 

i-------- 3

 

1----4

 

CoiJep}l(aHue iJu</J</JyHiJupytouiezo JneMeHma

 

 

PHc. 277. JleBbie yrJibl ,ll.HarpaMM COCTOHHHH CHCTeM MeTaJIJI OCHOBbl ­

,ll.H<t><l>YH,!!.HpyK>lUHM 3JieMeHT


repmUiaM H yxy.11.maTb MexaHHqecKHe CBOHCTBa H3)J.eJIHH.

B KaqecTBe pa6oqHx cpe.11. npH XHMHKO-TepMHqecKOH o6pa60TKe npHMemnoT TBep.11.b1e, )l{H)lKHe H ra3006pa3Hbie eemecTea. HaH6oJiee 3Q><i>eKTHBH b MH HBJIHIOTCH ra30Bb e cpe)J.bl, 06ecneqHea10mHe MaKCH­ MaJibHO 6b CTph H no.11.eo.11. HaChI1Ila10mero 3JieMeHTa K noeepXHOCTH. B

)l{H)lKHX cpe.11.ax HaCbIIIleHHe npoHCXO)J.HT BCJie)J.CTBHe JIH6o npHMOfO KOHTaKTa pacnJiaea c noeepxHOCThIO o6pa6aTbIBaeMoro H3)J.eJIHH, JIH6o 3a cqeT ra30B HJIH 3JieMeHTOB B aTOMapHOM BH)J.e, Bbl)J.eJIHIOIIlHXCH B

pe3yJihTare nporeKaIOIIlHX e pacnJiaee peaKUHH HJIH 3JieKTpoJIH3a. Ha­ ChlllleHHe B TBep)J.bIX cpe.11.ax xapaKTepH3yeTCH BeCbMa MaJIOH CKopoc­ TbIO, TaK KaK aKTHBHOCTb TBep)J.b X TeJI HeBeJIHKa, a OCHOBHOe B3aH­ MO)J.eHCTBHe pa3BHBaeTCH TOJlbKO B MeCTaX Henocpe)J.CTBeHHOfO KOH­ TaKTa HaCb IIlaIOmero 3JieMeHTa c o6pa6aTbIBaeMOH noeepXHOCTbIO. qacTo )J.JIH ycKopeHHH npouecca K TBep.11.h M cpe.11.aM .11.06aBJIHIOT aKTH­


e npouecce o6pa6oTKH MH noJiyqeHHH )l{eJiaeMoro co.11.ep)l{aHHH yrne­ po.11.a B Marep11ane.

Ha rny6HHY H ceoHCTBa ueMeHTOBaHHoro CJIOH BJIHHIOT TeMnepa­

TYPa (3aBHCHT OT npHp0.11.hInopomKoeoro MaTepHana H nopHCTOCTH H3)J.eJIHH), THn Kap610p113aropa H xapaKTep JierHpYJOIIlHX 3JieMeHTOB, BX0.11.HlllHX B COCTaB o6pa6aTbIBaeMoro MaTepHaJia (Kap6H)J.006pa3yIO­ lllHe 3JieMeHThI THna xpoMa, THTaHa, eom><t>paMa H .11.p. noeb1ma10T KOHUeHTpaUHIO yrnepo.11.a B noeepXHOCTHOM CJIOe, yMeHblllaH rny6H­ HY ueMeHTOBaHHoro CJIOH). OnTHMaJihHoe coqemHHe MexaHHqecKHX CBOHCTB (BblCOKOH npoqHOCTH H TBep)J.OCTH Ha noeepXHOCTH npH OT­ HOCHTeJibHO Bb COKOH y.11.apHOH BH3KOCTH cep.11.ueBHHbl) B ueMeHTO­

BaHHb X H3)J.eJIHHX o6ecneqHeaeTCH repMHqecKOH o6pa60TKOH - 3a­ KaJIKOH H OTnyCKOM.

qaCTO Ha npaKTHKe Tpe6yeTCH no.11.eeprHyTh ueMeHTaUHH He BCIO


BaTopbI THna NH4Cl, NH4Br, BaC0


H .11.p., c noMOIIlhIO KOTOph X


noeepXHOCTh .11.euum, a ee qacTb. B 3TOM cnyqae HeHayrnepo)l{HBaeMYJO


<l><>PMHpyeTCH aKTHBHaH ra30BaH <t>aJa, npHHHMa10maH yqaCTHe B o6- pa30BaHHH COOTBeTCTBYIOIIl efO HaCb llleHHOfO CJIOH.

IlpH .11.H<t><i>Y3HOHHOM HaCb llleHHH B <t>opMHpy10meMCH CJIOe MO­

)l{eT o6pa30BaTbCH nopHCTOCTb, a o6pa6aTbIBaeMoe H3)J.eJIHe COOTBeT­ CTBeHHO yeeJIHqHTb CBOH JIHHeHHb e pa3Mepbl, qro qacTo Bbl3bIBaeT KOpo6JieHHe. I103TOMY Heo6XO)J.HMO CTpOfO KOHTpOJIHpOBaTb npouecc HaCblllleHHH, o6ecneqHBaH ero paBHOMepHOCTb no BCeH o6pa6aTbIBa­

eMOH noeepxHOCTH. ,L(Jrn npe.11.0TepameHHH Koppo3HH nocJie XTO HJ­

.11.eJIHH TlllaTeJibHO npOMbIBaIOT, a B HeKOTOpb X CJiyqaHX no.11.eepraIOT OT)l{Hry e JalllHTHOH aTMoc<t>epe .11.0 noJIHoro y.11.aneHHH H3 nop ecex OCTaTKOB HaCbllllaIOmeH: cpe)J.bl.

Cpe.11.H MeTo.11.oe XTO nopomKoBh X MaTepHaJIOB (H3.lleJIHH) HaH- 6oJiee pacnpocTpaHeHbI ueMeHTaUHH, aJOTHpoeaHHe, HHTpoueMeH­ TaUHH, cyJih<i>H.11.HPOBaHHe H .11.H<l><l>Y3HOHHaH MeTaJIJIH3aUHH.

/..(eMeHmau,Wl - HaCblllleHHe noeepXHOCTHb X CJIOeB H3)J.eJIHH yrne­

P0.11.0M (HayrnepO)l{HBaHHe). Ee npoeo)J.HT e yrnepo.11.co.11.ep)l{alllHX cpe­

.11.ax (Kap610pH3aropax), KOTOpbie MOryT 6bITb TBep)J.b MH (.11.peeeCHb H yrOJib), ra30BblMH (npHpO)J.HbIH, CBeTHJibHb H H KOHBepTHpOBaHHb H ra3b , 3H)J.O- H 3K30fa3bl H .11.p.) H )l{H,llKHMH (COJIHHb e BaHHbl THna

BaC03 + NaCl c .11.06aBKOH 10-15 % Kap6H)J.a KpeMHHH, Kap6H.11.a

KaJihUHH, KOKca 11 .11.pymx Hayrnepo)l{Hea10m11x eemecTB). HaH6oJiee nporpeccHBHOH HBJIHeTCH raJoeaH ueMeHTaUHH. Hayrnepo)l{Hea10m 11M raJoM <t>aKTHqecKH HBJIHeTCH OKCH.11. yrnepo.11.a CO, KOTOPh H paJJiara­ eTCH c o6pa3oBaHHeM yrneKHCJioro ra3a H aToMapHoro yrnepo.11.a, 06- Jia)J.a10mem BblCOKOH aKTHBHOCTb IO. fie3ycJIOBHb M npeHMYIIleCTBOM ra- 30BOH ueMeHTaUHJiHBJIHeTCH B03MO)l{HOCTb KOHTpOJIH COCTaBa cpe)J.bl


noeepXHOCTb faJibBaHHqeCKH noKpbIBaIOT Me)J.blO HJIH o6Ma3bIBaIOT CMeCblO orHeynopHOH fJIHHbl, ac6ecTa H )l{H)lKOfO CTeKJia.

A3omupo8anue - HaCh IIleHHe noeepxHoCTHhIX cJioeB MaTepHana

(H3)J.eJIHH) a30TOM c ueJibIO noJiyqeHHH Bb COKOH noeepXHOCTHOH TBep­

)J.OCTH, H3HOCOCTOHKOCTH, KOpp03HOHHOH CTOHKOCTH H yCTaJIOCTHOH

npoqHocTH. Ero npoB0.11.HT npH OTHOCHTeJihHO HH3KHX reMnepaTYPax B TeqeHHe ,llJIHTeJibHOfO epeMeHH (.11.ecHTKH qacoe), qTO Bb 3BaHO )J.OCTa­ TOqHo MaJIOH cKopoCThIO .11.H<l><i>YJHH B MeTaJIJiax. 3TOT BH.11. XTO, Ko­

TopoMy no.11.eepra10T nopollIKOBbie H3)J.eJIHH, npome.11.mHe oKOffqaTeJih­ HYJO TepMHqecKyio o6pa60TKY, npOBO)J.HT B )J.HCCOUHHpoeaHHOM aM­

MHaKe co creneHblO )J.HCCOUHaUHH OT 30 )J.O 60 %.

Humpou,eMenrv.au,Wl - HaCh IIleHHe noeepXHOCTHhIX cJioee MaTepH­ ana (H3)J.eJIHH) O)J.HOBpeMeHHO a30TOM H yrnepo)J.OM c noMOIIlblO CMe­ ceH HayrnepO)l{HBaIOIIlHX. H a30THPYIOIIlHX fa30B (HanpHMep, CMeCH

.11.HCCOUHHpoeaHHOro aMMHaKa c 20-30 % np11po.11.Horo ra3a). Pe3yJih­

TaThl 3TOH o6pa60TKH onpe.11.eJIHIOTCH rny6HHOH .11.H<l><l>Y3HOHHOfO CJIOH,

a TaK)l{e KOHUeHTpau11eu B HeM aJom H yrnepo.11.a. Ha cocme H ceou­ cTBa .11.H<l><l>Y3HOHHOfO CJIOH OKa3bIBaIOT BJIHHHHe TeMnepaTYPa HHTpO­

ueMeHTaUHH H CBOHCTBa o6pa6aTbIBaeMOfO MaTepHaJia (nopHCTOCTb nopollIKOBOfO TeJia, rpaHyJIOMeTpHqecKHH COCTaB HCXO)J.HblX nopom­ KOB H T..11..); npH yeeJIHqeHHH nopHCTOCTH MaTepHaJia rny6HHa .11.H<l>­

<l>Y3HOHHOf0 CJIOH nponopu110HaJibHO B03pacmeT, O)J.HaKO KaqecTBo ero yxy.11.maeTCH.IlocJie KoppeKTHO npoee.11.eHHOH HHTpOUeMeHTaUHH noeepXHOCTHb e CJIOH H3)J.eJIHH (MaTepHaJia) np1106peTaIOT noBbillleH­ HYIO TBep.11.ocTb H H3HococroHKOCTh (6bJibllIYJO, qeM y ueMeHTOBaH­ Hh X H3)J.eJIHH) 3a cqeT o6pa30BaHHH Kap60HHTpH)J.OB.


CyAb</moupoBaHue - Hachlrn;eHHe noBepXHOCTHh X cJioeB HJ.Uemm (MaTepHaJia) cepoif c ueJibIO yJiyqIIIeHHH HX npHpa6aThIBaeMoCTH, yMeHbllleHHH K03$$HUHeHTa TpeHHH H IlOBb IIIeHHH conpoTHB­ JIHeMOCTH HJHocy. B HacToHmee epeMH pacnpocTpaHeHbITpH cnoco6a npoee.ueHHH 3TOH o6pa60TKH:

1. IlorpyxeHHe HJ.UeJIHH B pacnJiaBJieHHYIO cepy (TeMnepaTYPa

130-160 °C) Ha 10-20 MHH C IlOCJie,UyIOllJ;HM .UH<l><l>YJHOH HblM OTIKH­

fOM npH 400-750 °C B JallJ;HTHOH cpe.ue.

2. faJoBoe cyJih$H,UHpoeaHHe B TOKe cepoeo.uopo.ua.

3. Hacb1rn;eHHe cepoif B TBep.uhlX JaChmKax HJIH B raJOBh X CMecHx, IlOJI)"IeHHbIX KpeKHHfOM cepHHCTb X coe,UHHeHHH H aMMHaKa (COBMe­ meHHeM cyJih$H,UHpoeaHHH c HHTpOUeMeHTaUHeH HJIH aJOTHPOBaHH­ eM).

06paJYIOmHecH B npouecce o6pa6oTKH cyJih$H.llhI, pacnoJiaraHcb B BH,Ue MeJIKO,UHCnepCHb X BKJIIOqeHHH Ha noeepXHOCTH CJIOH, YJI)"I­

rnaIOT ero aHTH$pHKUHOHHhle CBOHCTBa, IlOBb IIIaIOT TBep,UOCTb, qHC­ TOTY nocJie MexaHHqeCKOH o6pa6oTKH, noBb IIIaIOT pa6orocnoco6HocTb BCeH .ueTaJIH B HeCKOJibKO pa3. CJie.uyeT O,UHaKO OTMeTHTb, qTo npH 3TOM Ha6JIIO,UaeTCH CHIDKeHHe y.uapHOH BHJKOCTH H npoqHoCTH, qTo B

CBOIO oqepe,Ub Tpe6yeT BBe,UeHHH B MarepHaJI ynpoqHHIOllJ;HX JierHpy­ IOllJ;HX ,llOOaBOK.

,l(u</J</Jy3UOHHOJI Mem(JJ1JIU30U,UJI - HaCb llJ;eHHe noeepXHOCTHb X CJIO­

eB HJ,UeJIHH (MaTepHaJia) xpoMOM (xpOMHpoeaHHe), aJIIOMHHHeM (aJIH­ THPOBaHHe), BaHa,UHeM (BaHa,UHpOBaHHe), UHHKOM (UHHKOBaHHe) H

.up.IloBepXHOCTHOe JierHpoBaHHe o6ecneqHBaeT 3KOHOMHIO JierHpYIO­ llJ;HX 3JieMeHTOB, He CHIDKaH 3KCnJiyaTaUHOHHbIX xapaKTepHCTHK HJ­

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