CMcTeMbl c orpaHM'leHHOM pacTeopMMOCTblO KOMnoHeHTOB



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ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

CMcTeMbl c orpaHM'leHHOM pacTeopMMOCTblO KOMnoHeHTOB



 

B npaKTHKe nopollIKOBOH MeTaJIJiyprnu TaKHe cHCTeMhIBCTpeqa­ IOTCH Hau6oJiee qacTo: Fe-C, W-Ni, W-Ni-Cu, Mo-Ni, Fe-Cu,

Ni-Ti, Cu-Ag, Ni-Cr, Mo-Ni-Cu, Co-Cu, Co-Cr, Co-Mo u MHOrne .upyrne. .l(JIH HHX xapaKTepHhl KaK ,llHarpaMMhl COCTOHHHH c 3BTeKTHKOH H nepHTeKTHKOH, TaK H c XHMHqecKHMH coe,llHHeHHHMH.

Ilpu HarpeBe Ha npoMe)i()"fOqHhIX CTa,llHHX roMoreHH3aUHH B IlO­ pOllIKOBOM TeJie npHCYTCTBYIOT Bee cpa3hl, HMelOIIJ,HeCH Ha .uuarpaMMe


TYPe nopollIKOBoro TeJia.

B 3BTeKTuqecKHX cucTeMax npu rrpaKTHqecKoM OTCYTCTBHM (HJIH

qpe3BbJqai1:HO MaJIOH) paCTBOpHMOCTH Me)K,lly cpa3aMH (HanpHMep.? CHCTeMa Ag-Ni) HeT 3aBHCHMOCTH yca,UKH OT BeJIHqHHbl Me)Kcpa3HOH

nooepXHOCTH.

CucmeMbl c nepumeKmUKOU. B TaKHX cucTeMax (HanpuMep, Ag-Pt; pHC. 253) yca.uKa B .uoyxcpa3HOH o6JiaCTH HMeeT qeTKO Bbipa)KeHHb H MHHHMYM H3-3a yoenuqeHHH 06beMa nopollIKOBOfO TeJia npu cneKa­ HHH. TaK, o6beM CTIJiaBa Ag-60%Pt (ToqKa MHHHMyMa Ha KPHBOH

KOHUeHTpaUHOHHOH 3aBHCHMOCTH yca,UKH) IlpM cneKamm (reMne­ paTYpa 900 °C) yoeJiuquoaeTCH Ha 23%, qTO CBH3aHO c OTHOCHTeJibHO

MaJihIM H3MeHeHHeM pacrnopHMOCTH TIJiaTHHbl B cepe6pe (c 50% Pt B Ag npu 1000 ·c .uo 45% Pt o Ag

-
IlpH 800 °C). Ilo 3TOH IlpHqHHe T, •c"T-----.----0 ----.-----.


COCTOHHIDI, npaKTHqeCKH He3aBHCHMO OT HCXO,llHOfO COCTaBa CMeCH

nopollIKOB. 3aBHCHMOCTH yca.uKH OT co.aep)KaHIDI 3JieMeHTOB B CTIJiaBe OTJrnqHhl OT JIHHeHHhIX, a HX xapaKTepHhIH BH,ll (HanpaBJieHHe Bhl­ nyKJIOCTH) MO)KeT 6b1Th pa3JIHqHhIM.

CucmeMbl c 3BmeKmuKoii. Ha

puc. 252 npuoe.aeHa KOHUeHTpa­

a


,llHcpcpy3HOHHOe Me)Kcpa3HOe B3aHMO,lleHCTBHe B .uoyxcpa3HblX ne- 1300 pureKTHqeCKHX CHCTeMax ocyme­ CTBJIHeTCH oqeHh cna6o, H cpaKTOp 1100 MHOrocpa3HOCTH He OKa3b BaeT BJIH­

SIHHH Ha HHTeHCH$MKaUHIO Teqe-


 

 

a + f3


r, •c


UHOHHaH 3aBHCHMOCTh yca.uKH B

cucreMe Cu-Ag. CHH)KeHHe yca.u­ KH B o6nacTH rnep,llIX pacrnopoB


HHSI oemecrna no.u .ueH:cTBHeM Ka- nHJIJIHpHh X cHJI. B 3TOM CJiyqae co- .w,

3,llaIOTCSI ycJIOBHSI .llJISI 6ecnperrSIT- v


 

3.-------------.


 


p H a CBH3aHo c OObiqHh M CHH)Ke­

HHeM .uu<t><l>Y3HOHHOH 00,llBH)K­


6

CTBeHHOfO npoSIBJieHHSI ::i<t><t>eKTa

<l>peHKeJIH HMeHHO B o6JiaCTH cpe.u­


 

 

 

Cu 20 60


HOCTH B HHX aTOMOB. B .llBYX­

cpa3HOH o6JiaCTH KpHBaH yca,UKH HMeeT HpKO Bhlpa)KeHHhIH MaK­ CHMyM, IlPHXO,llHIIJ,HHCH Ha ee

cepe,llHHy, T.e. MaKCHMYM yca.uKH COOTBeTCTByeT npuMepHO 50%­ HOMY co.aep)KaHHIO pa3Hopo,llHh X cpa3, T.e. HX HaH60JibllleH Me)K­ cpa3HOH noBepxHOCTH H, CJie,llO­ BaTeJibHO, MaKCHMaJibHOMY .uu<t>­

cpy3HOHHOMY Me)Kcpa3HOMY B3a­ Ag HMO,lleHCTBHIO. P.A. AH,.upueBCKHH


HHX KOHUeHTpaUHH KOMilOHeHTOB

nopollIKOBblX CHCTeM.

CucmeMbl c XUMUitecKUMU coeiJu­ HeHURMU. Ha puc. 254 npuoe.aeHa KOHUeHTpaUHOHHaH 3aBHCHMOCTb

yca.uKH B CHCTeMe Ni-Mo npu reM­

nepaTYPe cneKaHHSI 1200 °C. B 06- JiaCTH a + 8 H3-3a cJia6oM: TeMne­

paTYPHOH 3aBHCHMOCTJ1 paCTBOpH­

MOCTH Mo B Ni cpaKTop .uoyxcpa3- HOCTH He oKa3bJBaeT cymecTBeHHO­ ro BJIHSIHHSI Ha yca,UKy. 06pa3oBa­


 

 

 

 

-5

 

 

-15

 

 

-25

Ag 10 30 50 70 90 Pt


PHc. 252. Ll,HarpaMMa COCTOSIHHSI (a) H KOHUeHTpaUHOHHaSI 3aBHCHMOCTh yca,uKH

(6) nopolllKOBblX Te.TI cHcreMhICu-Ag npH

700 ·c H Bhl.llep>KKe 30 ( I ) H 15 MHH (2 )

COOTBeTCTBeHHO

 


npe.unoJIO)KMJI, lJTO MaKCHMYM

yca,UKH CBH3aH c npoHBJieHHeM coepxnJiaCTHlJHOCTH H Me)KlJaC­ THlJHbl M CKOJib)KeHHeM B CTpYK-


HHe HeycTOHlJHBOfO XHMHlJeCKOfO coe,UHHeHHSI (HHTepMeTaJIJIH,lla) He npMBO,llHT K KaKHM-JIH6o oco6bIM o6beMHbl M ::icpcpeKTaM (MOHOTOH-


PHc. 253. ):lHarpaMMa COCTOSIHHSI (a)

11 KOHUeHTpaUHOHH3SI 3aBl1C11MOCTb ycaJlKH (6) nopOWKOBblX TeJI CHCTeMbl Ag-Pt np11 900 °C


Hrul 3aBHCHMOCTh yea.mm B rrpe.n;eJiax co.n;ep)l(aHIDI MOJIH6.n;eHa 50-70 %).

IlpH co.n;ep)l(aHHH 1-5 % Nirrpmrnm1eTCH ero aKTHBHpy10mee BJIHH­ HHe Ha yca.n;Ky MOJIH6.n;eHa.

B3aHMo.n;eH:cTBHe KOMIIoHeHTOB cMecH nopOIIIKOB c o6pa3oBaHH­ eM B npouecce cneKaHHH XHMHlJeCKHX coe,n;HHeHHH HJIH HHTepMeTaJI­ JIH,ll;OB o6bllJHO cymecTBeHHO YCJIO)l(HHeT BH,ll; KOHIJ,eHTpaIJ,HOH HOH 33-

BHCHMOCTH yca.n;KH H xo.n; KPHBblX MO)l(eT 6b1Tb caMblM pa3JIHlJHblM H

.n;o BblIIOJIHeHHH 3KCnepHMeHTa 06bllJHO Henpe.n;cKa3yeM. CrreuH$1f".iHoi1 pa3HOBH.n;HOCTbIO TaKoro cneKaHHH MHOfOKOM­

rroHeHTHb X CHCTeM MO)l(eT CJiyxHTb TaK Ha3blBaeMoe peaKIJ,HOHHOe ciieKaHHe, Kor,n;a npH Harpeee nopOIIIKOBOH $opMOBKH COBMell(aIOT rrpouecc:bl co6cTBeHHO cneKaHIDI H o6pa30BaHHH XHMHlJeCKOfO co­ e.n;HHemrn. HarrpHMep, npH crreKaHHH <t>opMOBKH H3 nopoIIIKa KpeM­

HIDI B cpe.n;e a3oTa rrpoHcxo,n;HT o6pa3oBaHHe Si N , Koropoe corrpo­


 

t.JeHHblX TBep,ll;blX paCTBOpOB MaKCHMaJibHbl).

 



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