NnoTHOCTb M nopMCTOCTb M3A9nMM



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Мы поможем в написании ваших работ!


ЗНАЕТЕ ЛИ ВЫ?

NnoTHOCTb M nopMCTOCTb M3A9nMM



 

Onpe,!1,eJiettwe nJIOTHOCTH H nopHCTOCTH ccpopMoBaHHb X H cne­ lleHHbIX H3,ll,eJIHH (KpOMe TBep,!1,0CnJiaBHb X) pernaMeHTHpOBaHO fQCT

18898-89 H npe,!J,yCMaTpHBaeT npHMeHeHHe paclJeTHOfO H fH,!1,pOCTa­

TH'leCKOfO MeTO,ll,08. ,[(JISI TBep,!1,b X CnJiaBOB nJIOTHOCTb onpe,!1,eJI.HIOT no fOCT 20018-74 fH,!1,pOCTaTHqeCKHM MeTO,ll,OM, a nopHCTOCTb - no

fOCT 9391-80 MeTaJIJ1orpa$HlleCKH. Onpe,!1,eJI.HIOT 3TH xapaKTepHC­

THKH npH KOMHaTHOH TeMnepazype, eCJIH He oroeopeHbl ,!1,pyme yc­ JIOBH.H. lepe,!1, npoBe,!J,eHJ:feM HCnb TaHHH H3,ll,eJIHe (3afOTOBKY, o6pa- 3eU) Heo6XO,ll,HMO O'IHCTHTb OT 3arpS13HeHHH H OCMOTpeTb BH3YaJibHO

,ll,JISI onpe,!1,eJieHH.H KaqecTBa noeepxttoCTH. 11.3,!J,eJIH.H, HMe10mwe Tpe­ UJ.HHhl, paKOBHHbl, CKOJlbl H CKpallIHBaIOmHeCSI KpOMKH, K HCnb Ta­ HH.HM He ,ll,onycKaIOTC.H. HcnhITaHH.H npoBOMT He Mettee qeM Ha Tpex

o6pa3uax.

Pacitemnblii MemoiJ. 3ToT MeTO,ll,, npe,!1,ycMaTpHBa10mHH H3Mepettwe o6beMa H MaCCbl H3,ll,eJIHSI, ,ll,OnycKaeTCSI npHMeHSITb TOJlbKO B TOM CJIY­ qae, ecJIH H3,ll,eJIHe HMeeT npoczy10 reoMeTpHqecKYIO cpopMy. JlHtteH­

Hbie pa3Mepbl, no KOTOpb M paCC'IHTbIBaIOT o6beM, 3aMep.HIOT MepH­

TeJibHbIM HHCTpyMeHTOM (MHKpOMeTpOM, llITattreHUHPKYJieM H ,!J,p.) c TO'IHOCTbIO ,ll,O ± 0,001 MM. Macey H3,ll,eJIHSI onpe,!1,eJI.HIOT B3BellIHBa­

HHeM Ha 803,ll,yxe c norpellIHOCTblO He 6oJiee 0,01 %. IlJIOTHOCTb H3,ll,e-


CM
r/CM
JIHM y ( 3) 8bJqHCJIHIOT ,lleJieHHeM MaCCblH3,lleJIHH (r) Ha ero 06beM ( 3). ,11.onyCTHMoe pacxo)l(JleHue pe3yJihTaT08 aHaJIU3a He .llOJI)l(HO npe8b lllaTb 5 %.

06myio nopUCTOCTb Ill (%) 8bJqucJIHIOT KaK Ill = 100 - s, r.ae

s - OTHOCUTeJibHaH TIJIOTHOCTb U3,lleJIUH, %.

I'uiJpocmamurtecKuii MemoiJ. 3TOT MeTO,ll HBJUleTCH 6oJiee yttU8epcaJib­ Hh M, nOCKOJibKY no380JIHeT onpe,lleJIUTb TIJIOTHOCTb U3,lleJIHH CJIO)l(­ HOM u .aaxe Henpa8UJibHOH $opMbl, a TaK)l(e oueHUTb 8eJiuquHy OT­

Kpb TOH (T. e. coo6maiomeH:cH c no8epXHOCTblO U3,lleJIUH) nopUCTOCTU (npH o6meH: nopHCTOCTH > 10 %).

)1.JIH onpe,lleJieHHH TIJIOTHOCTU U3,lleJiue 838ellIH8alOT Ha 803.ayxe Ha

Jia6oparnpHb X 8ecax c norpellIHOCTblO He 6oJiee 0,01 %. IlocJie 3Toro no8epXHOCTHb e nopb1 U3,lleJIHH 3aKphrnaioT nyTeM o6pa6oTKU (npo­

nuTKH) ero 8 pacTIJiaBJieHHOM napa$uHe UJIH noKpbIBaH ero no8epx­


Macca nUKHOMeTpa c o6pa3UOM " 80,llOH, r.

,11.JIH onpe,lleJieHHH OTKpb TOH nopUCTOCTU o6pa3eu 838ellIU8alOT (ml) Ha 803.ayxe Ha Jia6oparnpHb X 8ecax. 3aTeM ero nponuTbIBalOT )l(U,llKO­ cTblO (.aera3upo8aHHb M UJIH ofibJqHbIM Uff.llYCTpUaJibHb M MaCJIOM, KCU­ JIOJIOM, 6eH3UJI08bl M cnupTOM UJIU ,llUCTUJIJIUp08aHHOH 80,llOH), 8bl-

6op KOTOpoH: 3a8UCUT OT MaTepuaJia u pa3Mepa nop aHaJIH3UpyeMoro

o6pa3ua. lponUTaHHb H )l(U,llKOCTblO o6pa3eu 838ellIU8alOT (m6) Ha 803,llyxe. OTKpb TYIO nopuCTOCTb n2 (%) 8biqucJIHIOT no $opMyJie

Il2 = [(m6 - m1)·100]/y"V,

r.ae y" - TIJIOTHOCTb nponuTbIBaiomen )l(U,llKOCTU, r/cM3; V - o6beM o6pa3ua, cM3. Pe3yJihTaT 3anucb1Ba10T c ToqHoCTblO .ao 0, 1 %.

3aKpb TYIO nopUCTOCTbIl3 8bJqUCJIHIOT KaK pa3HOCTb Me)l(Jly OfiJ..UeH Il H OTKpbITOH Il nopHCTOCTHMU U3,lleJIUH (o6pa3Ua): Il = Il -Il2"


1 2 3 1


HOCTb TOHKUM CJIOeM 8a3eJIUHa UJIU JiaKa. 113.aeJiue CH08a 838ellIU8a­

IOT, CHaqaJia Ha 803,llyXe, a 3aTeM 8 80,lle.IlpH 838ellIU8aHUU 8 80,lle He

.aonycKaeTCH o6pa3o8aHue ny3h PhK08 803,llyxa Ha no8epxHoCTU U3,lle­ JIHH; npu ux noHBJieHUU Macey H3,lleJIUH He $UKCupyioT, ero 8bIHUMa­

IOT U3 80,JJ:b , cylllaT, nO,ll8epralOT n08TOpHOH o6pa60TKe c ueJiblO 3aK­ pb THH nop H CH08a 838ellIU8alOT Ha 803,llyxe u 8 80,lle. lJIOTHOCTb y 8b1qucJIH10T, .aeJIH Macey Heo6pa6oTaHHoro H3,lleJIHH (m ) Ha ero ofibeM

u 1 '

paccqHTaHHbIH no $opMyJie

 

V = (m2 - m3)/ Ya'

r.ae m2u m3- CYMMapHaH Macca no.a8eca u o6pa6oTaHHoro U3,lleJIHH cooTBeTCT8eHHO Ha 803,llyxe u 8 80,lle, r; Ya - TIJIOTHOCTb .llUCTUJIJiupo-


Ilpu onpe,lleJieHUH rH,llpOCTaTUqecKUM MeTO,llOM TIJIOTHOCTU TBep­

,llOCTIJia8HOro 03,lleJIUH o6pa3eu (o6beMOM 0,5 CM3 u MaCCOH ::; 200 r) 838ellIU8alOT Ha 803,llyxe c norpellIHOCTblO ::; 0,001 r, nocJie qero ero

nO,ll8ellIU8alOT Ha HUTU UJIU npo80JIOKe U3 HeKoppo.aupyiomero MaTe­ puaJia (.auaMeTpOM ::; 0,25 MM) UJIU noMemaioT 8 KOp3HHKY u norpy­

)l(alOT 8 COCY.ll c ,llUCTUJIJIHp08aHHOH 80,llOH; Ha o6pa3ue u HUTU He

,llOJI)l(HO 6bITb ny3blpbK08 803,llyxa. 06pa3eu 838ellIU8alOT 8 80,lle c Ta­ KOH )Ke norpellIHOCThlO, qTo u Ha 803,llyxe.IlJIOTHOCTh 06pa3ua pac­ cquTbIBalOT no $opMyJie

Y = m1Y s /(m1 - m),

r.ae ml " m2 - Macca o6pa3ua, 838ellleHHOro COOT8eTCT8eHHO Ha 803-


8aHHOH 80,llbl npu TeMnepazype ucnb TaHUH, r/cM3. 06pa3eu u 80,lla


.ayxe H 8 80,lle, r; y


- TIJIOTHOCTb 80.llhI, r/cM3. OTJiuque 3Toro MeTo.aa


,llOJI)l(HbIHMeTb TeMnepazypy OT +15 ,llO +30 ·c.

,11.JIH onpe,lleJieHUH ofibeMa 06pa3ua v MO)l(HO 80CnOJib308aTbCH

nUKHOMeTpOM c ,llHCTUJIJIUp08aHHOH 80,llOH. CHaqaJia Ha Jia6opaTop­ Hb X 8ecax 838ellIH8alOT (8Mecre UJiu pa3,lleJibHo) 06pa3eu c 3aKpbITbI­ MH no8epXHOCTHb MU nopaMU u nUKHOMeTp, HanOJIHeHHblH 80,llOH

,llO pUCKU UJIU ,llO OT8epCTUH 8 npo6Ke. 3areM qacTb 80,llbl U3 nUKHO­ MeTpa Y.llaJIHIOT, noMemaioT zy.aa o6pa3eu, 8CTpHXU8alOT nuKHOMeTp

,llJIH OTpbIBa ny3b pbK08 803,llyxa u ,ll080,llHT ypo8eHb 80,llbl ,llO PUCKU UJIU ,llO OTBepCTUH 8 npo6Ke. IlocJie 3TOro nUKHOMeTp c o6pa3UOM CH08a 838ellIU8alOT. 06beM paccquTbIBalOT no $opMyJie

V = (m4 - m)/ Ya'

r.ae m4...:.... cyMMapHaH Macca o6pa6oTaHHoro 06pa3ua u nuKHOMeTpa, 3anoJIHeHHOro 80,llOH ,llO pUCKU UJIU OTBepCTUH 8 npo6Ke, r; m5 -

282


OT onucaHHOro 8blllle COCTOUT 8 TOM, qTo no8epXHOCTb o6pa3ua HU­ qeM He noKpbIBaeTCH, noCKOJibKY 8 TBep,llOM cnJia8e ypo8eHb nopuc­

TOCTU oqeHb HU3KUH (::; 0,2 %), u BCH nopUCTOCTb 3aKpbITaH.

MemaJ1.1102pa</JurtecKuii MemoiJ. IlopuCTOCTb rnep.aocnJiaBHbIX U3,lle­ JIUH onpe,lleJIHIOT Ha MeTaJIJiorpa$uqecKOM MUKpOCKone. Ilo,llfOT08- JieHHb e o6pa3Ubl He ,llOJI)l(HblUMeTb CJie,llOB llIJIU$08aHUH, noJiupo8a­ HUH UJIU BblKpallIUBaHUH CTpYKTYPHbl X COCTaBJIHIOl..UUX. llJJiu<P U3ro­

TOBJIHIOT no nonepeqHoMy ceqeHUIO (U3JIOMY) ueJioro U3,lleJIUH UJIU qacTU ero TIJIOJ..Ua,llblO ::; 2 CM2.

YpoeeHh nopucTocTu onpe.aeJISIIOT npocMoTpoM HeTpaBJieHoH no­ eepxHocTu llIJIU$a npu yeeJiuqeHuu B 100 UJIU 200 pa3 ,llJISI nop pa3- MepoM ,llO 10 MKM u B 100 pa3 ,llJISI nop pa3MepoM ,llO 50 MKM. YqacTOK,

noJIHOCTblO npe,llCTaBJIHIOI..UUH UCCJie,llyeMylO nJIOJ..Ua,llb llIJIU$a, cpa8- HUBalOT c MUKpo$ornrpa$USIMU llIKaJibl A (.llJlSI nop pa3MepoM ,llO


10 MKM), B (;:vrn nop pa3MepoM .uo 30 MKM) H D (UJUInop pa3MepoM

.uo 50 MKM). Ouemcy nopHCTOCTH npOBO.UHT co CCblJIKOH Ha COOTBeT­

CTBy10my10 MHKpo<t>ororpa<t>HIO llIKaJihIA, B mm D, yKa3hIBaH o6beM­ Hoe npoueHTHoe co.uep)l{aHHe nop; HanpHMep A O 02· A O 04· B O 08·


L = A.p, / T,

r.ue A. - renJionpoBO.UHOCTh, BT/(M·K); P, - 3JieKTponpoBO.UHOCTh, OM·M. ,[(JIH 6oJibllIHHCTBa MeTaJIJIOB H cnJiaBOB L HaxO.UHTCH B npe.ue-


B 0'04·' D O'2·' D 0,4.


' ' ' ' ' ' '


11ax OT 2, 1·1o-s .uo 2,8·1o-s BT·0M/K2 npH 20 ·c. PaclJeT lfHCJia JIopeHua


!10Phl pa3MepoM > 50 MKM onpe.ueJIHIOT npOCMOTpOM HeTpaBJie­

HOH noBepXHOCTH llIJIH<t>a npH yBeJIJt.lieHHH B 50-100 pa3 Ha BCeH noBepXHOCTH llIJIH<l>a (eCJIH nJIOmll,llh llIJIH<l>a > 1 CM2, .uonycKaeTCH Hcc11e.uoBaHHe ero nJioma.uH B 1 CM2, npHJiera10mei1 K pa6oqeif 1.faCTH

06pa3ua).ilo.UClfHThrnaeTCH cyMMapHaH .llJIHHa nop c yKa3aHHeM HX


no 3KCnepHMeHTaJlbHb M 3Ha1.JeHHHM TenJionpOBO.UHOCTH H y.ueJibHOro 3JieKTpH1.JeCKOro conpOTHBJieHHH nopHCTbIX nopollIKOBbIX MaTepHaJIOB noKa3bIBaeT, 1.JTO ero 3Ha1.JeHHH He 3aBHCHT OT nopHCTOCTH B IlIHpO­

KOM .UHana30He TeMnepazyp (290- 1170 K). 3ro no3BOJIHeT Bb lJHCJIHTb

TenJionpoBO.UHOCTb (y.ueJibHOe 3JieKTpH1.JeCKOe conpOTHBJieHHe) Me­


1.JHCJia Ha 1 CM


H pa3Mepa nop no MaKCHMaJlbHOH .llJIHHe B HHTepBaJie


TaJIJIOB JII060H nopHCTOCTH H npH JII060H reMnepazype, 3HaH MH HHX


pa3MepoB 51-75, 76-100 H > 100 MKM: HanpHMep, 1 nopa pa3MepoM

55 MKM, 2 nopblpa3MepoM 80 MKM Ha nJIOIUa.llH 1 CM2.

19.2.2.3neKTpH'l8CKHe, TennOBble H MarHHTHble CBOMCTea 3JieKTpO- H TenJionpoBO.UHOCTb nopOilIKOBb X MaTepHaJIOB 3aBHCHT

OT HX nopHCTOCTH H CTpYKTypbl. 3TH CBOHCTBa nOBb UiaIOTCH nponop­ UHOHaJibHO nJIOTHOCTH H aCHMnTOTHlJeCKH npH6JIH)KaJOTCH K COOT­

BeTCTByIOmeMy 3Ha1.JeHHIO .llJIH KOMnaKTHOro MeTaJIJia HJIH CnJiaBa Toro

)Ke XHMHlfeCKOro COCTaBa. B Ta611. 62 B o6meM BH.lle npHBe.UeHblH3BeCT­ Hble ypaBHeHHH, n03BOJIHIOmHe OUeHHTb BJIHHHHe nopHCTOCTH CT Ha CBOHCTBa THna npoBO.UHMOCTH co, r.ue (.() H (.() - COOTBeTCTBeHHO 3Ha-

u K

1.JeHHe CBOHCTBa .llJIH nopHCToro H 6ecnopHCTOfO MaTepHaJia.

51.BJieHHH 3JieKTpH1.JeCKOH npoBO.UHMOCTH H Ten11onpoBO.UHOCTH, HMe10m11e O.UHHaKOBYIO <l>H3HlfeCKYIO cymHOCTb, MH KOMnaKTHb X Ma­ TepHaJIOB onHChIBaIOTCH o6bI1.JHO O.UHHMH H TeMH )Ke aHaJIHTHlJeCKHMH

3aBHCHMOCTHMH. 3ra 3aKOHOMepHOCTb coxpaHHeTCH H .llJIH nopHCTblX cpe.u, no3TOMY 3aBHCHMOCTH, npHBe.ueHHbie B Ta6JI. 62, MO)l{HO HC­

nOJih30BaTb .llJIH pacqern o6eHX BeJIHlJHH.

CeH3h Me)l{.lly Ten11onpoeo.uHocThIO H 3JieKTpH1.fecKoi1 npoBO.UHMO­


TOJihKO BeJIHlfHHY L H TeMnepazypHYJO 3aBHCHMOCTh y.ue11bHOro 3JieK­

TpH1.fecKoro conpOTHBJieHHH (TenJionpOBO.UHOCTH) B 6ecnopHCTOM COCTOHHHH HJIH npH onpe.ue11eHHOH nopHCTOCTH.

Ha pHc. 271 noKa3aHo H3MeHeHHe K03<l><l>HUHeHTa TenJionpoBo.u­

HocTH A. cnelfeHHoro )l{eJie3a B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT nopHCTOCTH, a Ha

pHc. 272 npe.ucraBJieHhI3aBHCHMOCTH A. H p .llJIH )l{eJie3orpa<l>HTOBh X MaTepHaJIOB, cnelfeHHbIX npH 1150 ·c, OT TeMnepaTypbl npH pa3HbIX

nopHCTOCTHX. I-fa npHBe.UeHHbIX .uaHHbIX BH.llHO, 1.JTO nopbl .UOCTaTOlJHO 3aMeTHO CHH)l{aJOT renJio- H 3JieKTponpoeo.uHoCTh. CTpaKTHlfeCKH MH

ecex nopHCTh X MarepHaJIOB Ha ocHoBe )l{eJie3a .uo 500 ·c 3JieKTponpo­

BO.UHOCTh CHH)l{aeTCH nOlfTH B 3 pa3a, a TenJionpoBO.UHOCTb - Ha

20-40 %.

Ha MarHHTHhie cBoHCTBa nopomKOBhIX MaTepHaJIOB cymecTBeHHoe BJIHHHHe OKa3bIBaIOT BeJIHlfHHa nopHCTOCTH, <t>opMa nop, CQ.Uep)l{a­ HHe npHMeceli,.UHCnepCHOCTb CTpYKTYPhlH HaKJien.ilopblyxy.uUiaIOT MarHHTHb e CBOHCTBa, CHH)l{aff MarHHTHYIO npoHHUaeMOCTb H yMeHb­ UiaH MarHHTHyIO 3HeprHIO COOTBeTCTBYIO-

mHx MaTepHaJIOB. MamHTHaH npoHHUae- 1., K/l,JK/(M·'l· 0C)

MOCTb nopOllIKOBb X H3.UeJIHH 3aBHCHT He 200----------

TOJibKO OT HX nopHCTOCTH, HO H OT yc110- 160


CThIO MeTaJIJIOB H CnJiaBOB onpe.ueJIHeTCH 1.JHCJIOM JlopeHua:

 

  Aernp    
B. 11. 0.lleJTeecKHii     M. IO. liaJTbWHH w = w. (I - 1.5n) w = w. [l -3nl(2 + n)] w = m. (l- H)115 w = w, (I - n)2 o .- n .- o.66 )],Jill MaTpH4HblX CHCTeM   )],Jill MaTpH4HblX CHCTeM   )],Jill CTaTHCTH'leCKHX CMeceii

 

T a 6 11 11 u a 62. BJiaauae nopacTocTH ua ceoiicTBa THna npoao,!UIMOCTH


BHH cneKaHHH H ceolicTB 11cxo.uHoro no­ pomKa, B CBH3H c 1.JeM npH O.UHOH H TOH

)Ke nopHCTOCTH OHa MO)l{eT H3MeHHTbCH

nolfTH B 2 pa3a. oOJibllloe BJIHHHHe Ha Mar­ HHTHbie CBOHCTBa OKa3bIBaeT cpe.ua cne­ KaHHH, B3aHMO.UeHCTBHe KOTOpOH c Ha­

rpeBaeMb M MaTepHaJIOM c o6pa30BaHHeM


120

 

80

40

 

o


 

 

10 20 30 40


 

so n, %


 


KaKHX-JIH60 XHMHlJeCKHX coe.u11HeHHH (Ha­

npHMep, HHTpH.llOB) MO)K.eT 3aMeTHO yxy.u­ llIHTb COOTBeTCTBYIOIU He xapaKTepHCTHKH nopoUIKOBbIX 113.UeJIHH.


Pttc. 271. 3aeHCHMOCTb Ko-

3<f><tmmteHTa TenJ1onpoeo.L1HO­ cTH A. cne'leHHbIX o6paJuoe HJ

JKeJTeJttoro nopolllKa OT lfX no­ pHCTOCTH [1


19.2.3. MexaHH'leCKHe CBOMCTBa

 

Mexam1qecKHe ceo:HcTea H HX KOHKpeTHhie JHaqeHHH ttaH60J1ee Ba)l(Hbl ,ll)IH oueHKH 3KCTIJiyaTaUHOHHOH npHro,IJ;HOCTH nopoIIIKOBh X MarepmUIOB, TIOCKOJihKY HMeHHO OHH o6ycJIOBJIHBaJOT B03MO)l(HOCTh

pa6oTbl H3,IJ;eJIHH KaK npH CTaTHqecKHX, TaK H npH ,IJ;HHaMHqecKHX ttarpyJKax. MexaHHqecme ceo:HcTea TaKHX MarepHaJIOB JaBHCHT OT

nopHCTOCTH, cpopMbl nop, BeJIHqHHhl KOHTaKTHOH noeepXHOCTH H xapaKTepa KOHTaKTa Me)K)J.y qacrHUaMH. B CBOIO oqepe.n;b, eeJIHqHHa KOHTaKTHOfO ceqeHHH H MHKpOHeO,IJ;HOpO,IJ;HOCTh HanpH.>KeHHH B HeM

JaBHCHT OT <P.H3HKO-XHMHqeCKHX xapaKTepHCTHK HCXO,IJ;Hh X nopoIII­

KOB, ycJIOBHH cpopMOBaHHH JafOTOBOK, TeMnepaTypbl H npo,n;OJI.>KH­ TeJlhHOCTH cneKaHHH, TIOCJie.n;yiome:H repMHqecKOH o6pa60TKH. B CBH- 3H c 3THM MeXaHHqecKHe CBOHCTBa nopHCTblX nopoIIIKOBh X H3,IJ;eJIHH OTJIHqaIOTCH OT CBOHCTB JIHThIX MaTepHaJIOB aHaJIOfHqHoro XHMHqec­

KOfO COCTaBa, a npH O,ll.HHaKOBOH nopHCTOCTH HX CBOHCTBa MOryT

pa3JIHqaThCH, eCJIH H3,IJ;eJIHH H3-

fOTOBJieHblH3 nopOIIIKOB c pa3-


H TeM JaMeTHee, qeM Bh IIIe UJIOTHOCTh nopOIIIKOBOfO MarepHaJia (H3-

.n;eJIHH). Ha ypoeeHh H cmfiHJihHOCTh MexaHHqecKHX ceowcTB oKaJhIBa­ JOT BJIHHHHe TaK.>Ke JaIUHTHb e cpe.n;hl, HCnOJih3yeMbie npH cneKaHHH. 06bNHO npHHHTO oueHHBaTh npoqHOCTh, y.n;apHYJO BH3KOCTh H TBep­

,IJ;OCTh nopOIIIKOBh X H3,IJ;eJIHH (MaTepHaJIOB).

Ilpo•mocmb. HaH6oJiee ofibeKTHBHh M noKaJareJieM KaqecTBa nopoIII­ Koeoro H3,ll.eJIHH HBJIHeTCH ero npe,n;eJI npoqHOCTH npH paCTH.>KeHHH, npe.n;craBJIHIOIUHH cofioi{ qaCTHOe OT .n;eJieHHH MaKCHMaJibHOH Harpy3- KH Ha HOMHHaJihHYIO nJIOIUa,IJ;h nonepeqHoro ceqeHHH HCnh TYeMOfO

o6pa3ua, H xapaKrepH3YIOIU HH BeJIHqHHY H npoqHOCTh KOHTaKTOB Me.>K,IJ;y qaCTHUaMH (.ll.JIH JIHTh X MarepHaJIOB npoqHoCTh npH paCTH.>Ke­ HHH HBJIHeTCH MepoH HX conpoTHBJieHHH H3MeHeHHIO <t>opMbl no.n; ,n;ei{­

CTBHeM BHeIIIHHX CHJI). c pOCTOM nopHCTOCTH npoqHOCTh nopoIIIKOBO­

ro MarepHaJia H ee OTHOIIIeHHe K npe,ll.eJiy npoqHOCTH npH paCTH.>Ke­

HHH aHaJIOfHqHoro JIHTOfO (KOMnaKTHoro) MaTepHaJia na,n;aJOT.

B reopeTHqecKoM nJiaHe CBH3h Me)K)J.y CTpyKTypHo-qyecTBHTeJihHhl­ MH CBOHCTBaMH, K KOTOphlM OTHOCHTCH npoqHOCTh, H TIJIOTHOCThlO

(nopHCTOCTblO) HJyqaeTCH ,ll.OCTaToqHO ,n;aBHO, O,ll.HaKO 60JibllIHHCTBO


'A,./Pt</{CM·C·0C)

8,4 '

 

 

6,3

 

 

4,2


Hh MH CBOHCTBaMH HJIH noJiy­

a qeHHblX JIHfiO paJJIHqHblMH Me­

TO,IJ;aMH, JIH60 no pa3Hh M rex­ HOJIOfHqecKHM pe.>KHMaM.

HrurnqHe nopHcrocTH, Jaqa­ CTYJO eecbMa JHaqHTeJihHOH,


noJiyqeHHh X MaTeMaTHqeCKHX JaBHCHMOCTeH HOCHT 3MTIHpHqecKHH xapaKrep. HeKOTOph e HJ HHX npe.n;cTaBJieHhIB Ta6JI. 63, r.n;e cr H crK -

cooTBeTCTBeHHO npe.n;eJI npoqHOCTl1 npH pacTH.>KeHHH nopHCTOfO H KOMTiaKTHOfO MaTepHaJIOB; Il- TIOpl1CTOCTh nopOIIIKOBOfO MaTepHa-

 

 

T a 6 JI H u a 63. AellJlllTH'lecKHe 31lBHCHMOCTH npo'IJOCTH OT


3,1 ......___. ......._ _ . ...

p·10· 4, 1/(01+CM )

5 ----------


npHBO,IJ;HT K pa3pyIIIeHHIO no cneuHcpHqeCKHM MexaHH3MaM,

OTJIHqHh MH OT Tex, KOTOpb e


nopHCTOCTH


 

3tta'ICHHC KOHCTaHT II


6

3

4

 

 

3

 

 

2

 

1 . .....___,___.__ ,.i:;:,:.J


ceo:HcTBeHHhIJIHTh M MarepHa­ JiaM, TI03TOMY ,ll)ISI oueHKH Me­ xaHHqeCKHX CBOHCTB nopOIIIKO­

Bh X H3,IJ;eJIHH Heo6xo,n;HMhlcne­ UHaJibHbie MeTO,IJ;HKH.

HeMeTaJIJIHqecKHe BKJIJOqe­

HHH (HX cpopMa, pa3Mepbl, KO­ JIHqecTBO H pacnpe.n;eJieHHe no


ABTOP BblpIDKCHHC IIpHMCHHMOCTb BblpIDKCHHJI

 

6aJiblllllH cr = cr. (1 - 0t m = 3-6

KpacoecK11i1 CJ = (JK (1 - 11/oHr 0" -IIOpllCTOCTb IIOpOUlKa B

COCTOJIHHH CB060.UHOH ttaCblIIKll

PbllllKCBll'I cr = cr.-exp(-bO) b = 4-7

ll.lep6atth cr = cr. (1 - 02) exp(-bn)

TpomeHKO 11 cr = cr. (1 - 1,50) /( l - l,5pn) p = 2


o 100 200 300 400 soo r, 0c

PHc. 272. 3aBHCHMOCTb K03$$HUHCHTa

rerumrrpoBO,llHOCTH A. (a) H 3JICKTporrpoao.u­ HOCTH p (6) crreqeHHblX IIpH 1150 ·c o6pa3-

UOB HJ )l{CJICJHOfO IIOpolllKa OT TeMIIepazy­ pblrrpH HX rropHCTOCTH 5,1% ([); 14,3% (2);

11,4 (3) H 17% (4)


o6beMy nopOIIIKOBOfO H3,IJ;e­ JIHH), HapyIIIaH CTIJIOIIIHOCTh

MeTaJIJIHqecKOH MaTpHUh ,cno­ co6cTByJOT CHH.>KeHHJO ecex Me­ xaHHqecKHX ceo:HcTB B eme 6oJibIIIe:H cTeneHH, qeM nophI,


KpacoacKHH o .;; o,66

Xel1ttec cr = cr. (l -n) /(1 -bn) b = 5 ,llJIJI CTaJillBei1JI cr = cr. (1 - 0) /(l + An) A -napaMeTp Xapeel1 cr = cr. (l-k)3/[k3 + (1 -k)3] k = [3oi(47t)]113

fepMaH cr = K (l - Oto.ID m = 4-7; o = O,l--0,4;

D= 4-6 MKM


 


Jia; p - napaMeTp, xapaKTep1nyJOLUHH Heo.uHopo.uHoCTb pacnpe.ueJie­ HHH HanpHlKeHHH no ceqeHHJO o6paJua, o6yCJIOBJieHHYJO HepaBHO­

MepHOCTbJO pacnpe.ueJieHHH nop no ero nJioLUa.uH; npH p = 2 Ha6JIJO­

.uaeTcH xopornee coBna.ueHHe pacqeTHb X JHaqeHHH cr c 3KcnepHMeH­ TaJibHblMH.

06HJIHe JaBHCHMOCTeH BH,Ua cr =/(Il) o6bHCHHeTCH, c O,UHOH CTO­

pOHbl, CJIOlKHOCTbJO npo6JieMhI, Tpe6yiomei1 yqem 6oJihrnoro qHcJia Q>aKTOpOB, a c .upyroH - BOJMOlKHOH HeconocTaBHMOCTbJO onblTHblX

.uaHHblX ,UJIH o6paJUOB c PaJJIHqHoH nopHCTOCTbJO, nOCKOJibKY Q>opMa nop, BeJIHqHHa JepHa, co.ueplKaHHe npHMeCeH ,UJIH MaJIO- H BblCOKO­ nopHCTbIX MaTepHaJIOB MOryT cymecTBeHHO paJJIHqaTbCH.

)J.nH nopOlUKOBb X MaTepHaJIOB HJ MaJIOnJiaCTUqHblX COCTaBJIHJOLUHX,

y KOTOpb X paJpyrneHHe CBHJaHO c noHBJieHHeM MHKPOTpeLUHHbl HJIH KaKoro-JIH6o .upyroro .ueQ>eKTa- KPHTHqecKoro paJMepa, 6b1cTpo pac­ npocTpaHHJOLUerocH no BCeMy ceqeHHJO H Bb JbIBaJOLUero xpynKoe paJ­ pyrneHHe, npoqHOCTb HBJIHeTCH nepeMeHHOH BeJIHqHHOH (qeM 60Jib­ rne paJMep o6paJua, TeM 6oJibllle BepOHTHOCTb BCTpeTHTb B HeM onac­ HblH .ueQ>eKT H TeM MeHbllle ero npoqHOCTb).

)J.nH nopOlUKOBblX MaTepHaJIOB npe.ueJI npoqHOCTH npH paCTHlKe­

HHH noBbllllaeTCH c yBeJIHqeHHeM nonepeqHoro ceqeHHH H yMeHhllle­ HHeM ,UJIHHbl HCnh TYeMoro o6paJua. B CBHJH c 3THM ,UJIH noJiyqemrn

.uaHHhlX, o6beKTHBHO xapaKTepHJYJOLUHX CBOHCTBa paJJIHqHb X cpaB­ HHBaeMb X MaTepHaJIOB, B COOTBeTCTBHH C fQCT 18227-85 npHMeHH­

JOT o6paJUbl, noJiyqaeMble .UBYCTOpOHHHM npeccoBaHHeM H cneKaHH­


HMeTb ,UHaMeTp 3,0 ± 0, 1 MM, ,UJIHHY 20 MM H TBep,UOCTb 700 HV.

HcnhnaHHH npoBO.UHT Ha rnm6HKax TOJILUHHOH 6,0 ± 0,2 MM, cnpec­ coBaHHh X B npecc-Q>opMe c paJMepaMH.nOJIOCTH MaTpHUbl30 x 12 MM. PaJJiuqHH B TOJILUHHe no llJIHHe o6paJua He ,UOJI)l{HblnpeBbilllaTb 0, 1 MM.

,D;onycKaeTCH HCnOJibJOBaTb o6paJUbl c paJMepaMH 30 x 12 x 6 MM,

noJiyqeHHb e MexaHuqecKOH o6pa60TKOH fOTOBbIX HJ,UeJIHH. Ilpe.ueJI

npoqHoCTH npu nonepeqHoM HJm6e ,, H/MM2 (Mila), BbiqHCJIHJOT no Q>opMyJie

 

R = 3Pl

tr 2bh 2 '

 

r.ue p - HarpyJKa, Heo6XO,UHMaH ,UJIH HJm6a H HJMepeHHaH B MO­ MeHT paJpyiueHHH o6paJua, H; I - paccTOHHHe MelK,Uy ocHMH UHJIHH,UpHqecKHX onop, MM; b - lllHPHHa o6paJua, MM; h - Bb COTa

(TOJILUHHa) o6paJua, HJMepeHHaH B HanpaBJieHHH, napanJieJibHOM npHJiolKeHHJO HarpyJKH, MM. 3a npe.ueJI npoqHoCTH npH nonepeqHoM HJm6e npHHHMaJOT cpe.uHee apHQ>MeTHqecKoe peJyJihTaToB He MeHee

nHTH onpe.ueJieHHH, oKpyrneHHoe .uo 6JIHlKaHrnHx 10 H/MM2.

IlpH noHHlKeHHb X TeMnepaTYpax crB H cr nopOlUKOBb X MaTepHa­ JIOB, KaK npaBHJIO, yBeJIHqHBaJOTCH, TaK KaK CTpYKTYPHbie .ue<l>eKTblB OCHOBHOM c.ueplKHBaJOT paJBHTHe H pacnpocTpaHeHHe TpeLUHH.

BpH OTHOCHTeJibHO HeBbICOKOH nopHCTOCTH nopOlUKOBbie MaTe­ PHaJibl MOlKHO cqHTaTb


eM B rex lKe ycJIOBHHX, qTo H roTOBble HJ,UeJIHH. PaJMepbIQ>opMyJOLUeH

noJIOCTH npecc-Q>opMbl B nJIOCKOCTH, nepneH,UHKYJIRpHOH HanpaBJie­ HHJO npeccoBaHHH, noKaJaHbIHa pHc. 273. ToJILUHHa o6paJUOB .UOJilK­ Ha 6b1Tb 5,7 ± 0,3 MM, paJHOCTb HaH60JiblUeH H HaHMeHbllleH TOJILUH­ Hbl no ,UJIHHe pa6oqeJ1 qacTH 0,04 MM. ,D;onycKaeTCH HJfOTaBJIHBaTb

o6paJUbl ,UJIH HCnbJTaHHH MexaHHqeCKOH o6pa60TKOH fOTOBblX HJ,Ue­ JIHH, npH 3TOM ,UHaMeTp HX pa6oqeJ1 qacTH .uomKeH 6b1Tb 4 MM.

BecbMa qacro ,UJIH oueHKH 3KCnJiyamuHoHHOH npHro.UHOCTH on­ pe.ueJIHJOT npoqHOCTb npH ClKaTHH Ha UHJIHH,UpHqeCKHX o6paJuax c

OTHOllleHHeM BblCOTbl K nonepeqHoMy paJMepy > 1 (MaKCHMaJibHYJO


npHfO,UHbIMH K pa6oTe B YCJIOBHHX noBTOpHo-ne­

peMeHHOfO HarpYlKeHHH. YpoBeHb ycTaJioCTHbIX CBOHCTB onpe.ueJIHeTCH KOJIHqecTBOM, <l>opMOH,

paJMepaMH, OpHeHTH- ' poBKOH nop H HeMeTaJI­ JIHqecKHX BKJIJOqeHHH,

paJMepoM JepHa, cy6-


BapuaHm 1


 

 

32

81,0 ± 0,5

89,7 ± 0,5


 

 

R 4,35


HarpyJKY .ueJIHT Ha HOMHHaJibHYJO nJIOLUa,Ub nonepeqHoro ceqeHHH o6paJUa) H npH HJrH6e no fQCT 18228-94 Ha lUTa6HKe npHMOYfOJib­ HOfO ceqeHHH B ycJIOBHHX TpeXToqeqHoro HarpYlKeHHH.

IlpHcnoco6JieHHe ,UJIH HCnbITaHHH Ha HJrH6 COCTOHT HJ ,UByx UH­ JIHH,UpHqecKHX onop (pOJIHKOB), ycmHoBJieHHbIX Ha paccToHHHH

25,0 ± 0,2 MM, H HJm6aiomero (HarpYlKaiomero) poJIHKa, pacnoJia­

raiomerocH Ha o,UHHaKoBoM paccTOHHHH oT onop. PoJIHKH .UOJilKHbI

 


MHKpoCTpYKTYPOH, pac­ npe.ueJieHHeM BHyTpeH­ HHX HanpHlKeHHH H .upy­ fHMH Q>aKTOpaMH, a TaK­

)l{e MaClUTa6HblM Q>aKTO­ poM, KoHQ>HrypauHeH HJ.UeJIHH H ycJIOBHHMH

 

IO - 5582


BapuaHm 2

 

81,0 ± 0,5

89,1± 0,5

 

 

PHc. 273. Bl1.ll <lx>PMYJOIUett noJIOCTII npecc-<tx>pMhI

.llJlll 113fOTOBJieHlrn o6pa3UOB .llJill HCllbITaHHH nopoUIKOBbIX MaTep11aJIOB Ha paCTll:>KeH11e


11X OfipafiOTKl1. Ope)J,eJI Bb!HOCJil1BOCTl1 MaTep11aJia cr_ 1 MO)KHO nOBbl­ Cl1Tb 113MeJib4eHl1eM 3epHa, yMeHbWeH11eM 411CJia HeMeTaJIJil14eCKl1X

BKJII04eHl1H, 113MeHeHl1eM 11X ct>opMbl , 11cnOJib30BaH11eM ynp04H.SllO­ mew o6pa60TKl1. Hanp11Mep, CHIDKeH11e nopl1CTOCTl1 nopoWKOBOH CTaJil1


Pmax - MaKCl1MaJihHaS1 (pa3pywa10maS1) Harpy3Ka Ha 06pa3eu, H..[loJI-

)!(HO cofiJIIO)J,aTbCSI COOTHOUieH11e crN :J , lcr0,2 (cr0,2 -npe.u.eJI TeKyqeCTl1 MaTep11aJia, Mila; ecJI11 crN > 1,1cr0.2, TO, yBemt4HBaSI D H coxpaHSISI d/ D = 0,707, o6ecne411Ba10T TpefiyeMoe ycJIOBHe ).


c 4 .u.o 1 % cnocoficTByeT noBb1weH1110 cr_


Ha 15-20 %, a AaJihHewwee


.[lJISI MaTepHaJIOB co cpe)J,H11Ml1 3Ha4eHHSIMl1 noKa3aTeJieH np04HO­


CHl1)1(eH11e nop11CTOCTl1 npaKTWleCKl1 He H3MeHSleT ee YCTaJIOCTHb X CBOHCTB.

B HacToS1mee BpeMSI MSI oueHKl1 pa60TOcnoco6HocT11 MaTep11aJia B 113)1,eJil111 W11pOKO np11MeHSllOT TepMl1H «KOHCTpYKT11BHaSI np04HOCTb».

0)1.H11M 113 noKa3aTeJieH '.HOH np04HOCTl1 SIBJISleTCSI BSl3KOCTb pa3py­

weHl1SI MaTep11aJia, 11Jil1 Kpl1Tl14eCKl1H K03cPcP11U11eHT 11HTeHCl1BHOCTl1 Hanpsi:)l(eH11H K1e, KOTOphIH xapaKTep113yeT cnoco6HocTh MaTep11aJia conpOTl1BJISITbCSI pa3pyweHl1IO np11 HaJIWIHl1 Tpelll,11Hbl HJil1 Tpem11-

Hono.u.06Horo .u.ect>eKTa. Hanp11Mep, no Ko3ct><P11u11eHTY K1e MO)l(HO BhI- 411CJil1Th npe.u.eJibHO .u.onyCTl1MOe HanpS1)1(eH11e HJil1 )1)111HY Tpelll,11Hhl, np11 KOTOpb!X pa3pyweH11e KOHCTpYKU1111 eme He HaczynaeT. BSl3KOCTb pa3pyweHl1SI 3aBl1Cl1T OT 11CXO)J,HOH nopl1CTOCTl1, Xl1Ml14eCKOro COCTa­ Ba 11 YCJIOBl1H noJiyqeHl1SI Marep11aJia, a TaIOKe CBOHCTB 11CXO)J,HblX no­

pOWKOB. c yBeJil14eHl1eM nop11CTOCTl1 BSl3KOCTb pa3pyweHl1SI MaTep11a­

Jia CHl1)1(aeTCS1. CymecrnyeT TeH.u.eHU11SI K o.u.HoBpeMeHHOMY poczy npo4- HOCTl1 11 BSl3KOCTl1 pa3pyweH11S1, TaK KaK Tpe1IJ,11Ha B nopOWKOBbIX MaTep11aJiax pacnpocTpaHSleTcsi: nYTeM KoaJiecueHu1111 Ml1Kponop np11

pa3pbIBe CBSl3eH Me)l()],y 4aCT11UaMl1. noBbIWeH11e Kie o6ycJIOBJieHO yBe­

Jil14eHl1eM pa3pywa10mero yc11JI11si:, a He pafioToH, 11.u.ymew Ha nJiac­ T11LiecKy10 .u.ect>opMaU11IO y BepWl1Hbl Tpelll,11Hbl. 00BbICl1Tb conpOTl1B­ JISleMOCTb MaTep11aJIOB xpynKOMY pa3pyweHl1IO MO)KHO BbICOKOTeMne­ pazypHOH TepMOMexaHl14eCKOH o6pa6oTKOH (BTMO), nocJie KOTO­ pow 113JIOM o6pa3UOB 11MeeT SlpKO Bb!pa)l(eHHble 3JieMeHTbl BSl3KOfO pa3pywemrn.

CymecTByeT pSIA MeTO.U.11K onpe.u.enemrn K,c, cpem1 KOTOphIX Ha11-

6onee npOCTbIM cnocofioM B CJly4ae BblCOKOnp04HOfO nopOWKOBOro I

MaTep11aJia SIBJISleTCSI 11cnbITam1e U11Jil1H)J,pl14eCKl1X o6pa3UOB )1,11aMeT­

poM D c KpyroBhIM Ha.u.pe30M (.u.11aMeTp Ha.u.pe3a d .U.OJl)KeH fihITh Ta­ Kl1M, 4T06b! ero )1,aJibHewwee yMeHbWeH11e He npl1BO)J,11JIO K CHl1)Ke­

Hl1IO npe.u.eJlbHOH Harpy3Kl1 P.nJ 11Jil1, 4TO JIY4We, c KpyroBOH ycrn­


CTH BeJIH4HHY Kie MO)l(HO onpe.u.eJIHTb no pe3yJihTaTaM 11cnb TaHl1H

o6pa3UOB (p11c. 274) co cneu11aJihHO HaBe)J,eHHOH YCTaJIOCTHOH Tpe­ lll,HHOH npH CTaTl14eCKOM 113m6e H BHeueHTpOBOM paCTSl)l(eH11H (MH­ Ha Ha.u.pe3a c Tpelll,HHOH a = 0,4570,55; )1)111Ha Tpell.ll1Hbl 0,5a HJIH

1,3 MM; TOJIIIJ,HHa o6pa3ua B .u.oJI)KHa y.u.oBJieTBOpSITh cooTHoweH1110

B 2,5 Kie /cr0).

B nocJie.U.Hee BpeMSI pacUIHpeHa npaKT11Ka onpe.u.eJieHHSI K1e no pe-

3YJibTaTaM yCTaJIOCTHblX 11cnb TaHl1H:

 

 

K1c = aY .J ntJ ,

r.u.e cry - npe.u.eJI ycTaJIOCTH MaTep11aJia, Mila; ( - Kp11T11LiecKaS1 MH­ Ha HaBe)J,eHHOH Tpelll,11Hbl, M; f - 4HCJIO UHKJIOB HCnbITaHHH.

On11caHHb1e MeTO.U.hI onpe.u.eJieH11S1 K1e np11MeHHMhI K nopowKo­ BhIM MaTepHaJiaM c npo4HOCThIO 700 Mila H nopHcToCTbIO ::::; 3 %; npH nopl1CTOCTH > 10 % o6pa3UblMO)l(HO 11cnbITb1BaTb 6e3 Tpelll,11Hbl

(Ha.u.pe3a).

 

IC\

 
"'  
H 4,4W  

 

"cS'

a
0,25Wk"

3=:

6 "....


JlOCTHOH Tpell.ll1HOH. EcJI11 pa3MepbI 06pa3ua Mst 11cnbITaHl1st no.u.o- 6paHbI TaKHM o6pa3oM, 4TO d/ D = 0,707, TO Bst3KOCTb pa3pyweHHS1 cocrnB11T, Mna-M0•5:

K1e = 0,414aN D 0",

r.u.e crN = P.n../F;I' Mna; Fd- nJIOll.la)],b o6pa3ua B nJIOCKOCTH Ha)],pe3a, M2;


I a 8= ±0,25

W ± 0,25 1,25W

 

P11c. 274. 06pa3Ubt ivrn 11cnbITI1H11tl Ha Bll3KOCTb pa3pyIUeH11ll: a - np11 113rn6e; 6 -

np11 BHCUCHTpOBOM paCTll)l(CHl111

JO• 291


YiJapHOJI 6Jl3KOCmb (yiJapHblU U3ZU6). no fQCT 26528-85 HCnbITa­ HIDIM Ha y.uapHh H H3rn6 c nocJieJlYIOIUHM onpe.aeJieHHeM pa6oThIy.uapa

HJIH y.uapHOH BSl3KOCTH no.uBepraIOTCSI o6pa3Ubl nopOlllKOBb X MaTe­ PHaJIOB B BH,lle ll1Ta6HKOB KBa,llparnoro ceqeHHSI 1ox 10 MM (±0,2 MM)

,llJIHHOH 55 ± 1 MM 6e3 Ha.upe30B, TaK KaK pOJib Ha.upe30B HrpaIOT

nopbl. .ll,JI.si: MaJionopHCTb X H 6ecnopHCTbIX MaTepHaJIOB .uonycKaeTCSI HCnOJib30BaHHe o6pa3UOB c Ha.ape30M no fOCT 9454-78. 06bJqHo

,llJISI Harpy)l(eHHSI npHMeHSIIOT MaSITHHKOBbie Konphl MOlUHOCTbIO

0,5- 10 KfC·M; IIJIOCKOCTb KaqaHHSI MaSITHHKa BepTHKaJibHa.H H npoxo­

.UHT Ha O.UHHaKOBOM paCCTOSIHHH OT onop, r.ue CB060.UHO pacnoJiara­ eTCSI 06pa3eu. noKaJareJih y.uapHoH: BSl3KOCTH KC (,ll.)l(/M2) noJiyqaIOT

.ueJieHHeM pa6oThIK (,ll.x), JaTpaqeHHOH Ha pa3pYllleHHe, Ha HOMH­

HaJihHOe nonepeqHoe ceqeHHe 06pa3ua S (M2):

KC = K/ S =·ml (cos 13 - cos a) / S,

r.ue m -Macca Ma.HTHHKa; I - paccTo.HHHe ueHTpa T.H)l(ecn1Ma.HTHHKa OT OCH BpameHHSI; a H 13 - yroJI nO,ll'beMa MaSITHHKa COOTBeTCTBeHHO

.uo H nocJie pa3pYllleHIDI 11cnh1ryeMoro o6pa3ua.

CpaBHHTeJibHO HH3KHe JHaqeHHSI y.uapHoH BSl3KOCTH nopolllKOBh X MaTepHaJIOB (e,llHHHUblHJIH ,lleCSITKH e,llHHHU H oqeHb pe,llKO HeCKOJib­ KO COTeH e,llHHHU K,ll.x/M2) o6yCJIOBJieHbl cneumpHKOH HX CTpYKTY­ pb1: nopbl H HeMeTaJIJIHqecKHe BKJIIOqeHHSI cnoco6CTBYIOT 3apo)l(,lle­

HHIO H pacnpocTpaHeHHIO TpelUHH B o6'beMe MaTepHaJia. c nOBbillle­

HHeM IIJIOTHOCTH nopOlllKOBOro MaTepHaJia ero y.uapHaSI BSl3KOCTb B03- pacrneT. noBb CHTb y.uapHyIO BSl3KOCTb MO)l(HO repMoo6pa6oTKOH no­ pOlllKOBOro MaTepHaJia, 06ecneq11Ba10mei1 <t>opMHpOBaHHe MeJIK03ep­ HHCTOH CTpYKTYPhl, 3aJieqHBaHHe MHKponop H oqHCTKY rpaHHU 3epeH OT npHMecei1. HanpHMep, npH noBhillleHHH reMneparypbIJaKaJIKH HJIH npooe.ueHHSI OT)l(Hfa H HOpMaJIH3aUHH y.uapHaSI BSl3KOCTb nopOlllKO­ Bb X CTaJieH cymecTBeHHO yoeJIHqHBaeTCSI.

TeepiJocmb. .ll,Jisi nopolllKOBhIX MaTepHaJIOB, nopHCTOCTh KoropbIX,

KaK npaBHJIO, cymecTBeHHa, TBep,llOCTb SIBJISleTCSI <l>YHKUHeH npoqHo­ CTH qaCTHU, CHJI CBSl3H Me)l(,lly HHMH H IIJIOTHOCTH MaTepHaJia. 0.uHaKO

y nopOlllKOBblX MaTepHaJIOB B OTJIHqHe OT JIHTb X onpe.aeJieHHOfO co­ OTHOllleHHSI Me)l(,lly TBep,llOCTbIO H BpeMeHHblM conpOTHBJieHHeM npH paCT.H)l(eHHH He Ha6JIIO,llaeTCSI. 06b1qHo MaKpOTBep.uocTb nopOlllKOBO­ ro MaTepHaJia H3MepsiIOT no EpHHeJIJIIO, BHKKepcy HJIH PoKBeJIJiy; MO)l(HO H3MepSITb MHKpOTBep,llOCTb OT,lleJibHhlX CTpYKTYPHhIX HJIH <t>a- 30Bb X COCTaBJISIIOlUHX.

no MeTo.uy EpHHeJIJISI TBep.uoCTb oueHHBaIOT no conpOTHBJieHHIO MaTepHaJia B,llaBJIHBaHHIO B ero nooepXHOCTb CTaJibHOro lllapHKa (q11c-

292


JIO TBep.uocTH HB - qacTHoe OT .ueJieHHSI ttarpy3KH Ha IIJIOlUa,llh oTne­ qaTKa).

Mero.a BHKKepca octtoBaH Ha B.UaBJIHBaHHH B MarepHaJI no.a J.I,eH­ CTBHeM onpe.ueJieHHOH Harpy3KH (OT 1 .uo I 00 KfC) qeTbipexrpaHHOH

aJIMa3HOH n11paMH,llKH c KBa,llpaTHbIM OCHOBaHHeM H yrnoM Me)l(,lly npoTHBonoJIO)l(Hh MH rpaH.HMH npH oeplllHHe 136 ± 0,5 °. Ha nooepx­

HOCTH 06pa3ua 06pa3yeTCSI oTneqaTOK, HMeIOIUHH BH.U KBa,llpaTa, ,llH­ aroHaJIH Koroporo H3MepSIIOT. Toep,llOCTb no BHKKepcy (HY) paccqH­ TbIBaIOT no <t>opMyJie HY = 1,854 P/ d2, r.ue P- Harpy3Ka, Krc; d -

cpe.aHee ap11<t>MeT11qecKoe 3HaqeHHe pe3yJihTaTOB H3MepeHHSI ,llJIHHbl

06e11x .u11aroHaJiei1 oTneqaTKa, MM. PaJHOCTh .u11arottaJieH o.uHoro oT­ neqaTKa He .UOJI)l(Ha npeBh lllaTh 2 %. EcJIH HarpyJKa Bh pa)l(aeTcsi B HbIOTOHaX, TO K03$$HUHeHT B $opMyJie MeHSleTCSI Ha 0, 189. no fOCT 2999-75 Ka)l(,llb H o6pa3eU HCnhITbIBaIOT B TOqKaX, pacnoJIO­

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,llJIHHbl.u11aroHaJIH OTneqaTKa.

I
Onpe.aeJieHHe TBep.uocTH no PoKBeJIJiy - CTaTHqecKHH Mero.a Me­ xaH11qecKHX HCnh TaHHH, npH KOTOpOM B MaTepHaJI c onpe.ueJieHHOH Cl1JIOH Me,llJieHHO H HenpepblBHO B,llaBJIHBaIOT aJIMa3HbIH KOHYC c 3aK­

pyrneHHOH BeplllHHOH H yrnoM 120° HJIH CTaJibHOH lllapHK ,llHaMeTpOM

l
1,588 MM. CyMMapHaSI Harpy3Ka CKJia,llblBaeTCSI H3 .uoyx: npe.uoapH­ TeJibHOH (10 KfC) H OCHOBHOH (50, 90 HJIH 140 KfC B JaBHCHMOCTH OT

TBep,llOCTH MaTepHaJia HCCJie.uyeMOfO o6pa3Ua). Bb ,llep)l(Ka no.a Harpy3- KOH COCTaBJISleT HeCKOJibKO CeKYH.U. IlOCJie IIJiaBHOfO CHSITHSI Harpy3KH

no HH,llHKaropy np116opa H3MepSIIOT OCTaTOqHyIO rny6HHY npOHHKHO­

BeHHSI HH.UeHTopa (aJIMaJHoro Kottyca HJIH CTaJihHoro lllapHKa). Toep­

(
l .UOCTh no PoKoe;my Bhlpa)l(aeTcsi ycJIOBHhIMH e.aHHHUaMH HRA (lllKa­ Jia A ) H HRC (lllKaJia C) npH B.UaBJIHBaHHH aJIMaJHoro Kottyca 11

HRB (lllKaJia B) npH B.UaBJIHBaHHH CTaJihHOro lllapHKa. l.JwcJio TBep­

f
.uocTH no PoKBeJIJIY pa3MepHoCTH He HMeeT; HJMepeHHhie npH pa3HhIX Harpy3Kax ,llJISI O,llHOfO H Toro )Ke o6pa3Ua q11cJia TBep,llOCTH 6y.uyT pa3HbIMH.

MHKpoTBep.uocTh H onpe.aeJISIIOT o.uaoJJHBaHHeM HH,lleHTopa (qame

u µ

ocero aJIMa3HOH IIHpaMH.UKH c KBa.apaTHbIM OCHOBaHHeM H yrnoM

I Me)l(,lly npOTHBOnOJIO)l(Hbl MH rpaHSIMH npH BeplllHHe 136°) B HCIIhITY­ eMbIH o6pa3eU c Harpy3KOH OT 2 .uo 200 r, KOTopyIO BbI6HpaIOT B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT pa3Mepa CTpYKTYPHhlX (<t>aJOBbIX) COCTaBJISIIOlUHX H

HX TBep.uocTH. MeTo.u MHKpoioep.uocTH npHMeHSIIOT .LlJISI oueHKH xpyn­ KOCTH <t>aJ H CTpYKTYPHbl X COCTaBJISIIOlUHX H pellleHHSI HeKOTOpblX Me­

TaJIJIOBe.aqecKHX 3a,llaq.

 


KoHmpollbHble Bonpocbl

1. KaKOBa B o6meM BH.IJ.e B3aHMOCBSl3h Me)K)ly CTJ>YKTYPOH nopHC­ TOfO TeJia H ero CBOHCTBaMH?

2. lepeqHCJIHTe CTpyKTypHb e COCTaBJrnIOIUHe nopOllIKOBOfO Mare­

PHaJia.

3. KaKHe <t>aKTOpbl H KaK BJIHSIIOT Ha <t>opMHpoBaHHe CTpYKTYPhl nopollIKOBoro M:aTepHana?

4. PaccKa)l{Hre o6 oco6eHHocrnx npHrOToBJieHHSI lllJIH$oB nopolll­

KOBhIX MarepHaJIOB.

5. OxapaKTepH3YHTe MeTO.llhlHCCJie.noBaHHSI CTJ>YKTYPhlnopOllIKO­ Boro MaTepHana.

6. PaccKIDKHre o pacqeTHOM, m.npocTaTHqecKoM H Mernnnorpa­

<PffqeCKOM cnoco6ax oueHKH nopHCTOCTH nopollIKOBh X MarepHaJIOB HJIH H3.IJ.eJIHH.

7. PaccKIDKHTe o MeTo.nax oueHKH npoqHOCTH nopollIKOBhlx HJ.IJ.e­

JIHH.

· 8. PaccKIDKHTe 06 oueHKe TBep.nocTH nopollIKOBh X HJ.IJ.eJIHH H Ma­ repHaJIOB.

 

 

PeKoMeHiJame.AbHblU 6u611uozparjJuecKuii cnucoK

1. PoMaH 0. B., Fa6pue.A08 H. n. CnpaBoqHHK no nopOllIKOBOH MeTaJI­

JiyprHH: nopollIKH, MarepHaJih , npouecchI. - MHHCK: Benapych,

1988. - 175 c. (c. 163 - 172).

2. <l>oMuHa O.H., CyBopoBa C.H., Typeu,Kuii JI.M. lopollIKOBaSI MeTan­ nypmsi:. 3HUHKJione.nHsi: Me)K)lyHapo,llHhIX CTaH,llapToB. - M.: HilKl13,llaTeJihCTBO CTaH,llapTOB, 1999. - 312 c. (c. 128 - 155).



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